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Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Adolescence and Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Cultural Approach Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Cognitive Cognitive Foundations Foundations

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Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 3 . Cognitive Foundations. Chapter Overview. Change in thinking Problem solving Memory and attention Cognitive development Theories of cognition Role of culture. Piaget’s Theory. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 3

Chapter 1 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach
Chapter 3
Cognitive Foundations
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Chapter Overview
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Piaget’s Theory
Changes in cognitive development proceed in distinct stages (e.g. discontinuous)
Each person’s cognitive abilities are organized into one coherent mental structure
His approach is known as the cognitive-developmental approach
The driving forces behind development from one stage to the next is maturation
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Maturation
Piaget portrayed maturation as an active process
Children seek out information and stimulation in the environment that matches the maturity of their thinking
This is in contrast with other theories such as behaviorism who viewed the environment as acting on the child through rewards and punishments
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Piagetian Schemes
Schemes
Assimilation
Occurs when new information is altered to fit an existing scheme
Accommodation
Entails changing the scheme to adapt to the new information
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Piagetian Stages
Cognitive development involves learning how to coordinate activities of the sense with motor activities
Preoperational
2-7
Concrete Operations
7-11
Become more adept at using mental operations which leads to a more advanced understanding of the world
Formal Operations
11-15+
Allows adolescents to reason about more complex tasks and problems involving multiple variables
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Complex Thinking
Think about an example of a metaphor?
How old do you think you were before you understood the symbolism?
Think about an example of sarcasm?
At what age do you think sarcasm is understood?
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
… Metacognition!
Adolescents are aware of their thinking processes.
The capacity for “thinking about thinking” enables adolescents to learn and solve problems more efficiently
This is called ……
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Limitations of Piaget’s Theory
The stage of formal operations has been the most critiqued
The limitations of Piaget’s theory of formal operations fall into two categories:
Individual differences in the attainment of formal operations
Cultural basis of adolescent cognitive development
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Limitations - Individual Differences
A great range of individual differences exist in the extent to which people use formal operations
Even in emerging adulthood and beyond, a large proportion of people use formal operations either inconsistently or not at all
Adolescents who have had courses in math and science tend to exhibit formal operational thought
Concrete operations are sufficient for most daily tasks and problems
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Limitations – Cultural Basis
While formal operations may be a universal potential the form it takes in each culture is derived from the kinds of cognition requirements people face
There is likely to be considerable variation in the extent to which adolescents and adults display formal operational thought
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Post-formal thinking
Piaget’s research has inspired theories of cognitive development beyond formal operations known as:
Pragmatism
Reflective
Judgment
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Involves adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-life situations
Cognitive development in the early twenties is distinguished from adolescent development by a greater recognition and incorporation of practical limitations to logical thinking
Pragmatism
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Reflective
Judgment
The capacity to evaluate the accuracy and logical coherence of evidence and arguments
Perry (1970; 1999) investigated reflection in adolescence and emerging adulthood which included:
Dualistic thinking
Multiple thinking
Relativism
Commitment
NOTE: Formal operations is a necessary but not sufficient condition for reflective thinking
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Information-Processing Approach
Views cognitive change as continuous – gradual and steady
Focus is on the thinking processes that exist at all ages
The original model for this approach was the computer
The computer analogy was to try to break down human thinking into separate capacities of attention, processing, and memory
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Information Processing
Recent models have moved away from a simple computer analogy and recognized the brain is more complex than any computer
In human thinking the different components operate simultaneously
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Information Processing
is processed no further
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Information Processing
Information that is committed
is unlimited and information
information that is currently
Two types of short term memory:
input and storage and
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Processing Information
Adolescents are faster than children at processing information
There is an increase in speed of processing from age 10 through the late teens
Automaticity
This is how much cognitive effort the person needs to devote to processing the information
Adolescents show greater automaticity of processing than pre-adolescents
Automaticity depends more on experience than on age alone
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Limitation of Information Processing
Reductionism
Breaking up a phenomenon into separate parts to such an extent that the meaning and coherence of the phenomenon as a whole becomes lost
Holistic Perspective
Computer Analogy
Computers have no capacity for self-reflection, no awareness of how their cognitive processes are integrated, organized and monitored – which leaves the analogy insufficient and inadequate
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
The potential for critical thinking
…Daniel Keating’s perspective
According to Keating adolescence provides the potential for critical thinking in several ways
A wider range of knowledge is available in long-term memory, across a variety of domains
The ability to consider different kinds of knowledge simultaneously is increased
More cognitive strategies are available for applying or gaining knowledge
CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS DO NOT DEVELOP AUTOMATICALLY!
Critical thinking requires a basis of skills and knowledge obtained in childhood along with an educational environment in adolescence that promotes and values critical thinking
The American educational system does a poor job of promoting critical thinking
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Social Cognition
Social cognition is the term used to describe the way we think about other people, social relationships and social institutions
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Three aspects of social cognition
Perspective taking - Selman’s research
Implicit personal theories - Barenboim’s research
Adolescent egocentrism - Elkind’s research
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Perspective Taking
Is the ability to understand the thoughts and feelings of others
Selman’s theory of perspective taking is based on a stage approach that children and adolescents go through
The egocentrism of childhood gradually develops into the mature perspective-taking ability of adolescence
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Perspective Taking in Adolescence
In early adolescence (ages 10-12) children become capable for the first time of mutual perspective taking
Just as you understand that another person has a perspective that is different from you own, you also realize that other persons understand that you have a perspective that is different from theirs
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Perspective Taking in Adolescence
In late adolescence children become capable of social and conventional perspective taking
Adolescents come to realize that their social perspectives and those of others are influenced not just by their interaction with each other but also by their roles in the larger society
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Implicit Personality Theories
Making judgments about what other persons are like and why they behave the way they do
She is a kind girl but is naughty and silly most of the time
She is very nice because she gives me toffee
How would this 7 year-old describe her best friend?
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Adolescent Egocentrism
Imaginary Audience
Results from adolescents’ limited capacity to distinguish between their thinking about themselves and their thinking about the thoughts of others
Personal Fable
The belief in an imaginary audience that is highly conscious of how you look and act leads to the belief that there must be something special, something unique about you
These diminish with age but never disappear entirely for most of us
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Optimistic Bias
Comes from health psychology research
The tendency to assume that accidents, diseases and other misfortunes are more likely to happen to others than ourselves
Both adolescents and adults have an optimistic bias with regard to health risk behaviour
Adolescents tend to have a stronger optimistic bias than adults
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Studying Optimistic Bias: Smoking
both smokers and non-smokers, believed that smoking is
addictive and deadly “for most people”
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Studying Optimistic Bias: Smoking
… But look at what happens when the risk is applied to themselves
Smokers were more likely than non-smokers to believe that they
would not die from smoking for 30-40 years.
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Brief Facts about Intelligence Testing
Attempting to understand human cognition by evaluating cognitive ability with intelligence tests is known as the psychometric approach
The first intelligence test was developed in 1905 by a French psychologist named Alfred Binet
It was just 30 items and assessed performance in areas such as memory and abstract thinking
Louis Terman of Stanford University made some of the most important revisions to the original test and the test is now known as the Stanford-Binet
This test results in an overall score called the IQ (intelligence quotient)
Other widely used tests include: 1) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III); and 2) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III)
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
“Intelligent” Distinctions
Fluid Intelligence
Refers to mental abilities that involve speed of analyzing, processing, and reacting to information
These are the kinds of abilities tapped by the Performance subtests on IQ tests
This kind of intelligence peaks in emerging adulthood
Crystallized Intelligence
Refers to accumulated knowledge and enhance judgment based on experience
Subtests like Information, Comprehension and Vocabulary assess this kind of intelligence
This kind of intelligence tends to improve through the twenties and thirties
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Absolute vs. Relative Performance
Relative performance on IQ tests is very stable
For example, people who score higher than average in childhood tend to score higher than average as adolescents and adults
Absolute performance on IQ tests is not as stable
For example, absolute scores on Verbal sub-tests generally improve from age 16 to 38
Check out the graph that illustrates this ‘absolute’ point
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
An illustration of “absolute” changes
Notice how absolute scores on Verbal subtests generally improve from age 16 to 38
Notice how absolute scores on Performance subtests peaked in the midtwenties and then declined
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)
Most American college students have taken the SAT as a requirement for applying to colleges and universities
The SAT started out as an IQ test in the 1920s
The original goal was to test innate intelligence rather than what had been learned in school
It was hoped that this would make it possible to identify bright young people from humble backgrounds
It was thought that this would help colleges identify people with the greatest natural intelligence rather than those from the most privileged families
Do you think the SAT is true to its original purpose?
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
The truth about the SAT
Its ability to predict success in college has always been modest
It has been accused of discriminating against minorities and against females
It has been accused of favoring the elite
Because performance can be enhanced by learning test taking strategies, wealthier students are more likely to affect test preparation courses
In response to these criticisms the SAT has recently
been dramatically revised to be an achievement test
rather than an intelligence test.
The new SAT will be used in 2005!
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Other Conceptions of Intelligence
Alternative theories of intelligence have been proposed to present a conception of intelligence that is much broader than the traditional one
Two of the most important alternative theories have been presented by:
Robert Sternberg – Triarchic Theory
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Triarchic Theory
Includes three distinct but related forms of intelligence
Componential intelligence – the kind of intelligence that IQ tests measures which involves acquiring, storing, analyzing, and retrieving information
Experiential intelligence – involves the ability to combine information in creative ways to produce new insights, ideas, and problem-solving strategies
Contextual intelligence – is practical intelligence, the ability to apply information to the kinds of problems faced in everyday life, including the capacity to evaluate social situations
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Linguistic
Logical-mathematical
Spatial
Musical
Bodily-kinesthetic
Naturalist
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Gardner argues that school show give more attention to the development of
all eight kinds of intelligence and develop programs that would be tailored
to each child’s individual profile of intelligence
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Discussion Detour
Do you agree that all the mental abilities described by Gardner are different types of intelligence?
If not, which would you remove?
Are there other types you would add?
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
According to this theory, cognitive development is inherently both a social and cultural process
It is social because children learn through interactions with others and require assistance from others in order to learn what they need to know
It is cultural because what children need to know is determined by the culture they live in
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Vygotsky’s Most Influential Ideas
Scaffolding
Refers to the degree of assistance provided to the adolescent in the zone of proximal development
Scaffolding should gradually decrease as children become more competent at a task
Zone of Proximal Development
Is the gap between what adolescents can accomplish along and what they are capable of doing if guided by an adult or a more competent peer
Social Process of Learning
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Building on Vygotsky’s Legacy
Barbara Rogoff has extending Vygotsky’s theory with the idea of Guided Participation
Refers to the teaching interaction between two people as they participate in a culturally value activity
This guidance is “the direction offered by cultural and social values, as well as social partners
Research shows!