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Adolescence-Adulthood - Thomas County Schools . Adolescence Adolescence is the transition period from childhood to adulthood, ... characteristics (reproductive organs)

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  • Adolescence-Adulthood

  • Adolescence

    Adolescence is

    the transition

    period from

    childhood to


    extending from

    puberty to


  • Adolescence

    G. Stanley Hall


    adolescence as the

    tension between

    biological maturity

    and social


  • Physical Development

    Puberty paves way to a

    surge of hormones,

    creating mood swings.

    The primary sex


    (reproductive organs)

    develop dramatically

    Menarche- first menstrual




  • Physical Development Early developing boys become stronger and more

    athletic, as well as more popular and have a higher self esteem.

    Hereditary and environmental interaction plays a major role of how both boys and girls feel about puberty

    During puberty, unused neural connections are weakened

    Myelin also grows in the frontal lobe during puberty

    The frontal lobe maturation slows down the emotional limbic system. This explains why teenagers can be impulsive

    Younger teens are more likely to smoke or do drugs since they are unable to plan ahead.

  • Cognitive Development Adolescents are more

    likely to worry about what others think about themselves. Since this is when they start to think about how others perceive them

    During the early teenage years, reasoning is often self-focused. They feel that their private experiences are unique. They think that others can not understand their unique experiences

  • Formal operations is the shift from

    preadolescents thinking concretely to

    adolescents becoming more capable of

    abstract logic. This is Piagets theory

    The teenagers ability to reason

    hypothetically and deduce consequences

    allows them to detect inconsistencies in

    others reasoning and to spot hypocrisy

  • Developing Morality

    Kohlberg did studies

    in which he recorded

    the morality thoughts

    of people of different

    ages. He found that

    there were 3 different


  • Developing Morality

    o Preconventional

    Morality- When

    children before 9 years

    old, have a


    morality of self

    interest. These

    children obey either to

    avoid punishment or to

    gain concrete awards

  • Developing Morality

    Conventional Morality

    When young

    teenagers, use

    morality which

    includes caring for

    others as well as

    upholding laws and

    social rules just

    because they are rules

    and laws.

  • Developing Morality

    o Post conventional

    morality- When

    someone develops

    personally perceived

    ethical principles, they

    confirm peoples

    agreed upon rights

  • Developing Morality

    Kohlberg constructed the

    moral ladder, which

    included the three stages

    Once our thinking

    matures, our behavior

    becomes less selfish and

    more caring

    Elevation- tingly, warm,

    glowing feeling in the

    chest, usually felt when

    witnessing someone

    doing charity

  • Developing Morality

    Jonathan Haidt exclaimed in his book social intuitionist, that moral feelings overpower moral reasoning. He revealed that moral reasoning aims to convince others of what we feel

    Joshua Greene found that when a person is faced with dilemmas, their neural responses varied, based on how much their emotion areas lit up

    Despite the identical logic, the personal dilemma allowed emotions that altered mood judgment.

  • Developing Morality

    Morality is influenced by social influences, and is

    doing the right thing.

    Children are taught to be empathetic to others.

    Those who rely on delay gratification (restraining

    ones impulse and waiting for a greater award)

    became more socially responsible as well as

    academically successfully. Students are

    engaged in responsible action through service


  • Social Development

    Erik Erikson exclaimed that individuals go through eight stages in life, each with a psychosocial task.

    Till age 1, the issue was that of trust and mistrust

    Till age 2, it becomes autonomy vs. shame and doubt

    Till age 5, the issue is initiative and guilt

  • Social Development

    Till puberty, the child is given the issues of inferiority and competence

    From adolescence till becoming a young adult, it becomes about finding ones identity

    For young adults, the issue is between intimacy and isolation

    From 50-60 years old, it becomes generativity vs. stagnation.

    From 60s up, the issue becomes integrity vs. despair.

  • Forming an identity

    Erikson revealed that some teenagers take their parents values and expectations and use it as their identity.

    Other teenagers tend to gain a negative identity by rejecting traditional values ant conforming to a particular group

  • Forming an identity William Damon revealed that a main idea of

    teenagers is to try to make a difference in the world

    Daniel Hart discovered that younger teenagers were more likely to reflect the values of a certain group while older teenagers were more likely to reflect their own personal values.

    Older teenagers were also more likely to have intimacy, the ability to form emotionally close relationships. This is after these individuals get a better sense of who they are

  • Parent and Peer Influence

    Positive relations with

    parents support

    positive peer relations

    Teenage years is a

    time of decreasing

    parental connection

    and a more peer


  • Parent and Peer Influence

    Parents have a bigger

    influence on religious

    faith, career, college

    and thinking values.

    Most teenagers share

    their parents political


  • Emerging Adulthood

    Emerging adulthood

    are people who are

    no longer teenagers

    but are not ready to

    take on adulthood


    Due to this emerging

    adulthood, marriage

    has been delayed by

    several years.

  • Physical Changes in Middle


    Physical vigor has less to do with age; it has more to do with a persons health and exercise habits.

    In Eastern countries, respect is given to the aged. Power is seen to be derived over age

    In many western cultures, young people are more prized.

    Menopause is the ending of the menstrual cycle beginning around when a woman hits her 50th birthday. Estrogen is reduced during this period.

  • Physical Changes in Middle

    Adulthood Menopause usually does not

    create psychological problems for women.

    A womans attitudes reflect on how she will perceive and go through menopause

    Bernice Neugarten went around and asked women who had their menopause how they felt. The majority felt at the prime of their lives.

    Men experience a more gradual decline of sperm production over age. Testosterone levels, erection and ejaculation are also at a declining rate.

  • Physical Changes in later life

    Life expectancy has increased from the average 49 years to 67 years

    Women outlive men and after the stage of infancy, outnumber them

    After age 70, hearing, distance perception, reaction time, stamina, muscle strength, sense of smell all decrease

    Neural process slow their rate

    Around age 80, 5% of the brain shrinks.

  • Physical Changes in later life

    Physical exercise

    however, can stimulate

    the development of some

    new brain cells and


    The risk of dementia

    increases, doubling every

    five years from age 60. It

    is not a normal part of the

    aging process.

  • Physical Changes in later life

    Older adults who exercise regularly become smart thinkers due to the oxygen and nutrient circulation.

    Alzheimers disease affects over 3% of the worlds population by age 75. They are not part of the normal aging process. It is the loss of brain cells and deterioration of neurons that produce the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Memory and thinking thus decrease.


  • Aging and Memory

    Recalling new information declines during the early and middle adulthood years.

    Older adults are able to recall meaningful information more easily than meaningless information, they may however take longer to produce words to describe these memories

  • Aging and Memory

    Thomas Cook and Robin West discovered that younger adults were more likely to recall names after one introduction, while older age groups had a poorer performance.

    When asked how they heard a certain event or news , many could recall instantaneously upon a few moments, while asking after a couple of months prompted variations in their recalls.

    David Schonfield and Betty-Anne Robertson found that recognition memory is better for older adults early in the day rather late.

    Being able to recognize a set of words via multiple choices had a minimal decline when compared to the results of each age. It was the recall of the words which had a greater difficulty

    Time based tasks as well as habitual tasks decline over age

  • Aging and Intelligence

    Cross sectional studies are comparing people of different ages with one another.

    These studies revealed that intelligence declined after early adulthood

    They excluded the factors of generational differences of education as well as life experiences

  • Aging and Intelligence Longitudinal studies is the

    retesting the same people over a period of time, these studies showed that intelligence may be stable through out the years. They however, excluded the factors of people dropping out of studies, those who were less intelligent and that in poor health.

    The present day view is that fluid intelligence takes place by declining later in life and that crystallized intelligence does not. (Paul Baltes)

    Crystallized intelligence is the accumulation of knowledge and skills

  • Aging and Intelligence

    Fluid intelligence is the

    ability to reason speedily

    and abstractly

    Scientists and

    mathematicians are more

    likely to have their best

    outcomes in earlier

    adulthood, while

    historians and writers

    experience success later

    in life.

  • Adulthoods Ages and Stages

    Midlife transition takes place in the early forties and is associated with struggle, regret, and feeling struck down. Usually triggered by illness, divorce or by job loss.

    The social clock is the cultural prescription of when the right time of each stage in life must occur. For example, what time to leave home, college, get a job, family, etc.

  • Aging and Intelligence

    Romantic attraction is often influenced by chance encounters.

    Not many identical twins would feel attracted to their twins partners.

    The social clock varies from culture to culture

  • Adulthoods Commitments Erik Erikson pinned two

    aspects of our live. Intimacy and Generativity.

    Generativity is being productive and supporting future generations.

    Love and work are two major themes of adulthood

    The social expectation of families staying together, is explained by evolutionary psychologists in having a better chance of passing down ones genes.

  • Adulthoods Commitments

    Due to the increased expectations of both women and men and womens increased independence, divorce rates have doubled in the past 40 years

    Those who tested out their marriage before getting married had a higher rate of divorce and marital dysfunction.

    The risk of poor martial outcomes appears greatest for those who cohabit prior to engagement. Cohabiters tend to be less committed to the ideal of enduring marriage.

  • Adulthoods Commitments John Gottman discovered

    that stable marriages provide five times more instances of smiling, touching, complimenting, laughing than of sarcasm, criticism and insults.

    Work satisfaction reveals the roles of the woman, such as a paid worker or a wife did not matter, but the quality of her experiences in these roles meant a lot.

    Satisfying work correlates with life satisfaction

  • Well Being Across the Life Span

    A persons feeling of

    satisfaction and well

    being are stable through

    out ones lifespan

    Older adults may

    experience a higher rate

    of satisfactions since

    they had satisfied the

    tasks of early adulthood.

    They are filled with a

    strong sense of

    satisfaction and identity

  • Well Being Across the Life Span

    Older adults are less sensitive

    to negative facts. The

    amygalda show decreased

    activity in response to

    negative events while

    maintain its responsiveness to

    positive events.

    Mihalay Csikszentmihalyi and

    Reed Larson revealed that

    teenagers got over an

    emotion within an hour while

    older people endured their

    emotions longer.

  • Death and Dying

    Death of spouse is the hardest

    for a person

    When death comes at an

    expected time, grieving may

    be short lived.

    When death comes earlier,

    grief is more severe

    Erikson believed that older

    people were filled with a sense

    of meaning and identity when

    thinking about death

  • Continuity and Stages Researchers who stress

    biological maturation see development as a series of genetically predisposed steps.

    Researchers who stress slow continuous development stress experience and learning.

    Piagetss, Eriksons and Kohlbergs ideas have shown us the ways people differ at various points in the life span.

  • Continuity and Stages

    Lifelong development

    also shows stability and


    Personality gradually

    stabilizes throughout


    When we age, we may

    change our earlier

    personalities but

    sustaining characteristic

    traits in comparison to

    our age mates.