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Adolescence and Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Cultural Approach Chapter 6 Chapter 6 The Self The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

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Page 1: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Adolescence and Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Emerging Adulthood: A

Cultural ApproachCultural Approach

Chapter 6Chapter 6

The SelfThe Self

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Page 2: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Self-reflection in AdolescenceSelf-reflection in Adolescence

What kind of person am I? What am I good at? How do other people see me? What kind of life will I have in 20 years?....

Enhanced cognitive capacity in adolescence means that adolescents change in their self-conceptions, self-esteem, and their emotional understanding.

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Page 3: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Culture and the SelfCulture and the Self

Broad SocializationBroad Socialization Narrow SocializationNarrow Socialization

Promote Independent, Promote Independent, individualistic selfindividualistic selfEncourage self-Encourage self-reflectionreflectionSelf-esteem valued Self-esteem valued highlyhighly

Interdependent selfInterdependent selfNeeds and interests of Needs and interests of others (i.e., groups) take others (i.e., groups) take precedence over self-precedence over self-esteemesteem

The term “Self-esteem” was first coined by William James, an American, in the late 19th century.

Page 4: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Childhood vs. AdolescenceChildhood vs. AdolescenceI have a dog named Jake and a brother named Silas.

I’m good at sports, but not so good at school.

I’m complicated. I’m sensitive, outgoing, popular and tolerant. I can be shy in some circumstances. I can also be self-conscious, even obnoxious when I’m upset….I have a positive view of humankind….

Concrete terms, related to traits

Trait-focused, traits more abstract, personality characteristics

Page 5: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

The Self in AdolescenceThe Self in Adolescence The capacity for abstract thought The capacity for abstract thought

means an adolescent can distinguish means an adolescent can distinguish between:between:

• Actual SelfActual Self “Who I am”“Who I am”

• Possible SelvesPossible Selves “Who I might become”“Who I might become”

Ideal SelfIdeal Self “Who I would like to be”“Who I would like to be”

Feared SelfFeared Self “Who I dread becoming”“Who I dread becoming”

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Page 6: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

More ComplexMore Complex

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

I recognize contradictions in my personality….

Which is the REAL me???I’m shy around my

relatives, but outgoing with my friends….I’m aware that I

sometimes show a FALSE self to others that isn’t

really the me or the way I think and feel

The formal The formal operational ability to operational ability to perceive multiple perceive multiple aspects of a situation aspects of a situation or idea mean that or idea mean that self-understanding self-understanding becomes more becomes more complex in complex in adolescence.adolescence.

Page 7: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Clarifying the DifferenceClarifying the Difference

Self-esteemSelf-esteem• Refers to a person’s Refers to a person’s overalloverall sense of sense of

worth and well-beingworth and well-being

Self-concept Self-concept • Refers to the way a person Refers to the way a person viewsviews

and and evaluatesevaluates herself or himself herself or himself

(Also self-image or self-perception)(Also self-image or self-perception)

Page 8: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Development and Self-esteemDevelopment and Self-esteem

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Research has Research has found declines in found declines in self-esteem self-esteem

from from preadolescence to preadolescence to adolescenceadolescence On the other On the other

hand, the degree hand, the degree of decline in self-of decline in self-

esteem should not esteem should not be exaggerated…be exaggerated…

Page 9: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Self-esteem in Early AdolescenceSelf-esteem in Early Adolescence

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Self-esteem can go in a variety of different directions in early

adolescence

Page 10: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Self-esteem: Defining AspectsSelf-esteem: Defining Aspects

BaselineBaseline Self-esteem Self-esteem• Stable, enduring sense of worth and Stable, enduring sense of worth and

well-beingwell-being

Barometric Barometric Self-esteemSelf-esteem• Fluctuating sense of worth and well-Fluctuating sense of worth and well-

being as one responds to different being as one responds to different thoughts, experiences, etc. through the thoughts, experiences, etc. through the course of a daycourse of a day

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Page 11: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Adolescent Self-image: Adolescent Self-image: 88 Domains Domains

1.1. Scholastic CompetenceScholastic Competence

2.2. Social AcceptanceSocial Acceptance

3.3. Athletic CompetenceAthletic Competence

4.4. Physical AppearancePhysical Appearance

5.5. Job CompetenceJob Competence

6.6. Romantic AppealRomantic Appeal

7.7. Behavioral ConductBehavioral Conduct

8.8. Close FriendshipClose Friendship

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Susan Harter (1989…2001)

Page 12: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Constructing IdeasConstructing Ideas

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Which of Harter’s eight aspects of self-image would you expect to be most important in adolescence?

How might gender and culture impact this? Other factors?

Physical Appearance!!Physical Appearance!!

Page 13: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Influences on Self-esteemInfluences on Self-esteem

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Feeling accepted by parents and peersFeeling accepted by parents and peers

School successSchool success

Page 14: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Self-esteem in Emerging AdulthoodSelf-esteem in Emerging Adulthood

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

For most young people, self-esteem rises during emerging

adulthood.

Why might this be?

Page 15: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Experience Sampling MethodExperience Sampling Method ““Beeper” studies in which Beeper” studies in which

adolescents are beeped at random adolescents are beeped at random times during the day and asked to times during the day and asked to record their emotional staterecord their emotional state

Adolescents record feeling “self-Adolescents record feeling “self-conscious” and “embarrassed” 2-3 conscious” and “embarrassed” 2-3 times more than adultstimes more than adults

Adolescents are “moodier” than Adolescents are “moodier” than preadolescentspreadolescents

Adolescents experience more Adolescents experience more negative moods than preadolescentsnegative moods than preadolescents

Older adolescents were less volatile Older adolescents were less volatile (fewer extremes) in emotions than (fewer extremes) in emotions than younger adolescentsyounger adolescents

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Page 16: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Decline in Average Emotional StatesDecline in Average Emotional States

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

(Larson et al, 2002)

Average emotional states decline from

grade 5 through 11 and then appear to level off

at grade 12

Reflect upon the consistently higher

numbers for girls than for boys

Page 17: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Identity: Erik Erikson’s TheoryIdentity: Erik Erikson’s Theory

Erikson (1902-1994) drew on experience Erikson (1902-1994) drew on experience as a teacher, psychoanalyst, as a teacher, psychoanalyst, ethnographer, & therapistethnographer, & therapist

Developed comprehensive theory of Developed comprehensive theory of human development across the lifespanhuman development across the lifespan

Primary focus was adolescence, the time Primary focus was adolescence, the time of greatest influence on identity of greatest influence on identity developmentdevelopment

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Page 18: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Identity, Erikson, & Identity, Erikson, & CrisisCrisis Each life period is characterized Each life period is characterized

by a particular development by a particular development issue or “crisis”issue or “crisis”

For each issue or crisis there is a For each issue or crisis there is a developmentally healthy path developmentally healthy path and an unhealthy pathand an unhealthy path

Crisis in infancy is “trust vs. Crisis in infancy is “trust vs. mistrust” – mistrust” – the healthy path is the healthy path is establishing secure trust with establishing secure trust with care provider, the unhealthy care provider, the unhealthy path is mistrust (results from a path is mistrust (results from a failure to establish a secure failure to establish a secure sense of trust)sense of trust)

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Page 19: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Identity “Crisis” in AdolescenceIdentity “Crisis” in Adolescence

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Establishing a clear and definite sense of who you are and how you fit into the world around you.

Failure to form a stable and secure

identity.

Identity AchievementIdentity Achievement vs. vs. Identity ConfusionIdentity Confusion

Keep in Mind…

Achieving identity involves exploration – sifting through life choices, trying out possibilities, and ultimately making commitments.

Crisis has been equated with “Exploration”Crisis has been equated with “Exploration”

Page 20: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

More Identity More Identity ExplorationExploration Psychosocial MoratoriumPsychosocial Moratorium: a period when : a period when

adult responsibilities are postponed as adult responsibilities are postponed as young people try on various possible young people try on various possible selvesselves

Identity formation is founded partly on Identity formation is founded partly on identificationsidentifications made in childhood made in childhood• For example, children identify with parentsFor example, children identify with parents• Adolescents reflect on identifications and Adolescents reflect on identifications and

decide which they want to embracedecide which they want to embrace

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Page 21: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Research on Identity: James MarciaResearch on Identity: James Marcia

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

CommitmentCommitment

ExplorationExploration

YesYes NoNo

YesYes AchievementAchievement MoratoriumMoratorium

NoNo ForeclosureForeclosure DiffusionDiffusion

Inspired by Erikson’s theory, Marcia Inspired by Erikson’s theory, Marcia constructed the constructed the Identity Status InterviewIdentity Status Interview that classified adolescents into one of four that classified adolescents into one of four identity statusesidentity statuses

Page 22: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Four Identity Statuses: ExamplesFour Identity Statuses: Examples

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Identity StatusIdentity Status ExampleExample

DiffusionDiffusion ““I’m not worried about what to do I’m not worried about what to do after school…who cares.” after school…who cares.”

MoratoriumMoratorium ““I want to be a marine biologist, I want to be a marine biologist, no… a lawyer, no…a hairdresser no… a lawyer, no…a hairdresser like my best friends’ mom.”like my best friends’ mom.”

ForeclosureForeclosure ““I never had to think about what I never had to think about what to do, I’m taking over the farm to do, I’m taking over the farm from Dad.”from Dad.”

AchievementAchievement ““After studying in Peru, I realize I After studying in Peru, I realize I cannot work for a large cannot work for a large corporation, I am going to be a corporation, I am going to be a nurse.”nurse.”

Page 23: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Gender and IdentityGender and Identity

I’ll put my plans to explore different careers on hold because it’s important that I maintain my relationship. My fiancé is planning to study engineering, and I’ll move to Chicago with him to support his studies…

Young women tend to have more difficulty Young women tend to have more difficulty than young men in integrating their than young men in integrating their aspirations for love with their aspirations for aspirations for love with their aspirations for work, in part because of gender double work, in part because of gender double standards. Discuss in terms of the task of standards. Discuss in terms of the task of young adults to achieve young adults to achieve intimacy vs. isolationintimacy vs. isolation..

Consider this scenario in terms of gender and identity Consider this scenario in terms of gender and identity formation in adolescence and emerging adulthood…formation in adolescence and emerging adulthood…

Page 24: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Culture and Identity: IssuesCulture and Identity: Issues Conception of “self” is distinctly Western: More Conception of “self” is distinctly Western: More

studies needed on identity development in non-studies needed on identity development in non-Western culturesWestern cultures

Psychosocial moratorium is more possible in Psychosocial moratorium is more possible in some cultures than in otherssome cultures than in others

Limitations on exploration in love and work are Limitations on exploration in love and work are tighter for girls in traditional cultures than for tighter for girls in traditional cultures than for boysboys

Only in recent history has the idea of questioning Only in recent history has the idea of questioning expectations and actively exploring alternatives expectations and actively exploring alternatives become prevalent (in Western cultures)become prevalent (in Western cultures)

Globalization is impacting identity formation Globalization is impacting identity formation processes for young people around the worldprocesses for young people around the world

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Page 25: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Ethnic Identity (Phinney)Ethnic Identity (Phinney)

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Identification with Ethnic GroupIdentification with Ethnic Group

Identification Identification with Majority with Majority CultureCulture

HighHigh LowLow

HighHigh BiculturalBicultural AssimilatedAssimilated

LowLow SeparatedSeparated MarginalMarginal

Page 26: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Ethnic Identity: ExamplesEthnic Identity: Examples

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

StatusStatus Example (p. 183)Example (p. 183)

BiculturalBicultural ““Being both Mexican and American is the Being both Mexican and American is the best of both worlds.You have different best of both worlds.You have different strengths you can draw on in different strengths you can draw on in different situations.” situations.”

AssimilatedAssimilated ““I don’t really think of myself as Asian I don’t really think of myself as Asian American, just as American.”American, just as American.”

SeparatedSeparated ““I am not part of two cultures. I am just I am not part of two cultures. I am just Black.”Black.”

MarginalMarginal ““When I’m with my Indian friends, I feel When I’m with my Indian friends, I feel White, and when I’m with my White White, and when I’m with my White friends, I feel Indian. I don’t really feel I friends, I feel Indian. I don’t really feel I belong with either of them.”belong with either of them.”

Page 27: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Globalization and Hybrid IdentityGlobalization and Hybrid Identity

Many young people around the world Many young people around the world develop a bicultural identity in develop a bicultural identity in relation to the global culturerelation to the global culture

An increase in the pervasiveness of An increase in the pervasiveness of identity confusion/ marginalized identity confusion/ marginalized identityidentity

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Hybrid Identity = integrating local culture with elements ofglobal culture

Page 28: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 The Self Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

The Self, AloneThe Self, Alone

Being alone can be constructive, a time for Being alone can be constructive, a time for reflectionreflection

Social Loneliness – when people feel they lack Social Loneliness – when people feel they lack sufficient social contacts and relationshipssufficient social contacts and relationships

Emotional Loneliness – when people feel they Emotional Loneliness – when people feel they lack sufficient closeness and intimacylack sufficient closeness and intimacy

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

American adolescents spend about one-fourth of their time alone.

Keep in Mind…Being alone does not imply loneliness and being with others does not imply the absence of

loneliness.