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Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

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  • Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Self-reflection in Adolescence What kind of person am I? What am I good at? How do other people see me? What kind of life will I have in 20 years?.... Enhanced cognitive capacity in adolescence means that adolescents change in their self-conceptions, self-esteem, and their emotional understanding. Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Culture and the Self Broad Socialization Narrow Socialization Promote Independent, individualistic self Promote Independent, individualistic self Encourage self- reflection Encourage self- reflection Self-esteem valued highly Self-esteem valued highly Interdependent self Interdependent self Needs and interests of others (i.e., groups) take precedence over self- esteem Needs and interests of others (i.e., groups) take precedence over self- esteem The term Self-esteem was first coined by William James, an American, in the late 19 th century.
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  • Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Childhood vs. Adolescence I have a dog named Jake and a brother named Silas. Im good at sports, but not so good at school. Im complicated. Im sensitive, outgoing, popular and tolerant. I can be shy in some circumstances. I can also be self-conscious, even obnoxious when Im upset.I have a positive view of humankind. Concrete terms, related to traits Trait-focused, traits more abstract, personality characteristics
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  • The Self in Adolescence The capacity for abstract thought means an adolescent can distinguish between: The capacity for abstract thought means an adolescent can distinguish between: Actual Self Who I amActual Self Who I am Possible Selves Who I might becomePossible Selves Who I might become Ideal Self Who I would like to be Ideal Self Who I would like to be Feared Self Who I dread becoming Feared Self Who I dread becoming Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • More Complex Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. I recognize contradictions in my personality. Which is the REAL me??? Im shy around my relatives, but outgoing with my friends. Im aware that I sometimes show a FALSE self to others that isnt really the me or the way I think and feel The formal operational ability to perceive multiple aspects of a situation or idea mean that self-understanding becomes more complex in adolescence.
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  • Clarifying the Difference Self-esteem Self-esteem Refers to a persons overall sense of worth and well-beingRefers to a persons overall sense of worth and well-being Self-concept Self-concept Refers to the way a person views and evaluates herself or himselfRefers to the way a person views and evaluates herself or himself (Also self-image or self-perception)
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  • Development and Self-esteem Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Research has found declines in self-esteem from preadolescence to adolescence On the other hand, the degree of decline in self- esteem should not be exaggerated
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  • Self-esteem in Early Adolescence Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Self-esteem can go in a variety of different directions in early adolescence
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  • Self-esteem: Defining Aspects Baseline Self-esteem Baseline Self-esteem Stable, enduring sense of worth and well-beingStable, enduring sense of worth and well-being Barometric Self-esteem Barometric Self-esteem Fluctuating sense of worth and well- being as one responds to different thoughts, experiences, etc. through the course of a dayFluctuating sense of worth and well- being as one responds to different thoughts, experiences, etc. through the course of a day Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Adolescent Self-image: 8 Domains 1. Scholastic Competence 2. Social Acceptance 3. Athletic Competence 4. Physical Appearance 5. Job Competence 6. Romantic Appeal 7. Behavioral Conduct 8. Close Friendship Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Susan Harter (19892001)
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  • Constructing Ideas Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Which of Harters eight aspects of self-image would you expect to be most important in adolescence? How might gender and culture impact this? Other factors? Physical Appearance!!
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  • Influences on Self-esteem Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Feeling accepted by parents and peers Feeling accepted by parents and peers School success School success
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  • Self-esteem in Emerging Adulthood Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. For most young people, self-esteem rises during emerging adulthood. Why might this be?
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  • Experience Sampling Method Beeper studies in which adolescents are beeped at random times during the day and asked to record their emotional state Beeper studies in which adolescents are beeped at random times during the day and asked to record their emotional state Adolescents record feeling self- conscious and embarrassed 2-3 times more than adults Adolescents record feeling self- conscious and embarrassed 2-3 times more than adults Adolescents are moodier than preadolescents Adolescents are moodier than preadolescents Adolescents experience more negative moods than preadolescents Adolescents experience more negative moods than preadolescents Older adolescents were less volatile (fewer extremes) in emotions than younger adolescents Older adolescents were less volatile (fewer extremes) in emotions than younger adolescents Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Decline in Average Emotional States Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. (Larson et al, 2002) Average emotional states decline from grade 5 through 11 and then appear to level off at grade 12 Reflect upon the consistently higher numbers for girls than for boys
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  • Identity: Erik Eriksons Theory Erikson (1902-1994) drew on experience as a teacher, psychoanalyst, ethnographer, & therapist Erikson (1902-1994) drew on experience as a teacher, psychoanalyst, ethnographer, & therapist Developed comprehensive theory of human development across the lifespan Developed comprehensive theory of human development across the lifespan Primary focus was adolescence, the time of greatest influence on identity development Primary focus was adolescence, the time of greatest influence on identity development Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Identity, Erikson, & Crisis Each life period is characterized by a particular development issue or crisis Each life period is characterized by a particular development issue or crisis For each issue or crisis there is a developmentally healthy path and an unhealthy path For each issue or crisis there is a developmentally healthy path and an unhealthy path Crisis in infancy is trust vs. mistrust the healthy path is establishing secure trust with care provider, the unhealthy path is mistrust (results from a failure to establish a secure sense of trust) Crisis in infancy is trust vs. mistrust the healthy path is establishing secure trust with care provider, the unhealthy path is mistrust (results from a failure to establish a secure sense of trust) Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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  • Identity Crisis in Adolescence Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Establishing a clear and definite sense of who you are and how you fit into the world around you. Failure to form a stable and secure identity. Identity Achievement vs. Identity Confusion Keep in Mind Achieving identity involves exploration sifting through life choices, trying out possibilities, and ultimately making commitments. Crisis has been equated with Exploration
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