Advanced Meat Processing

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    AdvancedMeatProcessing

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    I

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    ADVANCED PROCESSING

    1. Overview of the Meat Industry

    2. Role ofVariousIngredients in Meat Processing

    3. SlaughteringTechniques for - on Meat Quality

    4. ProcessingofVariousMeat Products

    5. Quality Control MeasuresinProcessing

    6. Packaging

    7. Costing ofVariousProducts

    8 . Hands on

    9. to a Processing

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    INDUSTRY IN THEPHILIPPINES

    Production of Livestock and Small Animals

    1. Hogs2. Cattle3. Poultry(chicken, turkey, ducks)4. Goats

    AnimalsMovement From Production to Consumption

    ProductionofFoodAnimals

    (by Foot)

    (Road transport)

    Livestock AuctionmarketI

    Nearby

    Slaughtering

    IMortem

    meat InspectionPostMortem

    Edibles

    PrinciplesofMeat Preservation

    Meat preservation isprincipally concerned withhe application of measures to delay

    meat spoilage which are causedby microbial, chemical andphysical changes. Of these,microbial spoilage (caused by bacteria) is the most common Microbes thrive in moistureand since meat is70% it spoils easily through microbial action.Meat, being arich source of nutrients, alsobecomes an excellent food forbacteria.

    Methods of meat preservation, however different superficially, arealike in that theyemploy environmental conditionswhich discourage the growth of micro-organisms.

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    They may be grouped in the three broad categoriesbased on: a. control by temperature,control of moisture, and c. by lethal agencies (bactericidal, fungicidal

    and fungistatic).

    Generally, the methods discourage microbial growth can be divided into groups:

    1. By exposing meat to high or or low or temperature

    2. By treating meat with substances (e.g. salt, nitrate, other chemical preservatives)which will or delay microbial actions.

    There are three general principles of meat preservation that you should alwayskeep in mind. These are the prevention or lessening of:

    a.Atmospheric oxidation

    c.

    a.Microbial Meat contains abundant nutrients required for the growth ofbacteria, andmolds (micro-organismswhich cause food spoilage). Thus these

    flourishin meat. Eliminating the growth requirements: a. temper-requirements, moisture contents, c. nutrient content and oxygen (for aero

    micro-organisms) micro-organisms are the most important considerations in the control of their growth. Thiscan be achieved by removing one, two or all the re-quired conditions for growth.

    Oxidation.Meat fats are susceptible to oxidation when they are exposed to themolecular oxygenpresent in air. Thisresultsin the production of a strong disagree-able odor and in the cooked product. When these chemical reactions occur,

    they constitute a defect referred to as oxidation rancidity.

    More popularly knownas rancidity ormaanta,this can be avoidedby eliminat-i ng thefactors requiredfor its development. These factors are: a light, airand c.free fatty acids. While the entry of light and air canprevent free fatty acids easilyform the meat fats. Anti-oxidants canbe used to delay free fatty acid forma-tion. can be used to delay fatty acid formation. Anti-oxidant arecompounds which reactwith certain intermediary products necessary for the devel-opment of fatty acids.

    c. reaction.Thisis another causeof food spoilage. Enzymes are

    protein substances whichhelp speed up chemical reactions. Enzymatic reaction maybe reduced or totally if you subject themeat to a temperature below orabove thetemperature range needed for the activity of the meat enzymes.

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    Methods ofMeat Preservation

    1 Drying removal of meat. The method involves the reduction of theoriginal water content (70% of the meat to about 15%).There are 2ways of drying:

    a. Natural sundrying natural sunlight is used to reduce the moisture content ofthe meat.

    Artificial drying - a chamber equipped with heating elements main tained at a

    temperature of - 120Fand a relative humidity of 85% is used for drying.This is more expensive than sundrying but its dried products have a betterquality and canbe sold at a higher price.

    2. -there are 2 methods of smoking:

    a. Natural -is the exposure of the meat to wood smoke which causes the depositionof acid on the the meat surface that acts as preservative and

    agent. Hardwood,saw dust, guava leaves or any of wood maybeused.

    Artificial smoke flavor is incorporated in thepumping pickle for ham and baconattherateof

    3. Salting - asimple method of dehydration in which the salt causes the withdrawalofwater the tissue of both the meat spoilage organisms,resulting to theshriveling and inactivation of the cells.

    4. Curing -istheapplication of salt, sugar, (potassium nitrate) andotherpre-servatives and adjunct to prolong the keeping quality of the product. Other sub-stances such asvarious sugar, spices, vinegar and winemay be used for differenttypes of cure,but in small quantities thusmay have no preservative effect, althoughthe essential 'oilsin spices do retard bacterial growth and vinegar has a similaraction.

    a. withsaltalonewithsaltandsugar

    c. with salt sugarand saltpepper (sugar cure) sugar cure is either done dryor insweet pickle brine. Because the dry method is faster, it is practical for use intropicalcountries like the Philippines where warm weather makes spoilage a

    serious problem.

    5. Refrigeration- is the exposure of meat to the temperature range of to 50Fand bacterial growthfor a limited period only.

    Home -40F toCommercial refrigerator -36Fto (1C

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    6. Freezing is the exposure of meat to a temperature range of toresulting to crystallization of the water in the tissues, thus inactivating the

    enzymes and the bacteria present.

    thehermeticorairtightsealingoffoodincanorjarsatand 10 - 15poundspressure for specific period of time.

    Curing and Their Functions

    1. is the ingredients in meat curing. It makes up the bulk of thecuring mixture because it isnot only a good preservative but it provides the mostdesirable flavor.

    Asa preservative, it causes the dehydration of the tissues through osmosis, atthe same time withdraws water from the of the spoilage organisms,shrivelingand inactivating their cells.

    Salt alsoplays a role in the binding of meat products. It improves the ability ofthe meat protein to retain either the normal moisture content or added water andstabilize the fat-protein emulsion in sausages.

    Three of saltare available

    a. solaror coarse salt

    c. refine salt -most suitable for meat curing because it is the most concentratedand hasthe leastamount of impurities.

    2. Sugar is a ingredient in the curing formula which counteracts theastringent qualityof salt, enhances the flavor of the product and aids in loweringthe of thecure.

    Refined cane sugar is most suitable. The use of brown sugar is limited by thefact that it caramelizes at lower temperature and tends to darken the meat on

    cooking. Large sugar on prolonged curing promotes vigorous microbialgrowth which usually causes acid fermentation that effects palatability andcolor.

    3. Nitrates andNitrates - Potassium nitrate (genuine saltpeter), sodium nitrate(chile saltpeter)am color fixation agents or substances responsible for the develop-

    ment of the proper color in cured meatproducts.

    Nitrates and nitrites have a pronounced effect on flavor. Without them, a curedham would simply be a salty pork roast. They further effect flavor by acting as

    antioxidants.

    are very effective inhibitor of the growth of Clostridia,the bacteria that causes botulism. Thenitrates

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    U

    change the anaeribic condition of .the meat to aerobic, so that Clostridiumlinum and other putrefactive bacteria can not grow.

    Nitrate in itself is not effective in producing the curing reaction until it is firstbroken down into nitrite. This is a slow process and is usually dependent on bacte-rial action. With the need for rapid curing to meet todays modern processing sched-ules, nitrite is added directly.

    Nitrites provide the ultimate source of the nitric oxide that combine with thepigment.

    The use level and residual levels are controlled as follows:

    nitrates or nitrites -500 of meatnitrates and nitrites (in combination) 200 of meat

    4.Ascorbic These substances spend up curing reac-tion. accelerate the conversion of metmyoglobin and nitrite to myoglobinand nitric oxide and also suppress the reverse reaction. The residual amounts of

    also add stability to the cured meat pigment by reducing t h edetermination thenitrisocrome and thus giving the longer shell life.

    The permissible level for this 7 of ascorbic acid or its to ofpickle or lbs. sausage meat or emulsion or meat.

    5. Phosphates are adjuncts that are used to increase the water-holding and bindingcapacity of cured There is some evidence that they also reduce oxidaterancidity.With increased water-holding capacity, product yields increase, product

    surfaces are drier andfirmer and emulsion are more stable at higher temperatures.

    Phosphates are not easily soluble in most brines, once the salt hasbeen addedso the recommending practice isto dissolve the phosphates first. Theuse of phosphate is restricted to 1 dissolved in cup of meat.

    6.Vinegar- added for but also has some antiseptic value. It therefore, aidsin

    prolongin