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ADOLESCENCE ADOLESCENCE The Period Between The Period Between Childhood and Adulthood Childhood and Adulthood

ADOLESCENCE The Period Between Childhood and Adulthood

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  • ADOLESCENCEThe Period Between Childhood and Adulthood

  • What is it?How do we define it?What are the changes that occur?Will you survive?Will your parents?When does it begin and end?

  • Is it getting longer or shorter over time?????

  • Biological MarkersPuberty: Spurt of Physical GrowthFemale: Menarche or menstruation at the average age of 12 1/2, with growth of approx. 3-5 inches in a year.Males: Production of sperm; usually occurs two years LATER than girls, grow 4-6 inches in a year

  • 1950s and BeyondAbout 50 years ago, puberty was a scary event. No one was prepared, schools did not teach or talk about it.Now view in a positive manner, a signal that one has reached manhood and womanhood

  • Primary Sex CharacteristicsReproductive organs grow (uterus, ovaries and testicles and penis)

  • Secondary Sex CharacteristicsFemale: Enlarged breast and hipsMales: Deeper voice, facial hair, broadening shoulders

  • Timing of PubertyPuberty has psychological effects. Going through it with your peers or on the average is good because you reach it together and do not feel unusual or outside the norm

  • Early Maturing Boy and GirlsBOYSPositive athletic advantage, popular, look older, self confident, seen as a leader by peers and authorityNegative effect is that get into trouble more often, begin sexual relation earlierGIRLSDevelop mature body before others and this can lead to insecuritiesNot looked on favorably by adults because gets attention of older boys, can lead to early sexual activity

  • Late Maturing Boy and GirlsBOYSNegative effect: Parents and teachers tend to treat them like children longer, rejected by peersPositive effect: Time to be introspective and develop a strong sense of identity

    GIRLSAt first they are less popular and can lack some social skillsOnce they develop they do tend to be tall and thin and become more popular.

  • Hypothesis on DevelopmentAdult Stage HypothesisStage Termination HypothesisDeviance Hypothesis

  • Time Line of Development

    Early Girls-On Time GirlsLate Girls

    -Early BoysOn Time BoysLate Boys

  • Identity & EgocentrismIdentity: Sense of yourself and independence. See yourself as an individualIt develops in adolescence because they can now think in abstract terms, the meaning of life, their role in society.Egocentrism: Peaks at 13Imaginary AudiencePersonal Fable

  • Structure of the Peer GroupA: Close friends: Usually 2-3 and same sex but can be gender mixedB: Cliques: small group of friends with common interestsPositive~ Social skills, intimate relationships, feeling of safety, share common idealsNegative~ Negative peer pressure, restriction of individual thought, limiting friendships

  • Cliques continuedPopular cliquesGender differences in cliquesOthers opinionsAcceptance

  • More GroupsCrowds: Larger groups of acquaintances that usually people date others from the crowd

  • Moral DevelopmentLevel 1: Pre Conventional (Childhood 4-10)Stage 1:Punishment OrientationStage 2: Nave Reward OrientationLevel 2: Conventional (early adolescence 10-13)Stage 3: Good boy/girlStage 4: Authority OrientationLevel 3: Post Conventional: adulthoodStage 5: Social Contract OrientationStage 6: Individual Ethical Principle

  • James MarciaTheory of Identity FormationFour Types:1. Identity Diffusion2. Identity Foreclosure3. Identity Moratorium4. Identity Achievement