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Adolescence and Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Cultural Approach Chapter 10 Chapter 10 School School Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 10 School Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

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  • Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 10 School Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Chapter Overview Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. history and current state of schooling for adolescents in the United States, other industrialized countries, and developing countries history and current state of schooling for adolescents in the United States, other industrialized countries, and developing countries characteristics of effective schools, and the effects of school climate characteristics of effective schools, and the effects of school climate effects of family environments and friends influence on adolescent achievement. effects of family environments and friends influence on adolescent achievement. part-time work and adolescents' academic achievement. part-time work and adolescents' academic achievement. cultural, ethnic, gender, and intellectual differences on adolescents' school experiences. cultural, ethnic, gender, and intellectual differences on adolescents' school experiences. factors leading to school dropout and related prevention programs. factors leading to school dropout and related prevention programs. the emerging adult in college and university. the emerging adult in college and university.
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  • The Rise of Schooling Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Compulsory education for adolescents is a recent advent in America The Age of Adolescence In other Western countries, a similar trend took place.
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  • Developing Countries Effects of economic development is evident in literacy rates of youth vs. older generations: Effects of economic development is evident in literacy rates of youth vs. older generations: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Males 15 19 years old 74% can read & write Males 65 + years old Females 15 19 years old 30% can read & write 59% can read & write Females 65 + years old 9% can read & write E.g., Egypt
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  • Secondary School in America: Changes 19 th C For the wealthy, esp. males; Broad liberal arts 1920 Training for work and citizenship; college prep, vocational training Mid-20 th C Expanding school population; curriculum expands to include family life, arts 1980s Back to Basics movement Discuss social and political factors that impacted these changes in the school systemE.g., immigration, declining achievement scores in the 1980setc.
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  • Should high school courses be offered only on academic subjects such as math and English, or should courses in music and physical education also be available? Justify your answer. Should high school courses be offered only on academic subjects such as math and English, or should courses in music and physical education also be available? Justify your answer. Discussion Stop Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Diversity of American Education Local and state level legislation and funding Local and state level legislation and funding Results in diversity in curriculum, rules and requirements and resource disparity Results in diversity in curriculum, rules and requirements and resource disparity 1994 Goals 2000 est. by federal government toward national educational policy 1994 Goals 2000 est. by federal government toward national educational policy 2001 No Child Left Behind Act passed provided federal funding for national testing, teacher training standards and evaluation 2001 No Child Left Behind Act passed provided federal funding for national testing, teacher training standards and evaluation Even still, only 5% of school funding is provided by the federal government Even still, only 5% of school funding is provided by the federal government Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. 77% of Americans support national standards for academic performance (1997) 66% of Americans supported a national curriculum (1997)
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  • Secondary Education Around the World Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Secondary Education in Industrialized Countries USA, Canada, Japan Comprehensive High School European Countries: 1. College Preparatory 2. Vocational School 3. Professional School Some European countries have apprenticeship programs Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. What are benefits and drawbacks of these different systems?
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  • In Developing Countries Latin America public secondary schools overcrowded and underfunded; private schools for wealthy China and Japan admission to university for highest performing students Arab Countries of North Africa - -- secular education system, influence of Islam is strong Sub-Saharan Africa lowest rates of literacy; enrollment varies across countries India colonial origins & British model; 50% of adolescents enrolled Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Gender gap not prevalent; economic gap is. Japan nearly all graduate high school China less than 75% attend Girls enrollment is rising as marriage age rises Rates of enrollment low for girls Less than 50% attend overall Sharp differences by gender, class and rural-urban residence
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  • International Comparison: Grade 8 Achievement Tests Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Countries that perform the best? Lowest ranking of all Industrialized Countries? Lowest performance? Industrialized Western Countries; Japan, S. Korea United States Developing Countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia Discuss factors associated with these results
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  • Effective Schools: Size Matters Large schools Large schools Offer diverse courses and extracurricular activitiesOffer diverse courses and extracurricular activities Small schools Small schools Less diversity in offerings; students more likely to participate in extracurricular activitiesLess diversity in offerings; students more likely to participate in extracurricular activities Scholars agree: optimum school size for adolescents is?.... Scholars agree: optimum school size for adolescents is?.... Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Between 500 1000 students What size of school did you go to?
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  • Scholars dont agree: How do your experiences compare? Effective Schools: Size Matters Some research claims direct negative relation between class size and academic performance Some research claims direct negative relation between class size and academic performance Other scholars claim that typical variation (between 20 and 40 students) has little affect on achievement Other scholars claim that typical variation (between 20 and 40 students) has little affect on achievement Small Class Size preferable for students with academic difficulties, more individual attention Small Class Size preferable for students with academic difficulties, more individual attention Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Junior High, Middle School or Neither? Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. PlanExplanation 6-3-3 6 years elementary; 3 years junior high; 3 years high school 5-3-4 5 years elementary; 3 years middle school; 4 years high school 8-4 8 years elementary; 4 years high school Discussion Detour: Which system did you attend? What were the benefits? Drawbacks? Which do you think is best? Discuss in terms of research, particularly regarding transitions and adolescence.
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  • Improving Adolescents School Experience ... some of the motivational problems seen at early adolescence may be a consequence of the negative changes in the school environment rather than characteristics of the developmental period per se. (Eccles et al., 1993, p. 92) Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. (Eccles et al, 1993, 1997)
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  • Transition from Elementary School In comparison to Elementary Schools, Secondary Schools: In comparison to Elementary Schools, Secondary Schools: 1. Place greater emphasis on teacher control and discipline. 2. Provide fewer opportunities for student decision-making, choice, and self- management. 3. Secondary School teachers spend more time controlling and less time teaching. 4. Less personal and positive teacher- student relationships. Students perceive teachers less friendly, less supportive, and less caring. Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • School Climate Includes.the kinds of interactions teachers and students have in the classroom, expectations of standards, methods used in the classroom. Includes.the kinds of interactions teachers and students have in the classroom, expectations of standards, methods used in the classroom. Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Describe your idea of a positive school climate. What does research say?
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  • Optimum School Climate Supportive teachers, involved with students, dedicated Supportive teachers, involved with students, dedicated Firm but fair discipline Firm but fair discipline High expectations for student performance and conduct High expectations for student performance and conduct Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. -Higher attendance -Higher achievement scores -Lower rates of delinquency
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  • Violence in the School The past decade has seen numerous highly publicized murders in schools The past decade has seen numerous highly publicized murders in schools Yet, in recent years, there is an overall decline in violence in U.S. schools Yet, in recent years, there is an overall decline in violence in U.S. schools Widespread perception that U.S. have become more dangerous in the past decade Widespread perception that U.S. have become more dangerous in the past decade Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. -Security practices in schools e.g., metal detectors -Federal funding for violence prevention programs -Research on bullying
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  • Engagement and Achievement Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Engagement: Being psychologically committed to learning Research indicates that more and more, students are physically present but psychologically absent (Steinberg, 1996, p. 67) How do the results in the following slide compare?
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  • American High School Students School Engagement Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Positive Impacts on Engagement Positive school climate Positive school climate Parents high expectations for achievement Parents high expectations for achievement Parents involvement in their adolescent childs education Parents involvement in their adolescent childs education Parenting style: High demandingness and high responsiveness Parenting style: High demandingness and high responsiveness Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • What makes social class so important in predicting academic achievement? What makes social class so important in predicting academic achievement? Discuss social, cultural, and political-economic factors. Discuss social, cultural, and political-economic factors. Discussion Stop Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Peers, Friends & School In relation to school, the influence of friends is greater than that of parents in some respects: In relation to school, the influence of friends is greater than that of parents in some respects: Consistency of class attendance Consistency of class attendance Time spent doing homework Time spent doing homework Grades Grades Adolescent friends with high achievement and aspirations support and encourage each other in school Adolescent friends with high achievement and aspirations support and encourage each other in school Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • High Achieving Friends vs. Peers Peer Group Friends If surrounded by high- achieving peer group, adolescents have lower academic self-concept and expectations If surrounded by high- achieving peer group, adolescents have lower academic self-concept and expectations In schools with lower achievement levels, adolescents have better academic self-concepts and expectations In schools with lower achievement levels, adolescents have better academic self-concepts and expectations Even low achieving adolescents with high- achieving friends are likely to have higher expectations and aspirations Even low achieving adolescents with high- achieving friends are likely to have higher expectations and aspirations Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Big Fish in a little pond effect
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  • Relation Between Work Hours & School Performance Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Beyond 10 hrs/week, the more adolescents work, the poorer their school performance.
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  • Steinberg (1996) asserts that to change American adolescents school performance, Americans would have to change their beliefs about what should be required of adolescents. Steinberg (1996) asserts that to change American adolescents school performance, Americans would have to change their beliefs about what should be required of adolescents. Do you think more should be required of American adolescents in high school? Why or why not? Do you think more should be required of American adolescents in high school? Why or why not? Discussion Stop Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Discussion Detour Are you in America or Canada? Are you in America or Canada? In either case, see if there is someone from the other country in your class. In either case, see if there is someone from the other country in your class. Compare and contrast aspects of secondary education and the school system in the two countries. Compare and contrast aspects of secondary education and the school system in the two countries. Extend the discussion to include students perspectives from other countries. Extend the discussion to include students perspectives from other countries. Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Ethnic Differences: Achievement Consider the ethnic differences in academic achievement outlined in your chapter Consider the ethnic differences in academic achievement outlined in your chapter What explains these differences? What explains these differences? Some differences are intertwined with issues of social class, parenting practices, friends influences Some differences are intertwined with issues of social class, parenting practices, friends influences Systemic prejudice and discrimination Systemic prejudice and discrimination Consider these issues in relation to the next slide on dropout rates. Consider these issues in relation to the next slide on dropout rates. Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Ethnic Differences in High School Dropout Rates Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Much more research has been conducted on why adolescent girls do less well than adolescent boys in math and science than on why boys generally do worse than girls on virtually every other measure of academic achievement. Much more research has been conducted on why adolescent girls do less well than adolescent boys in math and science than on why boys generally do worse than girls on virtually every other measure of academic achievement. What hypotheses would you propose to explain why boys generally do worse than girls academically, from grade school through adolescence? What hypotheses would you propose to explain why boys generally do worse than girls academically, from grade school through adolescence? Discussion Stop Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Slide 32
  • Gifted Adolescents Traditional criterion = IQ of at least 130 Traditional criterion = IQ of at least 130 Today, gifted programs recognize special talents (e.g., art, music, creativity, leadership) Today, gifted programs recognize special talents (e.g., art, music, creativity, leadership) Four characteristics of giftedness: Four characteristics of giftedness: 1. Precocity 2. Independence 3. Drive for Mastery 4. Excellence in Information Processing Advanced Placement classes include higher level material in specific subjects Advanced Placement classes include higher level material in specific subjects Issues: Issues: Gifted adolescents may become bored and alienated from school or socially isolated Gifted adolescents may become bored and alienated from school or socially isolated Challenges in defining giftedness have implications for gifted education Challenges in defining giftedness have implications for gifted education Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Adolescents with Disabilities Disabilities related to school difficulties include speech handicaps, mental retardation, emotional disorders, and learning disabilities Disabilities related to school difficulties include speech handicaps, mental retardation, emotional disorders, and learning disabilities About 10% of adolescents in American schools have been diagnosed with learning disability About 10% of adolescents in American schools have been diagnosed with learning disability Reading is the most common source of difficultyReading is the most common source of difficulty Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Spotlight: ADHD Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Problems of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivenessProblems of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsiveness Classified as learning disabilityClassified as learning disability One-half of adolescents with LD have been diagnosed with ADHDOne-half of adolescents with LD have been diagnosed with ADHD Boys four times as likely as girls to be diagnosed with ADHDBoys four times as likely as girls to be diagnosed with ADHD Nearly 50% of those diagnosed have a sibling or parent with the disorderNearly 50% of those diagnosed have a sibling or parent with the disorder Critics argue the levels of diagnosis indicate improper diagnosis in many casesCritics argue the levels of diagnosis indicate improper diagnosis in many cases Diagnosis often made without full professional evaluationDiagnosis often made without full professional evaluation Nearly 90% of children diagnosed are treated with Ritalin or other medicationNearly 90% of children diagnosed are treated with Ritalin or other medication Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Slide 35
  • Adolescents with Disabilities: Strategies Inclusion Inclusion Goal is to make the education of the adolescents with disabilities as similar to the experience of other adolescents and to have contact with the full range of studentsGoal is to make the education of the adolescents with disabilities as similar to the experience of other adolescents and to have contact with the full range of students Resource Room and specially trained teacher usually available for extra help or scheduled periodsResource Room and specially trained teacher usually available for extra help or scheduled periods Tracking (Stratified levels) Tracking (Stratified levels) 1. Upper college preparatory level 2. General for average students 3. Remedial/special education for students academically behind their peers Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Discuss the possible benefits and problems associated with tracking and inclusion. Discuss the possible benefits and problems associated with tracking and inclusion. Discussion Stop Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Slide 37
  • High School Dropout Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. By the year 2000, what percentage of young people had not obtained a high school diploma by age 24? 11% Factors Associated with Dropout? Repeating a grade History of school difficulties Active, aggressive, high-sensation seeking personality Having a Learning Disability Girls having a child during adolescence Parents education and income Parents who have dropped out Low income lower school quality Single-parent familyLarge schoolSchool Climate Other factors? Are these individual, social, cultural, systemic factors?
  • Slide 38
  • Ethnic Differences in High School Dropout Rates Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Slide 39
  • Discuss intervention strategies for high school dropout. Discuss intervention strategies for high school dropout. What might a successful strategy look like? What might a successful strategy look like? Discussion Stop Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Slide 40
  • College Attendance Through the Years Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Slide 41
  • Characteristics of College Students Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Recent high school grads that enter college? Female Undergraduate population? White students? 60% 66.6% Discuss factors associated with these results Discuss retention in terms of SES 56% Asian Americans who enter college? 60% Black students? 55% Latino Students? 33.3%
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  • Consider the changing trends in areas of study chosen in college and gender differences. Consider the changing trends in areas of study chosen in college and gender differences. Discuss possible reasons for these changes. Discuss possible reasons for these changes. Discussion Stop Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Slide 43
  • College Life: Four Subcultures 1. Collegiate 2. Vocational 3. Academic 4. Rebel Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. (Trow, 1966) Do these hold true today? Can you recognize these groups amongst your friends, peers, yourself?
  • Slide 44
  • College Classroom Experience: Your Experience Considering the factors associated with a satisfying college educational experience outlined in your chapter, reflect on your own experience. Considering the factors associated with a satisfying college educational experience outlined in your chapter, reflect on your own experience. Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.