Adult Life Span. Adult development Issues faced in adulthood Aging

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  • Adult Life Span

  • Adult Life SpanAdult developmentIssues faced in adulthoodAging

  • Adult DevelopmentErikson: Psychosocial DevelopmentIntimacy vs IsolationGenerativity vs. StagnationIntegrity vs. Despair

  • Adult DevelopmentLevinson: Seasons of a Mans LifeThe DreamDeflation of the DreamChange of time perspective

  • Adult DevelopmentVaillant: Adaptation to Life (1977): Study of Healthy AdultsAging Well (2002): How we grow old - happily or in misery - is more under the control of ourselves, rather than our genes and upbringing

  • Critical Issues Adults FaceChanging Family RolesNormal Aging MenopauseAlzheimersBereavement

  • What is a traditional family in the U.S.? single parent families birth rate for mothers aged 35-44 Both parents working full time.High divorce rate

  • TThe percentage of babies born to unmarried British, Canadian and American women (1/3 of whom were teens) has more than quintupled since 1960.Percentage of births to unwed mothers051015202530194019501960197019801990Year

  • 50% of marriages in the U.S. end in divorceNegative effects of divorce related to degree of conflict and not necessarily to divorce itself.

  • Effects of Maternal Employment

    Positive effects for daughters

    Negative effects for sons

  • Menopauseincreased depressive symptoms for women 45-50 associated with:physical inactivity, inadequate income, use of estrogen/progesterone combination, and presence of climacteric symptoms (trouble sleeping, mood swings, or memory problems). Menopausal status not associated with depressive symptoms.

  • AgingSociological Issues: current change in demographicsPhysiological and cognitive changes associated with aging

  • Between ages 75-84, 73% report no disabilityAges 85 and over, 40% are fully functional so remember.OLD AGE IS NOT A DISEASE

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  • Adulthood- Cognitive ChangesCross-Sectional method suggests declineLongitudinal method suggests more stability253239465360746781354045505560Age in yearsReasoningabilityscoreCross-sectional methodLongitudinal method

  • Adulthood- Cognitive ChangesVerbal intelligence scores hold steady with age, while nonverbal intelligence scores decline (adapted from Kaufman & others, 1989).203555702545657580859095100105Intelligence(IQ) scoreAge group

  • Adulthood- Social ChangesMultinational surveys show that age differences in life satisfaction are trivial (Inglehart, 1990).020406080152535455565+Percentage satisfiedwith lifeas a wholeAge group

  • MALE

    FEMALE

    U.S. AGE STRUCTURE

    From U.S. Census Bureau publication: Data Base News in Aging 1999

  • Oldest Old

    Age 85 and overFastest growing segment of populationBetween 1960 and 1994, increased 274%In 1994, 3 million or 1% of total populationIn 2050, 19 million or 5% of population

    3

    3

  • Source: CIA World Fact Book, July 1, 2001

    Chart1

    80.7

    80.1

    79.8

    79.6

    79.6

    79.4

    79

    78.8

    78.8

    77.1

    Life Expectancy

    Nations

    Years

    Life Expectancy at Birth, 2001 Selected Nations Among the41 Ahead of the United States

    Sheet1

    Life Expectancy at Birth, 2001

    NationLife Expectancy

    Japan80.7

    Singapore80.1

    Australia79.8

    Switzerland79.6

    Sweden79.6

    Canada79.4

    Italy79

    Spain78.8

    France78.8

    United States77.1

    Sheet1

    Life Expectancy

    Nations

    Years

    Life Expectancy at Birth, 2001 Selected Nations Among the41 Ahead of the United States

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • Number of caregivers is growingMany over 60 have living parentsWomen provide most of the careAverage woman spends more years caring for elderly than childrenCaring for grandchildren is increasingCaregiving

  • Adulthood- Social ChangesKubler-Ross (1969) proposed that the terminally ill pass through a sequence of five stagesdenial of the terminal conditionanger and resentment (Why me?)bargaining (with God or physicians) for more timedepression stemming from impending lossacceptance of ones fate

  • BereavementNormal grief may involve a number of physical symptoms.InsomniaAppetite changesWeight lossPsychomotor retardation

  • Which of the following changes can be viewed as a normal part of aging? Decreased cognitive capacityIncreased depressionIncreased fears of illnessIncreased agitationDecreased performance speed

  • Studies have shown that college students with poor psychological adjustment are most likely to:1) Develop more physical problems as middle-aged adults. 2) Outgrow the psychological problems. 3) Have improved sibling relationships during their college years. 4) Value psychological health and promote health when they marry. 5) Develop good work habits to compensate for feelings of inferiority.

    a) Erikson: Psychosocial Developmenti) Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood) The main task during early adulthood is the establishment of intimate bonds of love and friendship. If such bonds are not achieved, self-absorption and isolation result.ii) Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adulthood): Main task during this period is to develop commitment to the well being of future generations.Integrity vs. Despair (maturation/old age): Development of wisdom, a detached concern with life in the face of death, and a sense of integrity and coming to terms with ones limitations and mortality. a) Levinson: Seasons of a Mans Lifei) Divided life into 4 stages: infancy through adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. Paid particular attention to transitions between stages:(1) Early Adult Transition: leads to the formation of The Dreamthe vision of the ideal life that guides ones decisions and choices.(2) The age 30 Transitiondissatisfaction with the life structure developed in the 20s. Sense of urgency to fully enter the adult world.(3) Mid-life Transition: time of significant stress and reorganization. Deflation of the Dream. Shift from time-since-birth to time-left-to-live.Levinsons view of mid-life crisis not born out in research. Only small percentage experience significant transitional stress. i) Important because it was first study of healthy adults.ii) followed Harvard undergrads from the 1940s through adulthood.i)Students with poor psychological adjustment had the greatest number of health problems in middle age Close sibling relationships predicted stabile middle age. This longitudinal study of adult development involves prospective studies of 268 Harvard College sophomores and 456 inner-city Boston school boys each of which have lasted for half a century with minimal attrition. Data for each subject consists of 4 generation social histories, biennial questionnaires, face to face interviews every fifteen years, and complete physical examinations every five years. Research has focused upon (1) adaptation to stress, mental health, and defense mechanisms; (2) the effects of habits (especially alcoholism) and affective disorders upon physical health and mortality; (3) the effect of childhood risk factors upon adult adaptation; (4) the unfolding of adult development; and (5) the natural history of alcohol and substance abuse. Other ongoing projects that have evolved from these longitudinal archives include long-term outcome studies of World War II PTSD, effects of attributional style on physical health, and successful adult careers by the mildly retarded.

    A good marriage at age 50 predicted positive aging at 80. But surprisingly, low cholesterol levels at age 50 did not. Alcohol abuseunrelated to unhappy childhoodconsistently predicted unsuccessful aging, in part because alcoholism damaged future social supports. Learning to play and create after retirement and learning to gain younger friends as we lose older ones add more to life's enjoyment than retirement income. Objective good physical health was less important to successful aging than subjective good health. By this I mean that it is all right to be ill as long as you do not feel sick. This longitudinal study of adult development involves prospective studies of 268 Harvard College sophomores and 456 inner-city Boston school boys each of which have lasted for half a century with minimal attrition. Data for each subject consists of 4 generation social histories, biennial questionnaires, face to face interviews every fifteen years, and complete physical examinations every five years. Research has focused upon (1) adaptation to stress, mental health, and defense mechanisms; (2) the effects of habits (especially alcoholism) and affective disorders upon physical health and mortality; (3) the effect of childhood risk factors upon adult adaptation; (4) the unfolding of adult development; and (5) the natural history of alcohol and substance abuse. Other ongoing projects that have evolved from these longitudinal archives include long-term outcome studies of World War II PTSD, effects of attributional style on physical health, and successful adult careers by the mildly retarded.

    A good marriage at age 50 predicted positive aging at 80. But surprisingly, low cholesterol levels at age 50 did not. Alcohol abuseunrelated to unhappy childhoodconsistently predicted unsuccessful aging, in part because alcoholism damaged future social supports. Learning to play and create after retirement and learning to gain younger friends as we lose older ones add more to life's enjoyment than retirement income. Objective good physical health was less important to successful aging than subjective good health. By this I mean that it is all right to be ill as long as you do not feel sick.

    A good marriage at age 50 predicted positive aging at 80. But surprisingly, low cholesterol level