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Adolescence and Adulthood

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Chapter 5 Development in Adolescence and AdulthoodAdolescence and Adulthood
Death and Dying
Fact or Falsehood?
High school girls who have the most affectionate relationships with their mothers tend also to enjoy the most intimate friendships with girlfriends.
Compared to 20-year-olds, those over 65 are much less likely to suffer upper respiratory flu each year.
Most mothers are depressed for a time after their children grow up, leave home, and marry.
People in their twenties and thirties report greater life satisfaction than those in their sixties and seventies.
The first two years of life provide a good basis for predicting a person’s eventual personality traits.
Is there more than one way to view this life stage?
Adolescence The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
A period of storm and stress, marked by growing peer
pressure, alienation from
parents, diminished
parental influence.
Is there more than one way to view this life stage?
Adolescence The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
A period of enhanced
Adolescence: Physical Changes Puberty—Period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
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Adolescent Brain Development
Do Adolescents Lack Empathy?
Erikson’s term for premature identity formation, which occurs when an adolescent adopts parents’ or society’s roles and values wholesale, without questioning or analysis
An adolescent’s choice of a socially acceptable way to postpone making identity- achievement decisions, with going to college a common example
Erikson’s term for the attainment of identity, or the point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual
A situation in which an adolescent does not seem to know or care what his or her identity is (Also called identity diffusion)
Adolescence: Psychosocial Development
On the path to identity, what states do adolescents most often experience?
Identity versus role confusion—Erikson’s term for the fifth stage of development, in which a person tries to figure out “Who am I?” but is confused as to which roles to adopt
Identity achievement
Role confusion
Kohlberg’s Levels and Stages of Moral Development
I. Preconventional Level
Moral reasoning is guided by external consequences. No internalization of values or rules.
Stage 1: Punishment
and Obedience
“Right” is obeying the rules simply to avoid punishment because others have power over you and can punish you.
Stage 2: Mutual Benefit
“Right” is an even or fair exchange, so that both parties benefit. Moral reasoning guided by a sense of “fair play.”
II. Conventional Level
Moral reasoning is guided by conformity to social roles, rules, and expectations that the person has learned and internalized.
Stage 3: Interpersonal Expectations
“Right” is being a “good” person by conforming to social expectations, such as showing concern for others and following rules set by others so as to win their approval.
Stage 4: Law and
“Right” is helping maintain social order by doing one’s duty, obeying laws simply because they are laws, and showing respect for authorities simply because they are authorities.
III. Postconventional
Level Moral reasoning is guided by internalized legal and moral principles that protect the rights of all members of society.
Stage 5: Legal
“Right” is helping protect the basic rights of all members of society by upholding legalistic principles that promote the values of fairness, justice, equality and democracy.
Stage 6: Universal
Moral Principles
“Right” is determined by self-chosen ethical principles that reflect the person’s respect for ideals such as nonviolence, equality and human dignity. If these moral principles conflict with democratically determined laws, the person’s self-chosen moral principles take precedence.
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9 to 11
Emerging Adulthood
Has the interval of time it takes to emerge into adulthood changed over time?
For some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood
Adulthood: Physical Changes Senescence—A gradual physical decline related to aging. Senescence occurs in everyone and in every body part, but the rate of decline is highly variable within and between persons.
How does a person’s appearance change from childhood through adulthood?
Physical Changes in Later Life What happens to the senses as people age?
What type of memory is being tested by the researchers in this clip?
To what other area of psychology does this research relate?
Video Review
Crystallized intelligence— our accumulated store of knowledge and verbal skills —tends to increase with age.
Fluid intelligence—our ability to reason speedily and abstractly—tends to decrease during late adulthood.
Aging and Intelligence
Adulthood: Psychosocial Development According to Erikson, what are the adult stages of psychosocial development?
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Social Development and Moral Reasoning According to Kohlberg, how do adults use moral reasoning? What would
you do if you were
Intimacy—forming close relationships
What role do love and work play in the lives
of adults?
How has the structure of American families and households changed?
Percentage “satisfied”
What is the relationship between age and life satisfaction?
15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ Age group in years
Death and Dying How does dying affect the person dying and the loved ones left behind?
On Dying
What are some similarities in coping styles between the two women in the video? Do you think you would be able to be as brave
as Lucky or Dorothy if you were diagnosed with a terminal illness? What personality traits are beneficial for dealing
with death in a peaceful way?
Video Review
Major Themes of Human Development
Is it true that the more we age the more we stay the same?
SLIDE DESCRIPTION CREDIT Slide 1 Brain graphic NLshop/ Fotolia.com
Slide 4 Gawky young Justin Timberlake: Justin Timberlake 8th Grade 1995 E.E. Jeter Elementary School Millington, Tennessee Voted: "Mr. Jeter"
Seth Poppel/Yearbook Library
Justin Timberlake now: The 11th Annual White Tie and Tiara Ball to Benefit the Elton John Aids Foundation in association with Chopard - Inside Dinner
Kevin Mazur/ WireImage/Getty Images
Slide 7 Views of the brain age 5-20 Image courtesy of Paul Thompson, Kiralee Hayashi, Arthur Toga, UCLA/Nitin Gogtay, Jay Giedd,
Slide 9 Smiling girl Jupiterimages/ Thinkstock Punk girl on steps Hemera/ Thinkstock Girl with parents in background Jupiterimages/ Thinkstock College student Creatas/ Thinkstock
See no evil… Hemera/ Thinkstock
Slide 17 Playing chess Jupiterimages/ Thinkstock
Slide 19 People stranded in New Orleans right after Katrina AP Photo/ Eric Gay Slide 20 Couple kissing Lisa B./ Corbis
Two doctors talking LWA - Dann Tardif / Corbis Couple kissing AP Photo/Noah Berger
Slide 27 New Yorker cartoon of two men aging- before, after Peter Mueller/The New Yorker Collection/ Cartoonbank.com
Photo Credits