Adulthood Powerpoint

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  • Life Span Health Promotion: Adulthood

  • Role in Wellness

    Physical health dimension

    Begin health-promoting habits early in life and continue

    through older adulthood

    Intellectual health dimension

    Provides ability to change and adapt as health circumstances

    vary according to age and related responsibilities

    Emotional health dimension

    Symbolic representation and occasions defined by certain

    foods often tied to emotional well-being

  • Role in Wellness, contd

    Social health dimension

    Customs surrounding eating behaviors vary among cultures

    and ethnic groups; exposure to these differences is

    rewarding and enhances social health

    Spiritual health dimension

    Support of religious and charitable communities sustains

    health promotion efforts and recovery from disease and

    illness

  • Aging and Nutrition

    Aging and nutrition

    Aging: gradual process that reflects influence of genetics, lifestyle, and environment over life span

    Some body systems more affected than others

    Changes may begin to affect nutritional status

    Other organ functions may be altered

    Taste and smell

    Saliva secretions

    Swallowing difficulties

    Liver function

    Intestinal function

  • Aging and Nutrition, contd

    Productive aging

    Overall process of aging depends on attitudes and skills

    developed over course of ones life

    Considers many psychosocial influences on successful

    aging

  • Stages of Adulthood

    The early years (20s and 30s)

    Young adults separate from family of origin, focus on

    personal and career goals, and often face reproductive

    decisions

    Prime time to either refine or establish eating styles promoting

    health, possibly preventing development of diet-related diseases

    Factors affecting nutritional and health behaviors

    Childbearing years

    Employment/career

    Family commitments

  • Stages of Adulthood, contd

    Nutrition requirements

    Growth tends to be completed by late teens for women and early 20s for men

    RDA for energy is 2900 kcal daily for men; 2200 kcal daily for women

    Reflects typical differences in body weight and lean body mass

    RDA for protein increases from 58 to 63 g daily for men; from 46 to 50 g for women

    Ranges reflect lean body mass growth that may occur in men and

    women through about age 24

  • Stages of Adulthood, contd

    Vitamin and mineral needs do not significantly change

    Calcium and phosphorus needs decline after age 18

    Skeletal growth almost complete

    AI for calcium drops from 1300 mg to 1000 mg from 19 years on

    RDA for phosphorus drops from 1250 mg to 700 mg from 19 years on

    Maintaining calcium and iron intake continues as concern for women

    because of often-restricted intake of food during dieting

  • Stages of Adulthood, contd

    The middle years (40s and 50s)

    Stage noted by continuation of family demands and career

    involvement

    Consistent positive dietary patterns coupled with regular

    exercise

    Provides continued prevention or delay of diet-related diseases

    such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) and coronary

    artery disease

    Increased stamina additional benefit

  • Stages of Adulthood, contd

    Nutrition requirements

    During middle years, cell loss rather than replication occurs

    Kcal needs decline as lean body mass lost

    Replaced by body fat, less metabolically active

    Body fat increases may be slowed by exercise and strength training to

    maintain lean body mass

    After age 50, daily energy needs drop from 2900 to 2300 kcal for

    men; from 2200 to 1920 kcal for women

  • Stages of Adulthood, contd

    Protein needs remain constant

    Iron requirements for women drop from 18 to 8 mg

    Reflects reduced iron loss because of menopause

    Dietary patterns that best meet nutrient needs

    Contain nutrient-dense foods with lower-fat protein sources

    coupled with fiber-containing fruits, vegetables, and grains

  • Stages of Adulthood, contd

    The older years (60s, 70s, and 80s)

    Senescence: older adulthood

    Time of continued professional or career advancement

    Others in transition, adjusting to retirement

    Gerontology: study of aging

    Provides insights into emotional, physical, and social aspects of

    later years of life

  • Stages of Adulthood, contd

    Factors that influence daily experience quality of life for older adults include:

    Health status

    Nutrition well-being

    Spirituality

    Living arrangements

    Physical activity

    Social interactions

    Physical, mental, and emotional functioning

    Disease management

    Level of independence

  • Stages of Adulthood, contd

    Physical activity

    Physical fitness and good nutrition

    Allows older adult to enter these years with more stamina,

    cardiovascular conditioning, and solid health-promoting habits

  • Stages of Adulthood, contd

    Physical, mental, and emotional functions

    May be affected by:

    Struggling with chronic illnesses of and deaths of family

    members and friends

    Isolation and depression; may lead to loss of appetite (anorexia) or

    other forms of malnutrition

  • Stages of Adulthood, contd

    Adjusting to retirement (and its economic realities)

    Alcohol abuse related to depression and lack of coping skills

    Disorientation or senility often associated with aging

    Improper use of medications, marginal nutrient deficiencies (e.g.,

    vitamin B12), or simple dehydration

  • Stages of Adulthood, contd

    Nutrition well-being

    Nutrition status may be affected by restricted access to food

    and ability to prepare meals

    Dietary management for older adults may be more

    complicated than for other stages of adulthood

  • Stages of Adulthood, contd

    Protein adequacy

    Total body protein decreases as aging progresses

    Body protein affected consists of:

    Skeletal muscle (most noticeable), organ tissue, blood

    components, and immune bodies

    Includes compromised wound healing, loss of skin elasticity,

    reduced ability to battle infection, and longer recuperation from

    illness and surgeries

  • Stages of Adulthood, contd

    Dietary intake may be further altered when these physical factors

    combine with social factors, leading to reduced protein intake

    Consumption of micronutrients found in protein foods also may

    be limited

    Can lead to deficiencies of B12, A, C, D, calcium, iron, zinc, and

    others

    Increase turnover of whole-body protein of aging bodies results

    in older adults needing greater dietary protein intake (1 g/kg

    body weight) compared with younger adults (0.8 g/kg body

    weight)

  • Stages of Adulthood, contd

    Living arrangements

    Older adults may be at nutritional risk because of demographic and

    lifestyle characteristics; factors may include:

    Gender

    Smoking

    Alcohol abuse

    Dietary patterns

    Educational level

    Dental health

    Chronic illnesses

    Living situations

  • Stages of Adulthood, contd

    Continuum of care provides continuity of care

    Through different living situations and services as health,

    medical, and supportive services provided in suitable care

    environments

    Care settings may range from acute medical settings to

    community and daycare, from assisted-living retirement

    housing to traditional nursing home facilities and hospices

  • Stages of Adulthood, contd

    Nutrition requirements

    DRIs remain constant from age 51 and older for men and

    women

    Except for vitamin D

    AI vitamin D 10 mcg a day ages 51 to 70 years

    AI vitamin D 15 mcg a day older than age 70

    Synthesis of vitamin D reduced in older adult

    Need more exposure to sunlight to produce more vitamin D or

    require supplement

  • Stages of Adulthood, contd

    Vitamin B12

    Production of intrinsic factor required for vitamin B12 absorption

    may be reduced

    Increases risk of pernicious anemia

    New recommendations suggest use of B12 supplements or

    consumption of foods fortified with vitamin B12 to meet RDA 2.4

    mcg a day

  • Stages of Adulthood, contd

    Other factors may affect nutritional status

    Marginal deficiency of zinc alters taste receptors

    Overconsumption of simple sugars and sodium

    May exacerbate other diet-related disorders such as diabetes and

    hypertension

    Constipation

    Muscularity of digestive system weakens, especially after lifetime

    of low-fiber foods

    Dental health

    Loss of teeth by periodontal disease limits chewing ability

  • Stages of Adulthood, contd

    The oldest years (80s and 90s)

    Healthiest of oldest develop individual patterns of dietary

    intake that most meet physical and social needs

    Nutrition requirements

    Malnutrition and underweight concern during this stage

    Oldest adults may be most at risk for dehydration