Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 10 School Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

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  • Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 10 School Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Chapter Overview Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. history and current state of schooling for adolescents in the United States, other industrialized countries, and developing countries history and current state of schooling for adolescents in the United States, other industrialized countries, and developing countries characteristics of effective schools, and the effects of school climate characteristics of effective schools, and the effects of school climate effects of family environments and friends influence on adolescent achievement. effects of family environments and friends influence on adolescent achievement. part-time work and adolescents' academic achievement. part-time work and adolescents' academic achievement. cultural, ethnic, gender, and intellectual differences on adolescents' school experiences. cultural, ethnic, gender, and intellectual differences on adolescents' school experiences. factors leading to school dropout and related prevention programs. factors leading to school dropout and related prevention programs. the emerging adult in college and university. the emerging adult in college and university.
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  • The Rise of Schooling Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Compulsory education for adolescents is a recent advent in America The Age of Adolescence In other Western countries, a similar trend took place.
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  • Developing Countries Effects of economic development is evident in literacy rates of youth vs. older generations: Effects of economic development is evident in literacy rates of youth vs. older generations: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Males 15 19 years old 74% can read & write Males 65 + years old Females 15 19 years old 30% can read & write 59% can read & write Females 65 + years old 9% can read & write E.g., Egypt
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  • Secondary School in America: Changes 19 th C For the wealthy, esp. males; Broad liberal arts 1920 Training for work and citizenship; college prep, vocational training Mid-20 th C Expanding school population; curriculum expands to include family life, arts 1980s Back to Basics movement Discuss social and political factors that impacted these changes in the school systemE.g., immigration, declining achievement scores in the 1980setc.
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  • Should high school courses be offered only on academic subjects such as math and English, or should courses in music and physical education also be available? Justify your answer. Should high school courses be offered only on academic subjects such as math and English, or should courses in music and physical education also be available? Justify your answer. Discussion Stop Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Diversity of American Education Local and state level legislation and funding Local and state level legislation and funding Results in diversity in curriculum, rules and requirements and resource disparity Results in diversity in curriculum, rules and requirements and resource disparity 1994 Goals 2000 est. by federal government toward national educational policy 1994 Goals 2000 est. by federal government toward national educational policy 2001 No Child Left Behind Act passed provided federal funding for national testing, teacher training standards and evaluation 2001 No Child Left Behind Act passed provided federal funding for national testing, teacher training standards and evaluation Even still, only 5% of school funding is provided by the federal government Even still, only 5% of school funding is provided by the federal government Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. 77% of Americans support national standards for academic performance (1997) 66% of Americans supported a national curriculum (1997)
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  • Secondary Education Around the World Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Secondary Education in Industrialized Countries USA, Canada, Japan Comprehensive High School European Countries: 1. College Preparatory 2. Vocational School 3. Professional School Some European countries have apprenticeship programs Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. What are benefits and drawbacks of these different systems?
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  • In Developing Countries Latin America public secondary schools overcrowded and underfunded; private schools for wealthy China and Japan admission to university for highest performing students Arab Countries of North Africa - -- secular education system, influence of Islam is strong Sub-Saharan Africa lowest rates of literacy; enrollment varies across countries India colonial origins & British model; 50% of adolescents enrolled Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Gender gap not prevalent; economic gap is. Japan nearly all graduate high school China less than 75% attend Girls enrollment is rising as marriage age rises Rates of enrollment low for girls Less than 50% attend overall Sharp differences by gender, class and rural-urban residence
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  • International Comparison: Grade 8 Achievement Tests Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Countries that perform the best? Lowest ranking of all Industrialized Countries? Lowest performance? Industrialized Western Countries; Japan, S. Korea United States Developing Countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia Discuss factors associated with these results
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  • Effective Schools: Size Matters Large schools Large schools Offer diverse courses and extracurricular activitiesOffer diverse courses and extracurricular activities Small schools Small schools Less diversity in offerings; students more likely to participate in extracurricular activitiesLess diversity in offerings; students more likely to participate in extracurricular activities Scholars agree: optimum school size for adolescents is?.... Scholars agree: optimum school size for adolescents is?.... Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Between 500 1000 students What size of school did you go to?
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  • Scholars dont agree: How do your experiences compare? Effective Schools: Size Matters Some research claims direct negative relation between class size and academic performance Some research claims direct negative relation between class size and academic performance Other scholars claim that typical variation (between 20 and 40 students) has little affect on achievement Other scholars claim that typical variation (between 20 and 40 students) has little affect on achievement Small Class Size preferable for students with academic difficulties, more individual attention Small Class Size preferable for students with academic difficulties, more individual attention Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Junior High, Middle School or Neither? Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. PlanExplanation 6-3-3 6 years elementary; 3 years junior high; 3 years high school 5-3-4 5 years elementary; 3 years middle school; 4 years high school 8-4 8 years elementary; 4 years high school Discussion Detour: Which system did you attend? What were the benefits? Drawbacks? Which do you think is best? Discuss in terms of research, particularly regarding transitions and adolescence.
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  • Improving Adolescents School Experience ... some of the motivational problems seen at early adolescence may be a consequence of the negative changes in the school environment rather than characteristics of the developmental period per se. (Eccles et al., 1993, p. 92) Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. (Eccles et al, 1993, 1997)
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  • Transition from Elementary School In comparison to Elementary Schools, Secondary Schools: In comparison to Elementary Schools, Secondary Schools: 1. Place greater emphasis on teacher control and discipline. 2. Provide fewer opportunities for student decision-making, choice, and self- management. 3. Secondary School teachers spend more time controlling and less time teaching. 4. Less personal and positive teacher- student relationships. Students percei