AdolescenceChapter 9ObjectivesDefine AdolescenceDescribe the physical, cognitive, and ideological changes that characterize adolescenceDescribe research related to the sexual attitudes and roles of adolescentsDiscuss the social development of the adolescent and the role of peers and familyKey TermsAndrogynousAsynchronyAuthoritarian FamiliesAuthoritative FamiliesConformityDemocratic FamiliesIdentity CrisisInitiation RitesLaissez-Faire FamiliesMenarchePermissive FamiliesPubertyRationalizationSelf-Fulfilling ProphecySex IdentitySex RoleSocial Learning TheorySpermarcheArticleTeens brainsAdolescence Adolescence is the transition period between childhood and adulthood. And while we all have an idea what adolescence is, defining it precisely is difficult
Initiation rites: Rites of passage from one age or status to another, that mark admission into adulthoodBirthdays, Bar mitzvahs, graduation, weddings Views of AdolescenceAre years between late childhood and early adulthood the best that life has to offer?A carefree time to act on ideals unburdened by practical concerns?Or is adolescence a time of crisis, rebellion, and unhappiness?
It depends on who you askHow Adults view AdolescenceEvery adult has lived through adolescence
However, the teenage years of most adults do not always help them understand the concerns and difficulties of todays adolescents
Adults vary their attitudes toward teenagers in general and certain adults have conflicting feelings about them How Adults view AdolescenceMany adults admire young peopleTheir values, music, fashions, and activities (mass media)
Through dress, cosmetics, consumer purchases, and a variety of physical activities, some adults attempt to look and feel as healthy and active as adolescents
Older people who live and work directly with teenagers often value the influence young people have in their lives. Teenagers help them stay connected to a larger world outside their ownHow Adults View AdolescenceBonus:Ask an adult if they would like to change places with you and go back to their adolescence. Why?ParagraphHow Adults view AdolescenceDo adults feel threatened by the youth?
Maybe when adults see their own children develop into mature bodies and their bodies start declining physically
Adults see themselves being outperformed by youth
May regret the loss of their own youth and envy those who are still youngHow Adults view AdolescenceNews and popular press portray teenagers in a negative lightDisruptive DisturbedTeenage crime
Different view of adolescents?Different generations sometimes hold different ideas of moralitySexual activity, war, environmentHow Adults view AdolescenceAdolescents may provoke a negative reaction from their parents by possibly displaying traits their parents see as a reflection of themselves that they would prefer not to seeExamples?
Some look at adolescents in a positive light, in horror, burden of stress, tension, conflict.EXTREME VIEWSActivityComputer paper, One pictureYou, staff member, & family memberAdolescentsConcerns/DifficultiesAttitudesWho am I?What do I want to be as a a person?What are the things that are important to me?
How Adolescents View ThemselvesKnowing how adults view adolescents, does that shape how adolescents view themselves?
According to psychologists, the answer is yes!
Adolescents tend to regard themselves the way they think others see themAdults stereotypes serve as a mirror for themHow Adolescents View ThemselvesFor many, adolescence is a period of searching for identity.Adolescents are continually struggling with such questions:Who am I?What do I want to be as a a person?What are the things that are important to me?ArticleHow adults view teensExtension ActivityAdolescents and AlcoholTheories of AdolescenceG. Stanley HallAdolescence as a transitional stage from beast to humanFully grown animal in a cage, sees freedom but doesnt know quite when freedom will occur or how to handle itStorm & stress, confused, troubled, frustratedTheories of AdolescenceMargaret MeadFound that in some cultures adolescence is highly enjoyable time of lifeTheories of AdolescenceRobert HavighurstEvery adolescent faces challenges, development tasks that must be masteredAccepting ones physical make-up & acquiring a masculine or feminine sex roleDeveloping appropriate relations with agemates of both sexesBecoming emotionally independent of parents and other adultsAchieving the assurance that one will become economically independentTheories of AdolescenceDeciding on, preparing for, and entering a vocationDeveloping the cognitive skills and concepts necessary for social competenceUnderstanding and achieving socially responsible behaviorPreparing for marriage and familyAcquiring values that are harmonious with an appropriate scientific world picture
Tasks present a challenge, adolescents generally handle it well. Most face some stress but finds ways to cope with itPersonal DevelopmentBecoming an adult involves much more than becoming physically mature
Transition from childhood-adulthood involves:Changes in patterns ofReasoningMoral thinkingPersonalitySexual behaviorPersonal DevelopmentPhysical changesPuberty: Sexual maturation, biological event that marks the end of childhoodGirls: About age 10. Rather suddenly begin to grow. Before growth, fat tissues develop, making girl appear chubby. Girls retain fat tissueOnce spurt begins, growth 2-3.5 inches a yearDuring spurt, breasts and hips begin to fill outPubic hairBetween 10-17 (12 or 13) menstrual period, Menarche12-18 months will pass until she is able to conceive a childMost societies consider menarche the beginning of motherhood
Personal DevelopmentBoys: Begins at about age 12Boys lose fat tissues quickly, making them look lanky or lean. Pubic hair and genitals growGrowth occurs 24-27 months later than girlsGrowth lasts 3 years longerOnce growth occurs, it rapid and boys fill outBroad shoulder and thick trunkAcquire more muscle tissue, larger heart and lungs than girlsVoice deepensHair begins to grow on face and chest
Personal DevelopmentAsynchrony: Condition during the period of adolescence in which growth or maturation of bodily parts is unevenEx: Hands, feet larger than rest of bodyClumsiness starts to diminish
Reactions to GrowthAdolescents desperately want to be accepted by peersGirls ranked boys attributes they seek IntelligenceAttractivenessAbility to hold conversationReactions to GrowthBoys ranks girls attributes they seekAttractivenessFriendlinessIntelligenceReactions to GrowthIndividual differences grow significantly that affect personality of young adolescentsResearch indicates boys have the advantageHeroes in sports Leaders in formal and informal activitiesOther boys look up to themGirls have crushes on themAdults tend to treat them more matureMore self-confident and independent
Reactions to GrowthWith girls pattern is somewhat differentGirls who mature early may feel embarrassed rather than proud of their height or figureSome date older boys and become bossy with people their own ageLate-maturing girls tend to get along better with people their ageLate teens, girls that matured earlier may be more popularReactions to GrowthDoes physical growth have powerful psychological effects?Self-Fulfilling prophecy: A belief, prediction, or expectation that operates to bring about its own fulfillment If boy thinks he doesnt fit his cultures physical ideal, may view himself differentlyChanges in ThinkingAbstract thinking What would the world be like if people lived to be 200?
Rationalization: Individual seeks to explain an often unpleasant emotion or behavior in a way that will preserve self-esteemMoral DevelopmentKohlbergPsychologists agree that a persons moral development depends on many factors, especially the kind of relationship the individual has with parentsChanges in collegeErik Eriksons Theory of the Identity CrisisAccording to Erikson, building an identity is a task that is unique to adolescence. Children are aware of what other people (adults and peers) think of themAre there labels are kids?GoodBadFunnyTalentedBraveHot
Does not figure in who they really are or where they are goingChildren live in the present, adolescents think about the futureErik Eriksons Theory of the Identity CrisisMost adolescents must go through what Erikson called an identity crisisIdentity Crisis: A time of storm and stress during which they worry intensely about who they areFactorsPhysiological changesCognitive developmentsSexual drivesSee future as a reality4 Adolescent Personality TypesSays Erikson is correct in pointing out the adolescent identity crisis. Crisis arises because individuals must make commitments on such important matters as occupation, religion, and political orientationMarcia points out 4 adolescent personality types
4 Adolescent Personality TypesIdentity moratorium adolescents: Who have not experiences a crisis or made a commitment on any of the important matters facing themIdentity foreclosure adolescents: Who have not had a crisis but have made a commitment based not on their own choice, but on the suggestion of others4 Adolescent Personality TypesIdentity confused adolescents: Who are in a continual search for meaning, commitment, and self-definition, and thus experience life as a series of ongoing crisesIdentity achievement adolescents: Who have experiences crises, considered many possibilities, and freely committed themselves to occupations and other life matter4 Adolescent Personality TypesDo not interpret rigidly, one can transition from one category to anotherCan belong to different categoriesCriticism of Eriksons TheoryA.C. Peterson:Says crisis is not a normal state of affairs for adolescentsChange in external circumstances creates crisis, not a biological clock Albert BanduraS