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Adolescence and Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Cultural Approach Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Cultural Beliefs Cultural Beliefs Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 4 Cultural Beliefs Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen

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  • Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 4 Cultural Beliefs Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Chapter Overview Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Processes and outcomes of socialization Processes and outcomes of socialization Defining cultural beliefs Defining cultural beliefs Understanding the custom complex Understanding the custom complex Cultural beliefs in multicultural societies Cultural beliefs in multicultural societies Religious beliefs and cognitive development Religious beliefs and cognitive development Moral development theories and critiques Moral development theories and critiques Political beliefs and socialization Political beliefs and socialization
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  • Rooted in Symbolic Inheritance -- beliefs, ideas and understandings, both implicit and explicit, about persons, society, nature and divinity Rooted in Symbolic Inheritance -- beliefs, ideas and understandings, both implicit and explicit, about persons, society, nature and divinity Norms and moral standards that arise from these beliefs, ideas and understandings Norms and moral standards that arise from these beliefs, ideas and understandings Cultural Beliefs are Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. (Shweder et al, 1998, p. 868)
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  • Cultural Belief and Roles Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Gender Roles Age-related Roles Social Status Roles Explain these pictures as examples of possible cultural roles...
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  • Quick Question: Cultural Roles Why do adolescents become increasingly aware of their cultural roles and what is expected of them? Why do adolescents become increasingly aware of their cultural roles and what is expected of them? Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. FLY-IN ANSWER! Increasing cognitive capacities in adolescence (i.e., abstract thinking & self-reflection) The transition to adulthood is approaching along with the need to adapt to adult role requirements
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  • Socialization is The process by which people acquire the behaviors and beliefs of their culture Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Socialization Outcomes 1. Self-regulation ability to comply with social norms 2. Role preparation for roles in work, gender, institutions such as marriage, parenthood 3. Cultivation of sources of meaning whats important? Whats to be lived for?
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  • Why is adolescence such an important life period in relation to the three socialization outcomes? Discuss and explain. Why is adolescence such an important life period in relation to the three socialization outcomes? Discuss and explain. Discussion Stop Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Cultural Values IndividualismCollectivism Independence Independence Self-expression Self-expression Broad socialization Broad socialization Western Western Obedience Obedience Conformity Conformity Narrow socialization Narrow socialization Eastern Eastern Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Independent Self Interdependent Self Keep in Mind -Cultures belief systems are not pure types -There are individual differences in any culture -Diversity also exists within individuals
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  • Keep in Mind Individualism-collectivism and Broad-Narrow are NOT meant to imply moral evaluations! Socialization: Broad & Narrow Cultures define the range and focus of acceptable personal variation Cultures define the range and focus of acceptable personal variation Cultures differ in the degree of restrictiveness they impose Cultures differ in the degree of restrictiveness they impose Narrow socialization is to collectivism as Broad socialization is to individualism Narrow socialization is to collectivism as Broad socialization is to individualism Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Socialization: Sources Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. SchoolWorkplace Peers/Friends Community Media Legal System Cultural Belief System Family Influence of family diminishes in adolescence Influence of friends, media, school, community, legal system increases
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  • Socialization Example: The Law (Burbank, 1988) Adolescent socialization amongst Australian Aborigines involves ritual teaching of a set of cultural beliefs known as The Law: Adolescent socialization amongst Australian Aborigines involves ritual teaching of a set of cultural beliefs known as The Law: - Moral precepts for conducting interpersonal relationships, e.g., marriage - Explanation for how the world began - Instructions for rites of passage The Law is a set of guidelines about relations between individuals, society, and divine forces The Law is a set of guidelines about relations between individuals, society, and divine forces The Law is premised upon collectivistic beliefs The Law is premised upon collectivistic beliefs Globalization has dramatically affected the relationship between adolescents and The Law Globalization has dramatically affected the relationship between adolescents and The Law Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Socialization Example: Middletown Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Study 1 (Lynd and Lynd, 1929) Life in a typical American community Study 2 (Caplow et al, 1978) Same community, 50 years later What can you say about trends in broad and narrow socialization in Middletown?
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  • Discuss the examples of The Law and Middletown in terms of broad and narrow socialization and factors that influence changes? Discuss the examples of The Law and Middletown in terms of broad and narrow socialization and factors that influence changes? Discussion Stop Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Defining Custom Complex Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. customary practice andthe beliefs, values, sanctions, rules, motives and satisfactions associated with it (Whiting & Child, 1953, p. 27) 1953 1998 Scholars place the custom complex at the center of cultural psychology, which examines human development from a perspective combining psychology and anthropology Simply Put: Typical practice in a culture and the cultural beliefs that provide the basis for the practice
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  • Is it Ontogenic? Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Is dating something that is ontogenic? That is, do adolescents naturally begin dating when they reach a certain age? Discuss in terms of the analysis of dating as custom complex. As a class, generate other practices and decide whether they relate to a custom complex or if they are ontogenic in nature
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  • Think about it Living in America Majority and Minority Cultures Research has shown that cultural beliefs of American minority cultures tend to be less individualistic and more collectivistic than the beliefs of the American majority culture. What happens when the socialization young people experience is not consistent across sources? Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Discussion Stop Consider Feldmans study of adolescents living in the USA and Australia who have emigrated from China. How might the length of time lived in the new culture (i.e., first or second generation) influence cultural beliefs? Consider Feldmans study of adolescents living in the USA and Australia who have emigrated from China. How might the length of time lived in the new culture (i.e., first or second generation) influence cultural beliefs? Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. How do the results in the following slide compare?
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  • Cultural Differences: Valuing Family as Residential Unit Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. The longer time in USA or Australia, the less the family is valued as the residential unit
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  • Religious Beliefs are Cultural Beliefs Virtually all cultures have religious beliefs of some kind Virtually all cultures have religious beliefs of some kind The content of cultures religious beliefs is diverse The content of cultures religious beliefs is diverse Typically contain prescriptions for socialization roles, self-regulation, sources of meaning Typically contain prescriptions for socialization roles, self-regulation, sources of meaning Typically specify a code for behavior Typically specify a code for behavior Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Religious Beliefs & Cognitive Development Poetic-conventional faith Individuating-reflective faith Fowlers Stage (1981, 1991) Late adolescence/ emerging adulthood Early adolescence Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Age Awareness of symbolism Question beliefs, incorporate personal experiences, Develop individualized faith Caveat Fowlers theory is based on American majority culture and individualistic values
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  • Discussion Stop Is it possible to apply Fowlers theory of changes in religious beliefs in adolescence to the beliefs and practices of Muslim adolescents with respect to Ramadan? Is it possible to apply Fowlers theory of changes in religious beliefs in adolescence to the beliefs and practices of Muslim adolescents with respect to Ramadan? Read Pages 117-118 of your text for background Read Pages 117-118 of your text for background Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Discussion Detour Industrialized countries tend to be more secular (based on non-religious beliefs). Industrialized countries tend to be more secular (based on non-religious beliefs). Why do you think Americans generally are more religious than people in other industrialized countries? Why do you think Americans generally are more religious than people in other industrialized countries? Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Moral Development (Piaget) Piaget observed children play games and practiced and discussed rules. Two Stages Based on cognitive development: Heteronomous Morality (ages 4-7) Heteronomous Morality (ages 4-7) You cant change the rules! The rules were made by my Mother! Autonomous Morality (reached at age 10-12) Autonomous Morality (reached at age 10-12) I dropped the glass by accident, that wasnt as bad as when Julie tore up her book because she was mad. Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Moral Reasoning (Kohlberg) Kohlberg presented his participants with hypothetical moral dilemmas, asked them to make a judgment and explain their reasons for their decision. Kohlberg presented his participants with hypothetical moral dilemmas, asked them to make a judgment and explain their reasons for their decision. Whether a person judged the actions of the main character in the dilemma as right or wrong was not important. Rather, his* reasoning for the judgment was key to determining stage of moral reasoning. Whether a person judged the actions of the main character in the dilemma as right or wrong was not important. Rather, his* reasoning for the judgment was key to determining stage of moral reasoning. Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. *Note: Kohlbergs research began with a study of 72 boys aged 10, 13, and 16.
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  • Moral Reasoning Stages (Kohlberg) Level & Stages DescriptionExample Preconventional Includes Stages 1 and 2 Includes Stages 1 and 2 Based on perceptions of likelihood of external reward or punishment Stage 1 He shouldnt steal because hell go to jail. Stage 2 He should steal because he needs the money. Conventional Includes Stages 3 and 4 Includes Stages 3 and 4 Right is what agrees with rules established by tradition and authority Stage 3 He shouldnt steal because good sons dont do that. Stage 4 He shouldnt steal because if everyone steals there will be chaos. Postconventional Includes Stages 5 and 6 Includes Stages 5 and 6 What is right is derived from universal principles Stage 5 He should steal because laws need to be changed to reflect peoples basic rights. Stage 6 He shouldnt steal because the universal principle of ownership must be primary over an individuals needs. Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Gender Critique (Gilligan) Male (Autonomy) vs. Female (Relationship) Male (Autonomy) vs. Female (Relationship) Morality of Justice vs. Morality of Care Morality of Justice vs. Morality of Care Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Constructing Ideas Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Consider Shweders Cultural Critique of Kohlbergs theory of moral development pointing out a bias toward Western Individualism. If you were a researcher studying moral development, how would you design a research project that would address this critique. Look at the examples of research in your textbook for ideas (e.g., Walker and colleagues 1999 study of moral reasoning and real- life dilemmas).
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  • Worldviews Approach Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Jensen (1997, 2000, 2003); Shweder et al, (1997) Set of cultural beliefs Explanations for why an action is right or wrong Judgments as to whether an action is right or wrong Prescribed by Moral judgments; reinforce world view
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  • Worldviews Approach: 3 Ethics Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Research shows! Emerging adults in the USA rely especially on the Ethic of Autonomy AutonomyCommunityDivinity Individual is primary moral authority having right to do as they wish as long as their behavior does no harm to others Responsibilities of roles in family, community are basis for moral judgments Individual is a spiritual entity subject to the prescriptions of a divine authority
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  • Political Beliefs (Adelson) Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Adelsons (1971, 1991) Hypothetical Dilemma: Imagine that a thousand men and women, dissatisfied with the way things are going in this country, decide to purchase and move to an island in the Pacific where they must devise laws and modes of government. Considering the results discussed in Chapter 4, discuss how this dilemma may be resolved by: -Middle school students (ages 12-14) in America -Emerging adults in China -Adolescents aged 16-18 in Great Britain -Use your own examples to highlight issues in the research