Adolescent/Adult Development Middle Adulthood: Cognitive Development – Ch. 21

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Adolescent/Adult Development Middle Adulthood: Cognitive Development – Ch. 21. Mar 27-Apr 1, 2008 Classes #28-30. What is Intelligence?. General intelligence Old view: Single entity New view: Several distinct intellectual capacities. Studying Intelligence During the Twentieth Century. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Adolescent/Adult Development Middle Adulthood: Cognitive Development – Ch. 21

  • Adolescent/Adult Development

    Middle Adulthood: Cognitive Development Ch. 21

    Mar 27-Apr 1, 2008Classes #28-30

  • What is Intelligence?General intelligence Old view: Single entityNew view:Several distinct intellectual capacities

  • Studying Intelligence During the Twentieth CenturyPsychometricians disagreed about whether general intelligence rises or falls after age 20 or so

  • Yerkes (1923)this classic cross-sectional study found that the average male:reached his intellectual peak at about age 18intellectual decline began by mid-20s for mostCross-Sectional Research

  • Bayley and Oden (1955)Found that most of the 36-year-olds in this study were still improving in vocabulary, comprehension, and information Longitudinal Research

  • Schaie (1956)Tested cross-section of 500 adults of different age groups on 5 standard primary mental abilities = foundations of intelligenceverbal meaning spatial orientation inductive reasoning word fluencynumber abilityCross-Sequential Research

  • Schaie (1956)Concluded people improve in most mental abilities until their 80s, at which point they fall below the mid-range performance of young adults

  • A trend toward increasing average IQ over generationscomes from research comparing test scores over timein every country, younger cohorts outscored older onesFlynn (1984, 1987)

  • What are some reasons for overall IQ rise??? Flynn (1984, 1987)

  • Types of IntelligencesFluid IntelligenceCrystallized Intelligence

  • What Is Expert Cognition?What makes someone an expert at anything?

  • What Is Expert Cognition?Reber (1967)Implicit learningLearning that appears to occur without awareness or intention to learn and often cannot be described in words what has been learnedCognitive unconscious

  • Implicit Learning: Learning that lacks perception?Reber (1980)Too many variables involved too much to rememberIn explicit learning, we consciously select only the key variablesIn implicit learning, we are unselective and pay attention to all variablesFew attentional resources are needed

  • Implicit Learning: Expert Knowledge?McGeorge and Burton (1990)Implicit learning allows us to skip stepsEverything becomes automaticWe become experts

  • Implicit Learning: Expert Knowledge?Examples:Chess playersFootball QBsRiding a bike

  • Implicit Learning: Mindless LearningInterestingly, its not based on logicReber says when participants are observed making choices and solving problems of complexity they are irrational

  • Implicit Learning: Mindless LearningRational and logical elements are missing yet we do better Why???

  • Expertise and AgePractice is crucial Motivation is crucialExpertise can sometimes overcome effects of age, but response time slower

  • Selective Gains and LossesMany researchers believe that adults make deliberate choices about their intellectual development, separate from their culture or education

  • Optimization with CompensationBaltes and Baltes (1990) People try to maintain a balance in their lives by looking for the best way to compensate for physical and cognitive losses

  • Optimization with CompensationDo we consciously try to maximize gains and minimize losses?

  • Expertise on the JobResearch on cognitive plasticity often shows the use of selective optimization with compensationespecially apparent in the everyday workplace

  • Expertise on the JobExamples: Waiting on Tables Perlmutter et al. (1990) Office WorkersSalthouse (1984)

  • Expertise in Daily LifeDeveloping expertise to cope with stress

  • The Stresses of LifeMiddle-aged adults in the thick of things

  • Ways of Coping with StressPsychologists have differentiated 2 major ways of coping with stressProblem-focused copingattacking problemEmotion-focused copingchanging feelings about the stress