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<p>Geographic Information Systems</p>
<p>AdvancedGISUsingESRI ArcGIS 9.3Spatial Analyst</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystActivation</p>
<p>Load and relocate the Spatial Analysttoolbar.</p>
<p>Be sure to have activated the Spatial Analyst extension (Menu Tools Extensions)</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystOptions</p>
<p>Load the Base 4 project</p>
<p>In the Options, set the extent to that of Mask and the cell size to 5.</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistanceStraight Line</p>
<p>Creates a raster whose cells contain the distance (calculated basing upon straight lines) from given features</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance Straight Line</p>
<p>from points</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance Straight Line</p>
<p>from points</p>
<p>Result</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance Straight Line</p>
<p>from lines</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance Straight Line</p>
<p>from lines</p>
<p>Result</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance Straight Line</p>
<p>from polygons</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance Straight Line</p>
<p>from polygons</p>
<p>Result</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance</p>
<p>Maximum distance</p>
<p>Limits the calculation to values lower than a threshold</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance</p>
<p>Maximum distance</p>
<p>Limits the calculation to values lower than a threshold</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance</p>
<p>Direction</p>
<p>Creates a raster where each cell contains the direction of the straight line connecting it to the closest start feature</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance</p>
<p>Direction</p>
<p>Result</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance</p>
<p>Allocation</p>
<p>Creates a raster where each cell contains the name of the closest start feature</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance</p>
<p>Allocation</p>
<p>Result</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance</p>
<p>Cost Weighted</p>
<p>Calculates distances in time</p>
<p>Requires a Cost Raster</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystCost Raster</p>
<p>In a Cost Raster each cell contains a value indicating the cost (time) needed to cross it.</p>
<p>It may be calculated in different ways, depending on the final aim of the Cost Weighted calculation.</p>
<p>The simplest one may be a slope map</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance</p>
<p>Cost Weighted</p>
<p>This calculation is significantly slower</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance</p>
<p>Cost Weighted</p>
<p>Result</p>
<p>Distance</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance</p>
<p>Cost Weighted</p>
<p>Result</p>
<p>Direction</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance</p>
<p>Cost Weighted</p>
<p>Result</p>
<p>Allocation</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance</p>
<p>Cost Weighted</p>
<p>More complex Cost Raster may give better results.</p>
<p>For example, rivers and buildings can be associated to extremely high cost</p>
<p>Complex cost rasters will severely slow down the calculation(s)</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance</p>
<p>Cost Weighted</p>
<p>Result</p>
<p>Distance</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance</p>
<p>Cost Weighted</p>
<p>Result</p>
<p>Direction</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance</p>
<p>Cost Weighted</p>
<p>Result</p>
<p>Allocation</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance</p>
<p>Shortest Path</p>
<p>Once created the Cost Raster and calculated the Direction Raster, the shortest path connecting the start features to other features (shapefiles) can be calculated creating polylines</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDistance</p>
<p>Shortest Path</p>
<p>Result</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDensity</p>
<p>Creates a raster whose cells will record the number of features contained in one area unit</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDensity</p>
<p>Result</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDensity</p>
<p>Kernel vs. Simple</p>
<p>Kernel will calculate the density of features in a search radius centered on the feature;Simple will center the analysis on the center of each raster cell </p>
<p>Simple</p>
<p>Kernel</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystDensity</p>
<p>If the field containing the value of population for each feature is included, the result will be a map of population density</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystPopulation Density</p>
<p>Result</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystPopulation Density</p>
<p>Kernel vs. Simple</p>
<p>SimpleKernelSpatial AnalystDensity and Population Density</p>
<p>Density and Population Density can be evaluated for linear features too.</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>There are other methods besides TIN to regionalize sparse data, but they can produce rasters only </p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>IDWInverse of Distance Weighted</p>
<p>Variable radius</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>IDW</p>
<p>Variable radius</p>
<p>Result</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>IDW</p>
<p>Variable radius</p>
<p>Number of Points</p>
<p>12 points</p>
<p>20 points</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>IDW</p>
<p>Fixed radius</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>IDW</p>
<p>Fixed Radius</p>
<p>Result</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>IDW</p>
<p>Fixed radius</p>
<p>Radius</p>
<p>15000 m25000 m</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>IDW</p>
<p>Power</p>
<p>1.22</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>IDW</p>
<p>Variable radius</p>
<p>Maximum distance</p>
<p>Max=10000 mNo max</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>IDW</p>
<p>Fixed radius</p>
<p>Minimum points</p>
<p>Max=10000 mNo max</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>IDW</p>
<p>Barrier</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>IDW</p>
<p>Barrier</p>
<p>BarrierNo barrier</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>Spline</p>
<p>The Spline method is an interpolation method that estimates values using a mathematical function that minimizes overall surface curvature, resulting in a smooth surface that passes exactly through the input points.</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>Spline</p>
<p>Result</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>Spline</p>
<p>The Regularized method creates a smooth, gradually changing surface with values that may lie outside the sample data range. </p>
<p>The Tension method controls the stiffness of the surface according to the character of the modeled phenomenon. It creates a less smooth surface with values more closely constrained by the sample data range.</p>
<p>TensionRegularized</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>Spline</p>
<p>The Regularized method creates a smooth, gradually changing surface with values that may lie outside the sample data range. </p>
<p>The Tension method controls the stiffness of the surface according to the character of the modeled phenomenon. It creates a less smooth surface with values more closely constrained by the sample data range.</p>
<p>TensionRegularized</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>Spline</p>
<p>Regularized</p>
<p>Weight</p>
<p>Defines the weight of the third derivatives of the surface in the curvature minimization expression. The higher the weight, the smoother the output surface. It must be equal to or greater than zero: typical values are 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, and 0.5.0.010.1</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>Spline</p>
<p>Tension</p>
<p>Weight</p>
<p>For the Tension method, the weight parameter defines the weight of tension. The higher the weight, the coarser the output surface. The values entered must be equal to or greater than zero. The typical values are 0, 1, 5, and 10.50.1</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>Spline</p>
<p>N. of points</p>
<p>Identifies the number of points used in the calculation of each interpolated cell. </p>
<p>The more input points you specify, the more each cell is influenced by distant points and the smoother the output surface. The larger the number of points, the longer it will take to process the output raster.612Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>Kriging</p>
<p>Geostatistical methods, such as kriging, are based on statistical models that include autocorrelation. Because of this, not only do geostatistical techniques have the capability of producing a prediction surface, they also provide some measure of the certainty or accuracy of the predictions.</p>
<p>Kriging is similar to IDW in that it weights the surrounding measured values to derive a prediction for an unmeasured location. The general formula for both interpolators is formed as a weighted sum of the data: </p>
<p>where: Z(si) = the measured value at the ith location. i = an unknown weight for the measured value at the ith location. s0 = the prediction location. N = the number of measured values. </p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>Kriging</p>
<p>Fitting a model, or spatial modeling, is also known as structural analysis, or variography. In spatial modeling of the structure of the measured points, you begin with a graph of the empirical semivariogram, computed as: Semivariogram(distance h) = 0.5 * average[ (value at location i value at location j)2 ] </p>
<p>for all pairs of locations separated by distance h. The formula involves calculating the difference squared between the values of the paired locations. The image below shows the pairing of one point (the red point) with all other measured locations. This process continues for each measured point.</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>Kriging</p>
<p>Often each pair of locations has a unique distance, and there are often many pairs of points. To plot all pairs quickly becomes unmanageable. Instead of plotting each pair, the pairs are grouped into lag bins. For example, compute the average semivariance for all pairs of points that are greater than 40 meters apart but less than 50 meters. The empirical semivariogram is a graph of the averaged semivariogram values on the y-axis and the distance (or lag) on the x-axis (see diagram below). </p>
<p>Spatial autocorrelation quantifies a basic principle of geography: things that are closer are more alike than things farther apart. Thus, pairs of locations that are closer (far left on the x-axis of the semivariogram cloud) should have more similar values (low on the y-axis of the semivariogram cloud). As pairs of locations become farther apart (moving to the right on the x-axis of the semivariogram cloud), they should become more dissimilar and have a higher squared difference (moving up on the y-axis of the semivariogram cloud). </p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>Kriging</p>
<p>Semivariogram</p>
<p>The distance where the model first flattens is known as the range. Sample locations separated by distances closer than the range are spatially autocorrelated; locations farther apart than the range are not.The value at which the semivariogram model attains the range (the value on the y-axis) is called the sill. Theoretically, at zero separation distance, the semivariogram value is zero. However, at an infinitely small separation distance, the semivariogram often exhibits a nugget effect, which is a value greater than zero. If the semivariogram model intercepts the y-axis at 2, then the nugget is 2. A partial sill is the sill minus the nugget. </p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>Kriging</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>Kriging</p>
<p>Methods</p>
<p>Ordinary</p>
<p>UniversalOrdinary Kriging is the most general and widely used of the kriging methods and is the default. It assumes the constant mean is unknown. This is a reasonable assumption unless there is a scientific reason to reject it. </p>
<p>Universal Kriging assumes that there is an overriding trend in the datafor example, a prevailing windand it can be modeled by a deterministic function, a polynomial. This polynomial is subtracted from the original measured points, and the autocorrelation is modeled from the random errors. Once the model is fit to the random errors and before making a prediction, the polynomial is added back to the predictions to give meaningful results. Universal Kriging should only be used when you know there is a trend in your data, and you can give a scientific justification to describe it. Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>Kriging</p>
<p>Ordinary Models</p>
<p>Circular </p>
<p>Spherical </p>
<p>Exponential Gaussian Linear </p>
<p>The selected model influences the prediction of the unknown values, particularly when the shape of the curve near the origin differs significantly. The steeper the curve near the origin, the more influence the closest neighbors will have on the prediction. As a result, the output surface will be less smooth.Each model is designed to fit different types of phenomenon more accurately. Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>Kriging</p>
<p>Models</p>
<p>Spherical</p>
<p>This model shows a progressive decrease of spatial autocorrelation (equivalently, an increase of semivariance) until some distance, beyond which autocorrelation is zero. The spherical model is one of the most commonly used models.Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>Kriging</p>
<p>Models</p>
<p>Exponential</p>
<p>This model is applied when spatial autocorrelation decreases exponentially with increasing distance. Here the autocorrelation disappears completely only at an infinite distance. The exponential model is also a commonly used model. he choice of which model to use is based on the spatial autocorrelation of the data and on prior knowledge of the phenomenon. </p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>Kriging</p>
<p>Result</p>
<p>Spatial AnalystInterpolate</p>
<p>Kriging</p>
<p>Variance</p>

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