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A350 COUNTDOWNEUROPEAN DEFENCE INDUSTRY CONSOLIDATIONROLLS-ROYCE TECHNOLOGY HORIZONSYEAR OF THE UCAVNEXT GENERATION UNMANNED SYSTEMS EVOLVEJune 2013www.aerosociety.comPARIS 2013AIR SHOW PREVIEWWelcome to the Worlds Foremost Aerospace CommunityThe Royal Aeronautical Society is theworlds only professional body dedicatedto the entire aerospace community.Established in 1866 to further the art,science and engineering of aeronautics,the Society has been at the forefront ofdevelopments in aerospace ever since.What do we do? Promote the highest possible stan-dards in all aerospace disciplines Provide specialist information andact as a forum for the exchange ofideas Play a leading role in influencingopinion on aerospace mattersWhat does Society membership offer you? j ~ ~~ ~ ~m~ ~ Jq ~~ ~~ ^ ~ ~NUIMMM NMM ^ ~ ~ ~I I~ ~ ~ ~~ k~~ ^~i~m~ ~ pQRMH ~ ~ ~r~~ ~ J ~ p OQ p~d ~ ST _~c ~ ~r ^ _ p ~ j _~www.aerosociety.com/membership1i fJUNE 2013NEWS IN [email protected]/raes facebook.com/raeswww.aerosociety.comEditor-in-ChiefTim Robinson +44 (0)20 7670 4353 [email protected] EditorBill Read +44 (0)20 7670 4351 [email protected] Manager Chris Male +44 (0)20 7670 [email protected] Editor Wayne J Davis +44 (0)20 7670 4354 [email protected] OfceRoyal Aeronautical SocietyNo.4 Hamilton PlaceLondon W1J 7BQ, UK+44 (0)20 7670 4300 [email protected] is published by the Royal Aeronautical Society (RAeS). Chief Executive Simon C LuxmooreAdvertising Emma Bossom+44 (0)20 7670 [email protected] specically attributed, no material in AEROSPACE shall be taken to represent the opinion of the RAeS.Reproduction of material used in this publication is not permitted without the written consent of the Editor-in-Chief.Printed by Buxton Press Limited,Palace Road, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 6AE, UKDistributed by Royal MailAEROSPACE subscription rates: Non-members, 140Any member not requiring a print version of this magazine, please contact: [email protected] send your order to: Dovetail Services Ltd, 800 Guillat Avenue, Kent Science Park, Sittingbourne, Kent ME9 8GU, UK. +44 (0)844 848 8426+44 (0)844 856 0650 (fax)[email protected]: Periodical postage paid at Champlain New York and additional ofces.Postmaster: Send address changes to IMS of New York, PO Box 1518, Champlain NY 12919-1518, USA.ISSN 2052-451XContentsCommentSetting the agendaRegularsAfterburnerYear of the UCAV The robotic revolution is here as unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs) evolve.Technology horizonsRic Parker of Rolls-Royce outlines his companys innovation secrets.4 RadomeThe latest aviation and aeronautical intelligence, analysis and comment from around the world.11 On the move The latest aerospace job changes and promotions.12 News in FocusPreview of the forthcoming 2013 Paris Air Show on 17-23 June.13 TransmissionYour letters, tweets and messages.40 Messages from our President and Chief Executive41 Biography of new RAeS President Jenny Body42 Book Reviews46 Italian Flair47 IT FLIES USA 201348 Australian division prole 50 Diary51 Corporate Partners52 Test pilots memorial 53 RAeS elections54 Munich Branch56 Obituary 58 The Last WordWelcome to the very frst edition of AEROSPACE, the Royal Aeronautical Societys new fagship magazine for the global aerospace and aviation sector. As well as keeping you updated on current news and topics, AEROSPACE will aim to provide expert insight and provoke thought and debate on the future of aerospace, aviation and spacefight through stimulating and relevant features. We believe that this new features-led format still retains the essential elements from its predecessors but delivered in a contemporary and exciting style. In an age of instantaneous online news and infuential social networks, AEROSPACE will complement other news items, articles and features already delivered through the Societys website and its other social media channels, for example, RAeS e-newsletters and blogs. However, AEROSPACE, as the fagship publication of the Society, will very much remain a prime beneft of being a member of the worlds oldest and most respected professional membership organisation on aerospace and aviation. We wholeheartedly encourage your feedback and getting involved with your Society through these pages. Write us a letter, send us an e-mail, contribute an article, comment on the RAeS Facebook page or even tweet me at @RAeSTimR. This is your magazine, a forum for you to set the aerospace agenda and debate the issues that matter. I look forward to hearing from you.Tim Robinson [email protected] countdownThe new Airbus A350 XWB undergoes nal tests prior to its rst ight.Bugattis blue dreamThe project to build a yablereplica of the 1930s French Bugatti100P racer.FeaturesEC passenger compensationEuropean airlines express concern over nancial and safety implications of revisions to new EC Regulation 261.European defence industry Are we about to enter an era of consolidation in the European aerospace and defence sector?2232263618 OnlineAdditional features and content are available to view online on www.mediaaerosociety.com/aerospace-insightincluding: Paris Air Show preview, European Regions Airline Association conference report, Dreamliner recharged, Video of rst ight of RAeS/BoeingBuild-a-Plane project. Volume 40 Number 6 June 2013Correspondence on all aerospace matters is welcome at: The Editor, AEROSPACE, No.4 Hamilton Place, London W1J 7BQ, UK [email protected] IN BRIEF?????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ???????????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ???????????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ???????????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ???????????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?????4RadomeAEROSPACE/JUNE 2013INTELLIGENCE/ ANALYSIS / COMMENTSizeIts a larger aircraft in span and length than a Boeing or Airbus of the same class but its wetted area and wings are smaller by 30%PowerplantThe engines are smaller and lighter than for comparable sized airliners but give suffcient power because the aircraft needs much less thrust.Wing Its wing geometry, is an almost perfect ellipse, giving it a 95% wing effciency.Range4,600 miles at 468mphPassenger comfortThe concept is to exchange ceiling height for legroom, hence the partial upper deck at the thicker point of the fuselage. Economy passengers will beneft from 40 inches seat pitch, the equivalent ofa premium class.AIR TRANSPORTEco-eleganceFrom industrial designer and pilot Francois de Waterville comes this concept for a fuel-efcient 245-seat passenger airliner the AGA-33. The extreme streamlined fuselage, says de Waterville, exchanges cabin height for legroom and also allows 14 beds onboard. With long and thin high-aspect wings, the fuel burn of the AGA-33, he says, would be 4,500lb an hour or 93 miles to the gallon the equivalent to a small hybrid car with four passengers. Says de Waterville: This project started out of pure curiosity and became an obsession to determine the following:What would a fuel-efcient aircraft of the future look like; how far can we rene its aerodynamics; and what kind of performance can we expect from it?Could this then be one vision of future air transport? Later this month, expect to see more glimpses of future aviation designs at the biennial Paris Air Show, now celebrating its 50th Le Bourget anniversary. See Paris Air Show preview p12(Computer rendering by Kaktus Digital)5JUNE 2013V-tailThe tail is a V confguration to keep it out of engine wake andalso reduce wetted area by eliminating the vertical fn.WingsThey are long and thin (high aspect ratio) and help reduce the drag in a spectacular fashion. They are also smaller in area and volumethan those of a classic aircraft.@aerosociety linkedin.com/raes facebook.com/raes www.aerosociety.comfi6RadomeAEROSPACE/JUNE 2013NEWS IN BRIEFBAE Systems has conducted a UK unmanned milestone with the ight of a Jetstream acting as a UAV in controlled airspace with only safety pilots onboard.US carrier WestJet has ordered ten new Boeing 737-800s. Russian air force Backre bombers, escorted by Su-27 ghters have carried out mock attacks against Stockholm, according to Swedish media. The training exercises saw the aircraft approach to 30-40km away from Swedish territorial waters. NASA has successfully tested the Orion capsules ability to land safely after a parachute failure. In the test carried out in Yuma, Arizona, the capsule was dropped from 25,000ft with one of its three parachutes deliberately rigged not to inate. NetJets has taken delivery of the rst of an order for 50 Signature Series Phenom 300 light jets from Embraer. NetJets also has options for a further 75 Phenom 300s.A new report from the European Transport Safety Council (ETSC) has raised concerns from scientists that the European Unions revised rules on pilot fatigue have been compiled without sufcient scientic input, contrary to the remit given to the EU by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). Kuwait Airways is reported to be close to placing an order for ten Airbus A350-900s and 15 A320neos. The Middle East carrier will also lease a further 13 Airbus A320s and A330s. The rst Block 2A conguration Lockheed Martin F-35A has been delivered to the USAF at the main JSF training base at Eglin AFB, Florida.In April, Russia launched three Soyuz rockets in quick succession. On 19 April a Soyuz put a biomedical experiment into orbit while, on 24 April a Progress resupply craft was launched to the ISS. Finally, on 26 April, a Glonass navigation satellite was also put into orbit.A pilot with the Red Bull Flying Bulls display team AEROSPACEDEFENCEThe US Air Force has successfully own the last of four Boeing X-51A Waverider hypersonic test vehicles on 1 May. After being dropped at 50,000ft from a B-52H bomber over the Pacic Ocean, the 14ft long, JP-7 hydrocarbon jet fuel-powered missile reached a speed of Mach 51 during a six-minute ight travelling 230nm the rst air-breathing missile to achieve this speed and duration. The three previous tests of the X-51all experienced problems. The rst caught re, the second amed out in ight and the third lost a control n and disintegrated. The ight is the last in a $300m nine-year hypersonic test programme conducted by the USAF, the results of which will be used in the High Speed Strike Weapon programme at the Air Force Research Laboratory.X-51A ies into record books on nal ightSPACEFLIGHTThe Russian Ball Lens In The Space (Blits) nano-satellite used for precision laser-measurement experiments may have been destroyed by a piece of space debris or not.Russian sources rst said that a piece of debris from a 2007 Chinese anti-satellite test was the culprit but US Department of Defense ofcials say that the piece of Chinese debris has an unchanged orbit and so could not have caused the damage. The Space Trafc Control conference on 2 July at the RAeS in London will be an opportunity to hear the latest about the growing risk from space debris from technical, legal, insurance and space agency experts.Space debris highlightedThe RAF has begun controlling Reaper UAVs over Afghanistan from the UK for the rst time.RAF Waddington is the new British ground-control base, with 13 Squadron ying the rst remote UAV missions. Previously RAF UAS operators were based at Creech AFB in Nevada and used the USAFs control facilities.RAF Reaper UAVs controlled from UKUnited order E-175sUS carrier United Airlines has ordered 30 76-seat Embraer E-175 regional jets plus 40 options. The order is worth $29bn.Boeing7i fJUNE 2013 @aerosociety linkedin.com/raes facebook.com/raes www.aerosociety.comhas been killed when his Bede BD-5J microjet crashed on 2 May in Austria.The US Congress has passed measures to reverse the threat of FAA air trafc controller furloughs and closure of some ATC towers, due to the impact of sequestration. ATC controller furloughs have caused thousands of ight delays and disruption since 21 April. The national ag carrier of Nepal, Nepal Airlines, has signed a MoU to buy two Airbus A320s, becoming Airbus newest customer.A test pilot ejected safely from an Aermacchi M346 advanced trainer on 11 May in Italy. It is the second of three prototypes to be lost.Boeing Phantom Works has announced that it is developing a series of small prototype satellites. Named Phantom Phoenix, the satellites range from 4-1,000kg in weight.Slovenian GA manufacturer Pipistrel has own its new Panthera light aircraft across the Alps to AERO Expo in Germany. The four-seat aircraft made its rst ight a month earlier.The UK CAA is to reveal an overhaul in airport regulation, with new maximum landing charges that can be applied at Stansted, Gatwick and Heathrow.Singapore Airlines is to increase its stake in Virgin Australia from 10% to 199% at a cost of A$123m. SA purchased its initial 10% stake in the Australian carrier in November 2012.The US Navy has issued a request for proposals for the Presidental Helicopter Replacement Program (VXX) to be awarded in mid-2014. The contract is for six test helicopters and an eventual production run of 17 aircraft.SpaceX has own its Grasshopper vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) launcher to a height of 820ft. In the fth test of the launcher, the Grasshopper took off from its launch pad and then returned to the pad in a controlled descent.AIR TRANSPORTGENERALAVIATIONHondaJet delayHonda Aircraft has announced that it is to delay certifcation of its HondaJet light business jet until the end of 2014 to allow more time to test the aircrafts GE Honda Aero HF120 engines. The HondaJet was scheduled for certifcation in the frst half of 2013 but the engines are now not expected to be certifcated until the end of this year.Previous delays involving engine issues were announced in 2009 and 2011.DEFENCE AEROSPACEEasyJet is to test the efcacy of its new AVOID onboard aircraft system designed to detect volcanic ash by creating an articial ash cloud. The test will involve two Airbus test aircraft, the rst of which will be carrying a tonne of Icelandic volcanic ash which will be dispersed into the atmosphere at 30,000ft. The second aircraft will then test the AVOID system (wingtip sensor, left) to see if the aircraft can successfully detect and avoid the ash cloud at distances of up to 100km. The test is scheduled for August.AVOIDing the ashThree aircrew were killed on 3 May when a US Air Force KC-135R re-fuelling tanker crashed near Chona-Aryk on the Kyrgyzstan-Kazakhstan border. The aircraft went down shortly after take-off from the USAF base at Manas in Kyrgyzstan which is used by air tankers and other military assets transiting in and out of Afghanistan. The cause of the crash has not yet been determined but local media reports that a wing from the aircraft landed close to a residential house, while eyewitnesses reported an explosion and the aircraft breaking up. US and Kyrgyzhstan authorities are each conducting their own independent investigations.Peekaboo! Painted A350 XWB revealedAirbus has rolled-out the rst completed A350 XWB painted in the company colours.The roll-out of the rst ying prototype MSN1 from the paintshop in Toulouse on 13 May was a low-key affair with only Airbus employees in attendenceIt is expected to make its rst ight in the middle of June. See A350 countdown on page 32.USAF KC-135 tanker losteasyJetAirbusAEROSPACE/JUNE 20138A WW1 replica pilot has died during a pre-display season practice at Middle Wallop, UK, on 27 April.The aircraft involved was believed to be a single-seat Fokker Eindecker replica.According to news reports Boeings board has given approval to begin selling a new version of the 777 airliner, the 777X. It will feature composite wings, GE engines and around 400 seats.British Airways parent group IAG has signed an MoU to acquire 18 Airbus A350-1000 airliners, along with options for a further 18.A US Air Force Beechcraft MC-12 Liberty crashed in Zabul Province in Afghanistan on 27 April, killing all four crew.On 7 May, Europes second light launcher, Vega, was launched from French Guiana. It put three satellites in orbit including the Proba-V vegatation sat. The European Aviation Safety Authority (EASA) and the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) have each certicated two Dassault business jets, the Falcon 2000S and Falcon 2000LXS. Rolls-Royce is to sell its 50% stake in the RTM322 military helicopter engine joint venture to Safrans Turbomeca for 293m.Workers at three leading Israeli airlines have gone on strike in protest against a government decision to ratify an open skies agreement with Europe. Workers at El Al, Arkia and Israir claim that the agreement, which goes into effect from April 2014, would threaten their jobs.The RAF has taken delivery of its fourth Airbus A330 Voyager tanker. The military tanker/transport aircraft was delivered to RAF Brize Norton in Oxfordshire on 26 April.Space company ATK has completed the preliminary design review of its solid rocket booster. The booster will be used on NASAs Space Launch System which will y in 2017.Czech Republic manufacturer Jihlavan airplanes is working on NEWS IN BRIEFRadomeSPACEFLIGHTSpaceShipTwo goes supersonic on rst powered ightAbu Dhabis Etihad Airways has signed a $379m deal to acquire up to 24% in Indias Jet Airways.The deal also sees Etihad paying $70m to acquire Jets take-off and landing Etihad signs for stake in Jet Airways AIR TRANSPORTslots. This is the rst foreign investment in an Indian airline since the government shook up ownership rules last year to allow Indian carriers to offer up to a 49% stake to outside investors.DEFENCEVirgin Galactics SpaceShipTwo reached supersonic speeds for the rst time during its rst rocket-powered test ight on 29 April. After being carried to an altitude of 46,000ft above the Mojave Air and Spaceport, California aboard the WhiteKnightTwo mothership, SS2 red a 16 second burn which took it to a height of 56,000ft.GENERAL AVIATIONThe European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) is proposing new rules on ying in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) which it hopes will increase safety for GA pilots. The new rules would amend training and checking requirements for competency-based instrument rating and an en route instrument rating for private and commercial pilot licence holders.New IMC rules proposedMarsScienti c.com/Clay Center Observatory via Virgin GalacticIsrael conducts air strikes on SyriaThe Israeli Air Force carried out two air strikes on Syria between 3-5 May. The frst raid, which was launched from Lebanese air space using stand-off missiles, targeted a convoy of long- range Fateh-110 surface-to-surface missiles which were claimed to be on their way from Syria to Hezbollah forces in Lebanon. A second raid, meanwhile, hit a weapons depot and a scientfc research centre.i fJUNE 2013 @aerosociety linkedin.com/raes facebook.com/raes www.aerosociety.com9plans to produce a new light sport ultralight aircraft. Called the Skyleader 400, the aircraft is a low-wing, two-seat, all-metal light aircraft with a range of up to 930miles. AgustaWestland and Embraer have cancelled plans for a Joint Venture in Brazil to build helicopters in the country.Kazakhstan operator Air Astana has taken delivery of its rst Airbus A320 equipped with fuel-saving sharklet wing tips.A Russian Air Force test pilot has own the Sukhoi PAK-FA fth generation stealth ghter for the rst time, from Zhukovsky aireld near Moscow on 25 April. According to scientists, NASAs Kepler space telescope has identied a pair of Earth-like planets some 1,200 light years away.African aircraft charter and maintenance company DAV Aviation is to take delivery of the rst of six Cessna Grand Caravan EX turboprops.Wreckage from an airliner that crashed into the World Trade Centre on 9/11 has been found, 12 years on, wedged between two buildings.Israel reports that an Israeli Air Force (IAF) Lockheed Martin F-16 shot down a Hezbollah militant UAV launched from Lebanon on 25 April. Two astronauts took a spacewalk outside the International Space Station on 11 May to replace a faulty pump which they believe is responsible for an ammonia leak from the ISSs cooling system.Flying Colours has been appointed by Beechcraft as an authorised service centre for the manufacturers entire King Air, Baron and Bonanza product lines.Boeing is set to reduce its production rate on the 747-8 from two aircraft a month to 175 a month, citing sluggish demand for the jumbo.Flights were suspended at Puebla Airport in Mexico on 8 May due to volcanic ash from Popocatepetl volcano.DEFENCEAEROSPACEAirlines across the world have begun fying Boeing 787 Dreamliners again, following the US Federal Aviation Adminstration (FAA) approving Boeings lithium-ion battery fx on 22 April. The frst 787 to return to commercial service was operated by Ethiopian Airlines on 27 April on a fight from Addis Ababa to Nairobi with the aircrafts other seven current operators following suit. All the 50 Dreamliners which were grounded in January are now being modifed with new battery containment systems from Boeing. Since the grounding on 17 January, Boeing has continued production of the 787 and increased production rates for the 787 from seven to ten per month by the end of May.787s return to fight after FAA approves battery fx Read more online about the 787 battery x on the Aerospace Insight blog Dreamliner rechargedAIR TRANSPORTSPACEFLIGHTThe Expedition 35 crew from the International Space Station (ISS) has returned to Earth after 144 days in space. The three-man crew landed successfully in Kazakhstan on 14 May aboard a Soyuz capsule. The day before leaving the ISS, Canadian commander Chris Hadeld recorded a zero gravity version of David Bowies Space Oddity which has now had 56m hits on YouTube. Commander Hadelds tweets, photos and videos of everyday life on the station has seen him become a social media sensation.Ground control to Commander ChrisA report published on 10 May by the UK House of Commons Transport Committee has recommended that the Government reject proposals for a new Boris Island Thames Estuary Airport in favour of the expansion of Heathrow. The all-party group rejected any Thames Estuary plan as too costly, impractical and also as being harmful to wildlife. However, the report suggested that a third runway at Heathrow is necessary and that a fourth would have merit. MPs call for Heathrow expansionFrench defence reviewFrance has unveiled a new defence White Paper, charting its future military planning.The equipment plan will see $479bn allocated to its defence budget between 2014 and 2015. This envisages the French armed forces to operate 225 Rafale ghters (down from 286), 50 transports and 12 aerial tankers. Paris also plans to acquire 12 surveillance UAVs. However, the White Paper also sets out cuts in personnel of 24,000 by 2019, on top of 54,000 posts already being axed. DassaultCanadian Space AgencyRadomeAEROSPACE/JUNE 201310EADS North America has delivered the 250th UH-72A Lakota helicopter to the US Army.NASA has completed design tests on a Near Earth Object Camera (NEOCam) which can help detect and track the movement of asteroids. Hawker Beechcraft has sold two new Beechcraft King Air B200s to the Royal Flying Doctors Service in Queensland, Australia.Mexican airport operator GAP has announced a 264% rise in rst quarter prots up to $4355m. Revenues over the same period rose by 45%. New Tunisian carrier Syphax Airlines has launched an initial public offering of shares.Boeing has won a contract to supply 36 AH-64E Apache attack helicopters to South Korea. ESA has opened two new space centres in the UK the European Centre for Space Applications and Telecoms and the Satellite Applications Catapult. Both are in Harwell, Oxfordshire.The Corporate Jet Division of Qatar Airways is to provide heavy maintenance and repair checks to Bombardier business jet operators.Rolls-Royce is to sponsor the Bloodhound supersonic rocket-powered car project.Aer Arann has taken delivery of the rst of an eventual seven ATR 72-700 regional turboprops.FLYHT Aerospace Solutions has received an order for seven AFIRS 228 automatic ight information reporting systems for Lockheed Martin C-130 Hercules military transport aircraft operated by an unnamed Middle Eastern air force.Sierra Nevadas Dream Chaser orbital spaceplane has been moved to NASA Dryden for glide tests.New UK light aircraft prototype, the e-Go, is set to be on display at AeroExpo at Sywell Aerodome. It features a canard layout, Wankel engine and glass cockpit.NEWS IN BRIEFAEROSPACE SPACE-FLIGHTReality TV trip to Mars?Dutch company Mars One has begun its search for candidates for an ambitious one-way space mission to Mars.The company is intending to fund the mission through rights as the ultimate reality TV show and is seeking four volunteers to make the frst landing in 2023. The trip will be one-way, with additional Mars colonists to be sent every two years. Already the company has had 80,000 applicants register an interest.Airbus has announced that Chinas CAS (China Aviation Supplies Holding Company) has signed a general terms agreement (GTA) for 60 airliners.Chinas CAS signs for 60 Airbus airlinersAIR TRANSPORTThe purchase breaks down into 42 A320 single-aisle aircraft and 18 A330 twin-aisle airliners. The deal is worth around $8bn at list prices.GENERAL AVIATIONRemanufactured bizjet specialist Nextant Aerospace has unveiled a new air ambulance conversion kit for its 400XT.The module, from Spectrum Aeromed, allows the 400XT to be converted from VIP conguration into the air ambulance role, complete with bed.Air ambulance Nextant 400XTSolar Impulse trans-US ightThe Swiss solar-powered aircraft Solar Impulse has completed the rst of ve stages of a mission to y across the US. The aircraft ew from Moffett Aireld in California to Phoenix Arizona in a ight lasting 18hr 18mins.Solar Impulse/J Revillardi fJUNE 2013 @aerosociety linkedin.com/raes facebook.com/raes www.aerosociety.com11ON THE MOVEThe International Air Transport Association (IATA) has appointed Warren Jones as Head of Cargo Services.The Chairman of fashion retailer Next, John Barton, is to become the new Chairman of easyJet. Alan Barnes is the new Group MD of Biggin Hill-based business aviation company JETS.Secretary of the US Air Force Michael Donley is to step down from 21 June.Former Lufthansa CEO, Wolfgang Mayrhuber, has been appointed as Chairman of the airlines supervisory board.Ms Heike Flster has been appointed as Chief Financial Operator of Berlin Brandenburg Airport.The new Global Aviation Manager of Puma Energy is Diego Lamarche.Rolls-Royce has appointed Tony Wood to be the next President of its Aerospace division, replacing Mark King who has resigned after four months in the role.The Euroghter consortium has appointed Albert Jose Gutierrez Moreno as the CEO and Maurizio De Mitri as Chairman of the Supervisory Board.Rockwell Collins has appointed Scott Gunnufson as VP of Sales, Marketing and Support for Commercial Systems. Meanwhile Thierry Tosi is VP and General Manager, Service Solutions, International & Service Solutions (I&SS). Lieutenant Stephen Collins RN, a FAA exchange pilot ying with the US Navy Super Hornet ghter squadron, has been selected for the Top Gun course the rst British pilot to attend it. Patrick Ky will become the new Executive Director of EASA from 1 September.Five student teams have now been shortlisted for Airbus Fly Your Ideas challenge. A winner will be announced on 14 June.GENERAL AVIATIONAEROSPACE DEFENCEThe rst Antares rocket from commercial space company Orbital Sciences Corporation has successfully launched from NASAs Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. The unmanned launcher, which took off on 21 Antares makes maiden fightApril, made its rst ight into orbit carrying a simulated payload. The next test ight will see the Cygnus cargo ship launched. Further launches are planned for Antares to carry supplies to the International Space Station (ISS).747 freighter crash at BagramA military chartered Boeing 747-400 freighter crashed in Afghanistan on 29 April. The National Air Cargo Aircraft with seven crew aboard crashed shortly after take-off from Bagram aireld. All crew on board were killed. A dashcam video on the Internet showed the 747s nal moments.The aircraft was destined for Dubai with a cargo of MRAP vehicles and other equipment as a charter for US Air Mobility Command. The aircraft had landed at Bagram for a refuelling stop, having been rst loaded at Camp Bastion. No additional cargo was loaded while on the ground at Bagram. The US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)along with the Afghanistan Aviation Authority is now investigating.SPACEFLIGHTNew Zealand to acquire ex-RAN Super SeaspritesNew Zealand is to buy ten ex-Australian Super Seasprite ASW helicopters from Kaman Aerospace in a deal worth up to $242m. The SH-2G(I) Super Seasprites were rejected by Australia in 2008. The helicopters will now replace New Zealands existing fve Seasprites. First deliveries will begin in 2014. S-92 gets automated oil rigapproach approvalThe US Federal Aviation Adminstration has given approval for a new option on the Sikorsky S-92 to be able to y automated approaches to offshore oil rigs. The hands-off Platform Approach System reduces cockpit workload by 60%. SikorskyAEROSPACE/JUNE 201312Paris Air Show previewPARIS IN NUMBERSONLINEwww.paris-air-show.comOr read the full preview onhttp://media.aerosociety.com/aerospace-insight/2013/05/10/paris-air-show-preview-2013/8081/VISITORS: 2011151,000 TRADE204,000 PUBLIC290 OFFICIAL DELEGATIONSaaaa iiiii ri ri ri ri rissssssss Ai AAi Ai AAi AAi Ai Airr Sh Sh Sh Sh Sh Sh Sh Sh Sh Show ow owppppppppre re re revi vi vi view ew ew eww eAIRCRAFT ON DISPLAY2011 2013 150130

The Air Show will feature a brand new exhibit in the static area a life-size Careers plane. This representation of an aircraft will be split into sections and allow young people to see how the different parts of the aerospace industry combine to make a complete product. SALES: 20111,400 AIRCRAFT SOLD1025BN WORTH OF DEALSAircraft conrmed for static and ying display: Boeing 787, Airbus A400M, Airbus A380, Sukhoi Su-35, Yak-130, Antonov An-70, Antonov An-148, Kamov Ka-52, Superjet S100, Dassault Rafale, Lockheed P-38 Lightning, Patrouille de France (Alphajets).Airbus MilitaryEXHIBITORS2011 2013 2,1132,1602013 54,000M2 OF STANDS340 BUSINESS CHALETS27 NATIONAL PAVILIONS Celebrating its 50th anniversary this year is the Dassault Falcon. This immaculately restored Mystere 20 bizjet, forerunner of the Falcon line, will be on display at the show.The A400M will enter service this year with the French Air Force. Taking place on 17-23 June at Le Bourget will be the Salon International de lAeronautique et de lEspace or Paris Air Show. This year the show promises an enhanced experience for both exhibitors and visitors with WiFi across the show, a dedicated radio station to give information about trafc jams and longer opening hours. The organiser also promise a focus on SMEs and the supply chain, along with B2B meetings.DassaultGIFASKnaapo13i fJUNE 2013 @aerosociety linkedin.com/raes facebook.com/raes www.aerosociety.comTransmissionONLINEfOnlineAdditional features and content are available to view online at http://media.aerosociety.com/aerospace-insightFacebook Question of the month: Samoa Air is the rst airline to introduce Pay-as-you-weigh airfares, which it says could catch on with other airlines. What do you think?Kate Harverye: Better for people with kids rather than paying full adult price for a two year old.Salsa Dip: It would be naive to think your airline ticket will cost you less than what youre paying now even though you may weigh less.John Macilree: Increasing airline passenger weights are a safety issue for regulators. Here is a link to a 2009 report for EASA: http://www.easa.europa.eu/rulemaking/docs/research/Weight%20Survey%20R20090095%20Final.pdf In New Zealand standard weights were surveyed back in 2003: http://www.caa.govt.nz/public_and_media_info/caa_releases/media_release_05_dec_03.pdf.Response to VIDEO: The Schools Build-a-Plane project takes ight(1)John Paw MRAeS says: Most Excellent! Congrats and also Jia Yue (literal translation; add oil) to the other school groups still in progress. During my college and university days in England, I had often wished to be able to get hands-on in such undertakings but did not know how to go about it. It is truly heart warming to know that the youngsters now have this opportunity to convert a spark into a ame in their hearts.May this ame never die.Response to Dreamliner recharged(2)Paulo M: This has been one of the better analysis looking at the battery issue and solution. The solution seeks to eliminate entirely any risks the prior battery design posed to the aircraft and its occupants and this has been well presented here. I think for now, the solution is reminiscent of the cargo containers introduced following Pan Am Flight 103. Perhaps a more thorough look at the cost what sort of extra costs the operator may incur. Nice post.Response to Wake-up call for pilot fatigue(3)OZ says: I really hope for the authorities to pay close attention to what pilot fatigue is capable of. I wonder if BALPA also has some sort of FRMG like IATA. It would be good for airlines to have one of their own and for it to be presented to every ight @HistoryNeedsYou: [On Eric Winkle Brown]The greatest ever pilot, a truly great and very intelligent man not an ego on legs.@navalhistorian: & with an extremely interesting life outside of the test piloting too.crew on their brieng.However, the main issue about fatigue is that pilots do not like to admit that they are suffering from it. We need to open a clear path to every employee for them to feel safe to admit that they feel tired and need to rest. The airlines need to understand this as well and do the necessary adjustment without placing in risk the pilots career.@NigelINrh: [On P-3 model at FAST] I recall something like that model from the mid-80s at Waddington when the Nimrod AEW3 was being trialled against the E-3.@colin_haynes: best book about test ying I ever read. Wings on my Sleeve.@josephaviation : [On Regional Airline Summit(4)] thats an interesting view... gladiators killing for amusement in the airline industry.@odedkramer: [On Israeli airstrikes inside Syria] The alleged target near Damascus is only 40km (25mi) from Israeli border. No need to enter any countrys airspace.@Lewi320: RAeS Membership conrmed today. Time to start work towards becoming a Fellow! :)1. aerospace-insight/2013/04/19/schools-build-a-plane-project-takes-ight/8004/ 2. aerospace-insight/2013 /04/26/dreamliner-recharged/8025/ 3. aerospace-insight/2013/04/05/wake-up-call/7968/ 4. aerospace-insight/2013/05/03/regional-summit-the-era-conference/8054/ Andrew Smith photographyFirst ight of the Schools RAeS/Boeing Build-a-Plane RANS Coyote II on 12 April.Portrait of Eric Winkle Brown13i fJUNE 2013 @aerosociety linkedin.com/raes facebook.com/raes www.aerosociety.comDEFENCEUCAV programmesYear of the UCAVUnmanned combat acceleratesAs Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) prototypestake to the skies, TIM ROBINSON asks: is this thebeginning of the next generation of air warfare? The past 12 years since 9/11 and the subsequent war on terror, including operations in Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya and elsewhere have seen an explosion in military UAV/UAS types and missions ranging from 737 wingspan-sized Global Hawks, to mini and nano-helicopters. Armed drones are now an established weapon system. Yet the majority of these platforms have had one thing in common; they are all designed to work in permissive environments against enemies that lack SAMs, AAA and ghter defences. However, that is now about to change with a new generation of unmanned vehicles the UCAV. These, unlike the armed-UAVs, are designed from the beginning with stealth in mind to penetrate hostile airspace and complete their mission. Removing the pilot also means that the aircrafts vertical prole can be reduced, lowering its radar cross-section (RCS). It is no coincidence, then that almost all these low-observable aircraft share the same triangular radar-defeating shape.Building on a decade or so of research subscale prototypes and models, companies and governments across the globe are now working to develop new technology demonstrators. In the space of 12 months, two European UCAV demonstrators will have own while, in the US, a naval UCAV has made history with the rst carrier deck launch. Beyond the US and Europe, nations such as China, India and Russia are also looking to develop their own UCAV programmes. Lets take a look at the current projects.Northrop Grumman X-47BOn 14 May, off the coast of Virginia, the US Navy conducted a historic event in naval aviation the rst catapult launch at sea of a UCAV from an aircraft carrier, the USS George H.W. Bush. The UCAV in question? The Northrop Grumman X-47B which rst ew in 2011. This is a 19m wingspan stealth UAS, with a P&W F100 engine and 2,100nm range. This demonstrator, currently under the US Navys UCAS-D (Unmanned Combat Air System Demonstration) was spun out of DARPAs earlier USN/USAF J-UCAS (Joint -Unmanned Combat Air Systems). J-UCAS, which saw an earlier Northrop Grumman UCAV, the X-47, evaluated with Boeings X-45, was axed in 2006, leaving the Navy to go it alone with the UCAS-D. Northrop has built two ying X-47B prototypes for UCAS-D which, in the past year have carried out carrier interoperability tests, the rst land-based catapult launch and, on 4 May, the rst arrested landing at the US Navys test centre at Patuxent River. The next series of tests, started in mid-May, began with an at sea launch from the USS George H.W. Bush.Should these tests validate the decade of work on this concept, the US Navy plans to move to the next stage with an operational version UCLASS (Unmanned Carrier Launched Airborne Surveillance and Strike System). An RFP for this is expected to be launched this summer, with the UCAV expected to be in limited service by 2020. Already industrial competitors are jockeying for position to win this contract. NG itself is expected to offer a development of the X-47, the X-47C. Boeing, meanwhile, building on experience with its X-45 and privately-funded Phantom Ray demonstrator is also expected to bid. General Atomics has a low-observable jet-powered design the Predator C - Sea Avenger. Finally, in April this year, Lockheed Martin revealed its proposal for UCLASS, with a UCAV design that echoes the RQ-170 Sentinel. Dassault nEUROnBut late last year, while the X-47 was undergoing tests in the US, across the Atlantic another UCAV made its rst ight on 1 December at the Istres test centre in France. This was the 405m pan-European Dassault nEUROn demonstrator. This 125m wingspan vehicle, which is powered by a Dassault nEUROn(France)125m wingspan14AEROSPACE/JUNE 2013Northrop Grumman X-47B(US)19m wingspanBAE Systems Taranis(UK)10m wingspanR-R Adour engine, is equipped with a weapons bay building on Dassaults earlier experience over the previous 13 years with subscale demonstrators such as the Petit Duc and Moyen Duc. Although Dassault is the prime contractor, the nEUROn has been expanded into a larger pan-European project, with other partners consisting of Greeces EAB, Italys Alenia, Spains EADS CASA, Swedens Saab, and Swiss RUAG Aerospace. Saab, in particular, also brings its experience of sub-scale stealth demonstrators, like FILUR, to the programme. The nEUROn has a two-year test programme ahead of it, with ight tests in France and then operational tests in Sweden, culminating in weapon-release tests. Despite its weapons bay, this is still very much a technology demonstrator aimed at building up European expertise in this area. Whether another demonstrator or a production UCAV is the next step probably hinges on Anglo-French UCAV collaboration decisions and the willingness of the UK to merge its project, below, into a larger European programme. BAE Systems TaranisThe second stealth UCAV demonstrator from Europe is probably, outside China, the most secretive BAE Systems Taranis. Named after the Celtic god of thunder, Taranis was rst publically unveiled in 2010. It builds on BAEs experience in autonomy and UAS from UAVs such as Herti, to earlier projects like Raven and Corax. Additionally, BAE also has experience of low-observable platforms, through projects such as Replica. Though like nEUROn and the X-47B, it is a technology demonstrator not an operational weapon system with the stated intention of informing plans for the UKs combat capability. This then links into earlier FOAS (Future OffensiveAir System) MoD studies whichaimed at developing a replacementfor the Tornado strike aircraft. However,as noted above, the MoD is extremely coy about Taranis and its capabilities. Informed observers suggest that, like the nEUROn, the vehicle is powered by a R-R Adour engine. But, while the nEUROn ew in France, BAE is understood to be transporting Taranis to Australia to the vast Woomera range to make its rst ight there. It follows the companys pattern of testing other UAV products in these large uninhabited ranges which simultaneously provides extra safety and also protects a stealth design from prying eyes.Beyond this, the UK is engaged with France on UCAV collaboration. This perhaps will see, if the requirements converge, a joint Anglo-French UCAV demonstrator, or potentially even the leap to a production version. However, with the European aerospace industry desperate for a new combat aircraft programme, the devil is likely to be in the detail. ChinaBut Europe and the US are not the only ones interested in this leap in combat aircraft technology. Recent years have seen a massive explosion in Chinas military aircraft projects, including a number of UAVs. Some of these, it is clear, are intended to be armed. There also appear to be signs of UCAV research, including sub-scale demonstrators. Only in May there appeared images on the Internet of what is claimed to be a Chinese UCAV the Lijian (Sharp Sword) undergoing taxiing tests. Gauging whether any of these designs, sometimes spotted in model form at exhibitions, on leaked webpages or on academic posters, will reach production or enter service is problematic. But the strategic surprise of China unveiling not one but two new stealth ghters in quick succession shows that Beijing is serious about expanding its military aircraft capabilities. It clearly sees UCAV technology as an avenue worth pursuing. IndiaAnother rising power in the Asia-Pacic, India, is also developing its ownUCAV technology demonstratorprogramme, the IndianUnmanned Strike Air Vehicle(IUSAV). The air vehicle from theDefence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is called Aura and is currently in the design and optimisation stage. Aura will feature weapon bays for precision missiles and will be powered by Indias Kaveri engine. A rst ight is planned for the 2015-16 timeframe.15i fJUNE 2013 @aerosociety linkedin.com/raes facebook.com/raes www.aerosociety.comShenyang/Hongdu Lijian Sharp Sword (China)14m wingspanMiG Skat(Russia)115m wingspanDRDO AURA(India)15m wingspanDassault16AEROSPACE/JUNE 2013DEFENCEUCAV programmesRussiaRussia, too, has had its own UCAV programme, in the form of the MiG Skat (Manta Ray) demonstrator, a full-size model of which was unveiled at the 2007 Moscow Air Show. Interestingly, a manned version of this tailless vehicle was planned, possibly because of a lack of experience in these ying wing designs compared to western companies. However, the Skat is now believed to have been shelved, with MiGs experience on this project to be merged with Sukhoi in developing a new heavyweight strike UAV. Russias immediate need, however, is ISR UAVs, which may explain why it has reset its UCAV effort. Black programmesIn addition to these public white world efforts it is also probable that a number of black classied UCAV prototypes are also in development or even may be in limited service already. It is notable, for instance, that Israel, one of the premier nations in exploiting and developing unmanned systems, has not yet revealed a UCAV technology demonstrator, leading some to speculate it may be working on a clandestine UCAV project. Further speculation exists around a rumoured US long-endurance stealthy UAS that may be the real reason why the Global Hawk HALE platform could be retired. This, according to at least one media report, may have a bomb-bay, giving it a precision strike capability. Enabling technologiesYet the introduction of UCAVs into service as they stand might not qualify on its own as a revolution in combat aviation. An unmanned, less exible F-117 strike aircraft might be the equivalent. However, there are other technologies now under development that, if added to the UCAV, promise a true transformation in military aviation. Firstly is the concept of UCAV wingmen. With a two-seat manned ghter, a backseat weapons ofcer could command UCAVs to strike SAM threats ahead of a vital attack or use the LO vehicles to thread between air defence zones to clear the way for manned, unstealthy ghters. Advances in HMI (human machine interface) or voice recognition may mean that a single pilot could control them, treating each UCAV like a human wingman that responds to voice or datalink commands. This may even also allow a stealth ghter datalinked to UCAVs with BRVAAM air-to-air missiles as a sort of in-ight reload allowing a massive volley of rst shots without putting extra humans at risk. Human-UAV wingman control has already been tested in the UK using a Tornado and a BAC 1-11 as a surrogate UAV.Another enabling technology is air-to-air refuelling. Although some UAVs feature extreme persistence, adding an AAR ability would allow UCAVs to refuel and stay on station almost indenitely, barring weapon reloads or limitations in the reliability of other systems on board. Challenges remain (would a UCAV tanker also need to be low-observable and would avionics now need space-satellite levels of reliability?) but again this concept is already being tested. In 2012 NASA ew two Global Hawk UAVs in close formation as part of unmanned AAR tests. Meanwhile, in the UK Cobham has been investigating automated probe-and-drogue refuelling as part of the civil ASTRAEA project. The UCAS-D programme also includes automated aerial refuelling trials. The nal piece in this puzzle is the potential of directed energy weapons (DEW) either lasers or microwave weapons to equip these UCAVs. THIS MAY IN FACT BE THE BIGGEST BREAKTHROUGH IN COMBAT AIRCRAFT SINCE THE INTRODUCTION OF THE JET ENGINE.BAE Systems Taranis is set to make its rst ight this year in Australia.BAE Systems17i fJUNE 2013 @aerosociety linkedin.com/raes facebook.com/raes www.aerosociety.comA rechargeable weapon with unlimited shots, carried by an invisible strike aircraft able to stay aloft for days, perhaps weeks at a time, would truly be a game-changing technology.ChallengesYet, despite the potential advantages of these UCAVS, there still remain a number of obstacles to developing and elding such airborne weapon systems. The rst, quite obviously, is cost. As the complexity of a UAV increases and its systems become more rened, so does the cost increase. Add stealth, and a UCAV becomes anything but a throwaway disposable asset. Some observers estimate that a production UCAV could cost as much as a F-35. For todays western militaries, including the US, where it has had to ground one-third of its combat air wings this year due to sequestration, cost is a major concern. It is thus likely that true UCAVs will be niche weapon systems, affordable by only the wealthiest powers for the near future. Replacing strike aircraft one-for-one, therefore, seems highly unlikely.This neatly leads on to the second challenge. If the market is still unknown, can UCAVs support the previous manned ghter industrial footprint? There is also the question whether todays UCAVs will lead to the quick extinction of the manned ghter, or whether these programmes will help bridge the gap between todays ghters and notional sixth generation combat aircraft. The jury on this still appears to be out but industry faces hard choices. Previously in Europe, for example, splits in ghter requirements and industrial haggling led to the Dassault Rafale, Euroghter Typhoon and Saab Gripen. Will this be repeated for any European UCAVs where production numbers might be even lower? The nal obstacle, according to some insiders, may be the biggest. That of culture. Although UAVs have grown enormously in the past decade or so, it is because they have taken the dull, dirty and dangerous roles. UCAVs on the other hand, potentially threaten the role of the ghter pilot and just as turkeys dont vote for Christmas so the introduction of UCAVs may be resisted by vested interests. However, ingrained as this culture may be, it is likely to change over time. Not too long ago, the USAF high command, for example, was dominated by the bomber barons, who elevated SAC into prime position. Today, when the USAF trains more UAV operators than ghter pilots, there may come a time when the UAV maa occupy the command slots. SummaryIn conclusion, as these demonstrators take to the air, this is a highly signicant time for the future of combat aviation. Although (ultra-classied black programmes aside) we are still some time away from operational squadrons of UCAVs, the trend is clear. This may in fact be the biggest breakthrough in combat aircraft since the introduction of the jet engine. Early UCAVs, like the early jet ghters, may be limited in roles and capability but these may quickly evolve. And, while ghter pilots may worry that a robot may eventually replace them, for the foreseeable future the UCAV will supplement manned ghters bringing new capabilities to allow the ghter pilot to become a battlespace commander and dominate space and, now with persistence of unmanned systems, time. Welcome to the future. DRAGON RISINGOn the 15 May this image appeared on Chinese Internet forums showing what purports to be theSharp Sword UCAV undergoing taxiing tests. Left: On 14 May the Northrop Grumman X-47B was launched from the deck of a US Navy aircraft carrier.US NavyRic ParkerDirector of Reseach and Technology, Rolls-Royce HorizonsHow does engine giant Rolls-Royce maintain its lead intechnology and innovation? Professor RIC PARKER,Director of Research and Technology, Rolls-Royce,provides an insight into his work. As a long-serving veteran of Rolls-Royce, I have to say that the role of Director of Research and Technology is one of the most challenging but enjoyable positions I have occupied in my professional career. It has its own unique set of challenges, occupying the interface between the customer-facing side of our business and the research that allows us to develop our leading-edge technology. I have the privilege of working for one of the most innovative companies in a nation of innovators. With 475 patent applications (262 of which were in the UK), we were the top ling UK company in 2012. This is built upon a tradition of 100 years of innovation: Henry Royce himself led 301 successful patents in his lifetime. When we look at innovation in Rolls-Royce, we have our customer foremost in our mind. If were not creating the right technology in the right time frame for the right people, then all the clever research in the world is no good. So we need to understand the customers needs and requirements, both business and regulatory. The challenges are considerable. In civil aerospace, for example, the Advisory Council for Aviation Research and Innovation in Europe has set some very ambitious goals for its Flight Path 2050. These include a 75% reduction in C02 emissions, a 90% reduction in NOx emissions and a 65% reduction in noise, all relative to year 2000 levels. While this may seem a long way off to a layman, with lead times for development of aerospace technology being anything up to 20 years, and in-service life often exceeding 50 years, if the right choices arent made today, the products will not be there in 2050. Then there are commercial pressures, such as the rising fuel costs for operators which have seen a 200% increase in the past decade. This has reached the point where fuel now makes up some 50% of an airlines direct operating costs. In a highly competitive civil market, a 1% difference in fuel burn can mean our engine being in or out of an airframe programme for 20 years. Thats because this can equate to a saving of up to $05m per aircraft, per year for our customers. Our shareholders are aware of our need to invest in R&D but they expect to see a return on this investment. They know, over a long enough period of time, commodity prices will continue to rise while the price we can charge for our engines will remain xed by erce competition. With over half of our revenue coming from services delivered on original equipment, it is vital we keep costs low across the entire lifecycle of our products. Technology can both improve performance and reduce costs. The Rolls-Royce approachRemaining competitive in the aerospace industry requires a signicant investment of time and money. With nite resources, it is important to ensure the priorities are agreed and investment is made in the correct technologies.To manage this, Rolls-Royce applies the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process devised by NASA. All technology and capability projects must progress through six stages, to ensure that its maturity is being demonstrated as required and the potential applications are understood. At all stages, it is not enough to prove that the technology functions but that it performs the role that the customer requires of it. From the earliest strategic research at TRL1, increasing levels of validation evidence are required in representative operating environments, before the technology is considered de-risked at TRL6 and can be passed into the new product introduction process. 18AEROSPACE/JUNE 2013Rolls-Royce patent applications in 2012475Rolls-Royce 2012 R&D spend919mIN THE UK, FOR EVERY ONE EMPLOYEE IN ROLLS-ROYCE, WE SUPPORT AFURTHER SIX JOBS IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN. PartnershipsThe majority of late-stage technology validation (TRL5-6) require service equivalent demonstration and is typically done in-house by Rolls-Royce. However, this is not the case for earlier stages of research activity (TRLs 1-4). Unlike our major competitors, we do not have a large in-house research centre. Instead we have created an extensive range of partnerships and collaborations around the globe through our network of 28 University Technology Centres (UTCs). This network celebrates its 22nd anniversary this year. It is a source of both technology and highly skilled people with a signicant number of doctoral graduates coming to work for the Group upon completion of their degree. We have applied a similar model to developing our manufacturing processes. Starting with the Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre in Shefeld, Rolls-Royce has developed a network of research centres to develop manufacturing capability through the mid-stage readiness levels; bridging the gap between university research and industrialisation in the supply chain. There are now six operational facilities, the latest having opened in Crosspointe, Virginia, in late 2012. These foster collaboration between companies at all stages of the supply chain, from the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to material suppliers, measurement systems providers and tool manufacturers.FundingYou cant get world-class research without consistent levels of funding and it is one of my main responsibilities as Director of Research and Technology to ensure that this continues to be secured with our government partners and channelled to the right areas. Our average annual spend on R&D is high, with 919m invested in 2012 and around 8bn over the past decade. Some two thirds of this goes on further improving the environmental performance of our products, in particular, reducing emissions. Rolls-Royce research and follow-on activities offer signicant benets to the areas we operate in. In the UK, for every one employee in Rolls-Royce, we support a further six jobs in the supply chain. The spill over into other sectors of the technology we generate helps bring long-term industrial growth that spans decades.At present, we are participating in the Aerospace Technology Institute, alongside Airbus and others, to help develop the technologies that will help keep the UK aerospace sector at the forefront of world aerospace manufacturing. We are also participating in Clean Sky I, the European Commissions research investment focused on applied technology for environmental improvement in aerospace. In collaboration with European partners, Rolls-Royce is investing its share of the available funds on demonstrator vehicles, including a number of ight test vehicles to be installed on our Boeing 747 ying test bed. These sort of partnerships carry signicant benets for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) throughout the supply chain. SMEs cannot afford to invest signicant amounts in longer-term strategic R&D but, by becoming part of a larger partnership, they can participate in and benet from the programmes we help to drive. Vision 5, 10, 20To ensure that there is a pipeline of technology and a balanced portfolio of research with target applications in both the near and long-term, Rolls-Royce has adopted ve, ten and 20-year visions for the technology it develops.Vision 5 constitutes the low-risk technology ready for application within ve years. However, this is not limited to the next new product. Where the opportunity exists, technology is retrotted into in-service products to provide efciency and reliability improvements for the customer. Vision 10 describes the next generation of technology or capability. These will require further demonstration to verify the benets and de-risk the system prior to application. Vision 20 describes emerging, or as yet unproven, technologies aimed at our future generations of products, much of which will be applied right across our product range in all sectors.A number of Vision 20 studies are currently exploring future generations of aircraft architectures that may provide signicant improvements, particularly in areas of fuel burn, noise and emissions.New engine materialsAs I alluded to earlier, fuel price is one of the key drivers for our customers, not just for airlines but also amongst defence departments worldwide looking to reduce the operating costs of their large aircraft eets. As engineers, we have two potential routes to improve engine efciency. We can either increase thermal efciency, increasing the energy we draw from the fuel, or propulsive efciency, how well that energy is then converted into thrust. Propulsive efciency has historically been improved by increasing the proportion of air owing through the fan and bypassing the internal gas path. For example, the Trent XWB has twice the 19i fJUNE 2013 @aerosociety linkedin.com/raes facebook.com/raes www.aerosociety.comRolls-Royce20AEROSPACE/JUNE 2013Ric ParkerDirector of Reseach and Technology, Rolls-Royce bypass ratio (BPR) of the early RB211s. While the hollow titanium blades currently used on the Trent family provide a low weight solution, the trend for increasing fan diameters to provide the large BPRs of the future will drive a system-level change, enabled by composite materials. Composite blades, for example, would also allow for a low mass fan containment system and could reduce engine weight by over 700lb. Rolls-Royce is currently exploring use of composites through a joint venture with GKN, to develop the fan system of the future. Thermal efciency has been improved via ever increasing temperatures, requiring new materials with improved abilities to tolerate the heat. With the latest generation of metal super alloys operating well above their melting points, they are reliant on cooling air and exotic coatings to cope with extreme temperatures.For the future, ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are being developed for static components but the long-term vision is to look for potential applications in rotating components such as blades. However, while CO2 emissions are reduced proportionally as we drive down fuel burn, NOx levels increase with combustion temperature and pressure. We are using the money from CleanSky II, to develop a lean burn combustion system which will combat this NOx challenge.Lean burn combustionNOx, which is produced during any combustion process in air, can be limited by a technology called lean burn. Conventional combustion systems operate on what is known as the RQL system of combustor design. The R stands for rich, the Q is for quench and the L is for lean. In considering the combustion of fuel, there are two points either side of the ideal stoichiometric temperature where a given temperature rise is achieved, one on the lean side of stoichiometric and the other on the rich side. In the RQL system the start of the system is rich and rapidly jumps through the stoichiometric to the lean side. In a lean burn system there is no need to jump through stoichiometric point, where the maximum NOx is produced, thus the combustion is always lean. The leaner the design, the lower the NOx. It is not without its challenges, such as keeping the weak ame alight at high altitude, but rig testing already undertaken in Stuttgart University as part of the German LUFO programme shows promising results. ManufacturingNew and innovative manufacturing techniques can also have a signicant impact on cost. The design requirements for key structural components, coupled with the use of high capability but complex to manufacture materials, has led to low y to buy ratios and high unit costs. Once machined, only a fraction of the original metal will remain, with the rest left as swarf to be recycled. Near net shape manufacturing technologies offer a potential solution to this wastage. Powder HIP (hot isostatic pressing) methods can produce structural components from the latest materials with minimal machining required. Additive manufacture via methods such as direct laser deposition (DLD) not only reduce material wastage but also open up the design space. For example, the cooling passages in combustor tiles are both high cost and shape limited by the laser hole drilling process. However, DLD tiles can be produced cheaply with exotic hole shapes to increase the cooling effectiveness at no extra cost.CapabilityHowever, R&T is not just focused at product technologies. We must also develop world-class design tools. The investment required to develop a new large gas turbine in the civil market is huge and the need to minimise this cost, while maintaining the quality and achieving the required timescales is vital. While we will be required to test engines to demonstrate performance and reliability for many years to come, advances in our analytical and predictive capability has allowed us to signicantly descope and de-risk the costly test programme without impacting the quality of the outcome. These tools can then be used across the Rolls-Royce Groups product range. For example, the CFD codes developed to optimise our large fan systems on our aerospace products are now applied to marine propellers and waterjets to improve their hydrodynamics. These were used in our latest offshore vessel which won the Ship of the Year award in 2012. With its new wave-piercing bow, it is able to cut through waves rather than riding over them; reducing fuel consumption and greatly improving crew comfort and safety.Rolls-Royce UltraFan conceptTrent XWB2x bypass ratio of RB211Rolls-Royce21i fJUNE 2013 @aerosociety linkedin.com/raes facebook.com/raes www.aerosociety.comVision 20Looking further into the future we can envisage and explore with our partners and aircraft customers the possibilities of novel aircraft which use integrated power systems solutions. The term integrated power systems is used within Rolls-Royce to consider a number of the near-term improvements which can be achieved through closer integration of the aircraft and propulsion system. These improvements can vary from integrating the propulsion system into the airframe to reduced drag and noise, better integration of sub-systems and the use of more electric systems offering greater system exibility, to considering novel technologies such as fuel cells, energy storage and energy harvesting. We can see the intelligent power management technologies, electrical machine and power electronics technologies and the integration of the propulsion system sub-systems as a key development in aerospace. Combining these technologies will help provide optimised power systems and reduced operator workload for manned and unmanned aircraft.Distributed propulsion has also long been considered as one of the novel concepts capable of meeting the increasing challenges of the continuous growth in the aviation industry.UltraFanThe ultimate evolution of the aero gas turbine is likely to be an UltraFan engine, offering higher bypass ratio with an ultra-quiet low-speed variable pitch fan of up to six metres diameter to give higher propulsive efciency. The concept includes a slim-line active ow nacelle and avoids the need for a heavy fan containment system and thrust reverser. Signicant further weight and efciency improvements come from embedding a recuperated APU and LP driven generators plus integrating electrical accessories and power management. In the core, an ultra-low emissions combustor, cooling air and extensive use of ceramic matrix composites will deliver excellent thermal efciency and extended time on-wing. Distributed propulsionJust as in the electric ship, where separating power generation from electrical propulsion has liberated designers of ship architecture, so a further increase in the power density of electrical systems will enable the same step change in the air. The use of multiple distributed fans powered by a low number of large gas generators is widely preferred to distributed engines. The worse thermal efciency of a small engine is likely to offset any propulsive benet from distributed whole engines. Boundary layer ingestion (BLI) could also give a benet to the overall aircraft aerodynamics. This novel technology involves the ingestion and re-acceleration of slow moving boundary-layer air (aircraft wake) to improve the propulsion efciency of a vehicle. While the re-energisation of the wake enables less kinetic energy to be wasted, this will create a signicant challenge, since current fan designs will not accept these distorted inlet ows without some loss of stability.The gures above show just one of the distributed propulsion concept aircraft Rolls-Royce is now helping to shape. Rolls-Royce plc and EADS Innovation Works collaboratively compared and contrasted a number of distributed propulsion solutions to investigate the potential BLI benet.One possibility involves the use of distributed gas turbines on the upper wing surface and separate mechanically driven or electrically-driven distributed fans. The high-level study concluded that using a distributed fan propulsion approach with boundary layer ingesting intakes can yield signicant savings in fuel burn coming from the higher propulsive efciency.An Olympic effortAt our annual meeting of University Technology Centre Directors this year, we were fortunate to be addressed by two of the leading sports scientists working on the UK Sports team that helped to produce such ne results for the UK at the 2012 Olympics. During the talk, I was struck by how many similarities our two disparate elds shared. Both require clear, well-researched goals, broken down into a timetable with ambitious yet achievable milestones. You need talent, teamwork, investment and, above all, a willingness to commit for the long term. Thats how you get world-class results. Thats how you create better power for a changing world.Rolls-RoyceRolls-Royce distributed propulsion concept would see smaller engines, similar to the latest electrical marine propulsion systems bring benets in reduced fuel burn.A DISTRIBUTED FAN PROPULSION APPROACH WITH BOUNDARY- LAYER INGESTING INTAKES CAN YIELD SIGNIFICANT SAVINGS IN FUEL BURN 22AEROSPACE/JUNE 2013LEGISLATION Passenger rightsWE BELIEVE THAT THIS IS A BALANCED PROPOSAL WHICH WILL GIVE PRIORITY TO CARE AND ASSISTANCE FOR STRANDED PASSENGERS WITHIN A REALISTIC ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK.Jean-Louis ColsonEC Head of Consumer RightsEC passenger compensation a licence to print money?Do proposed revisions to EC Regulation 261 rules governing passengercompensation rights offer a welcome fnancial lifebelt for stranded passengersor impose an unfair fnancial burden on carriers which could even endangerair transport safety? BILL READ reports.European airlines already have plenty of worries to concern them from rising fuel prices, passenger taxes and the Emissions Trading System (ETS). However, the current hottest subject of debate among European regional carriers is proposed amendments to European Commission (EC) Regulation 261/2004 which establishes common rules on compensation and assistance to air passengers fying from or within the EU or into the EU on a European carrier in the event of cancellation or fight delays. In force since 17 February 2005, EC 261 has been the subject pof much criticism by airlines, particularly with regard to uncertaincy as to the conditions under which it applies and a lack of consistency in its enforcement across the European Union (EU).A central element of the current regulations is the denition of extraordinary circumstances which could delay or cancel ights but which would not oblige the airline to pay any compensation as they were beyond its control. The interpretation of what could or could not count as extraordinary circumstances has been subject to much debate and legal wrangles ever since EC261 came into force. For example, a case against Alitalia in 23JUNE 2013 @aerosociety linkedin.com/raes facebook.com/raes www.aerosociety.com2008 (Wallentin-Hermann vs Alitalia) ruled that mechanical problems with an aircraft did not qualify as extraordinary circumstances. Compensation for ight delays was also not implicit in the regulations until another court case in 2009 (Sturgeon vs Condor) resulted in the EU Court of Justice adding this requirement to the rules. On 13 March, in an attempt to make EC261 fairer and more straightforward, the EC published its proposals for a revised set of air passenger rights. However, no good deed goes unpunished and the new proposals have been welcomed with little enthusiasm from airline operators. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) has announced its disappointment with the revisions saying that the changes still leave major deciencies in the legislation, will be difcult for governments to enforce, add unnecessary costs and will incentivise behaviours by industry that will be ultimately detrimental to the interest of passengers.Passenger rightsThe rst public presentation of the revisions the Commission intends to make to EC261 was given at a recent conference hosted by the European Regions Airline Association (ERA). Jean-Louis Colson,EC Head of Consumer Rights, explained how, under the current 261/2004 regulations, passengers are given ve basic rights for what they can expect from airlines in the case of ight delays or cancellations, as follows:1. Right to information2. Right to care (meals, refreshments and, if appropriate, accommodation)3. Right to nancial compensation in qualifying circumstances (such as denied boarding, long delay or short notice cancellation)4. Right to refund of your ticket in cases when the delay is longer than ve hours and, where appropriate, a return ight to rst point of departure5. Right to refund of the ticket (or re-rerouting in the case of denied boarding or cancellation)What we are proposing is to clarify the grey areas and close loopholes, said Colson. A central element of the regulations is a clearer denition of extraordinary circumstances and we wish to clarify which ights it might apply to. Our other aims are to simplify complaint handling, better co-ordination of enforcement policies which currently differ in different EC member countries and to ensure a realistic nancial cost. As a result of the Sturgeon judgement, carriers are now required to compensate passengers when their ight is delayed for over three hours. The right of compensation for delays has now been included implicitly within the new rules but the EC proposes raising the cut off point to over ve hours for intra-Europe ights with even higher limits for longer ights. The new rules will also set temporal and monetary limits on the care obligations of airlines, i.e.:1.Passengers' right to compensation for delays to be raised from current limit of delays of over three hours to over ve hours for intra-EU ights, nine hours for 3,500-6,000km ights and 12 hours for 6,000km+ ights.2.A passengers right to accommodation from an airline to be limited to a maximum of three nights at a maximum 100/night.We dont want to increase costs for airlines which is why we are proposing to raise the delay threshold, said Colson. We believe that this is a balanced proposal which will give priority to care and assistance for stranded passengers within a realistic economic framework.The airlines do not agree. While they are pleased with the proposed change to the delay threshold from three to ve hours, there are many other aspects of the new proposals which they do not like.The revisions have a few good things and some bad things, says Simon McNamara, Director General of ERA. We welcome the ECs efforts to begin to put a limit on an airlines liability and to clarify when an airline is held responsible and when it is not. Passenger compensation adds costs to the airline industry,states Martin Isler, Executive VP of Luxair. Regional carriers operate in a highly competitive environment. We cant always compete on price with the larger carriers, so we compete on quality of service and passenger care. Customers WE DONT NEED THESE REGULATIONS TO PROTECT OUR PASSENGERS AND WE DONT NEED MORE FINANCIAL BURDEN. THIS PROPOSAL RISKS WRECKING REGIONAL AVIATION AND PUTTING THOUSANDS OF JOBS AT RISK.Martin IslerExecutive VP,Luxair i f24LEGISLATION Passenger rightscan make their own choice who to y with. We dont need these regulations to protect our passengers and we dont need more nancial burden. This proposal risks wrecking regional aviation and putting thousands of jobs at risk.There is a lack of balance in these regulations, says Caroline Green, Head of Customer Service at Ryanair. EU Regulation 261/2004 is the only known law to impose unlimited nancial liability and obligations on a business entity to its customers for events that are beyond its control. Other transport operators dont have this. She cited the example of a recent Ryanair ight in which the captain was ill and the airline had to pay 21,000 for a ight which only generated 9,000 of revenue. She also highlighted a continued lack of clarity over the denition of extraordinary circumstances.Claim cultureCarriers are also concerned that EC Reg 261 is moving away from its original intention of looking after stranded passengers to making European airlines a target for refunds. Simon McNamara of ERA highlighted the recent growth of companies who made their living out of passenger compensation claims. We need to differentiate between care and assistance and compensation, he warned. Caring for passengers is ne. It is not in the interest of airlines to do otherwise. However, claim culture is on the increase and we need to get away from this. EU claim intermediaries are encouraging passengers to complain because they get a percentage of the money, said Caroline Green of Ryanair. We incur signicant legal costs every week.Several speakers touched on the subject of travel insurance, arguing that it should be these policies that paid out in the event of delays. What about the personal responsibility of passengers to be responsible for themselves? asked Simon McNamara. However, the small print of travel insurance policies have far more exclusions that airlines can claim. Insurance doesnt cover much, agreed Caroline Green of Ryanair. In cases when policies do have to pay out, weve had had travel insurers try to claim the money back off us. We tried to insure the airline against ash incidents but no one would insure us. Insurance companies are not as good to claim from as airlines, adds Martin Isler of Luxair. Re-routing Airlines are also unhappy with the proposed introduction of delay compensation for rerouted and connecting ights. Under the proposed revisions, if an airline cannot re-route a passenger to arrive within 12 hours after scheduled departure time using its own aircraft, the delayed passenger is entitled to travel by another airline or mode of transport. However, the other transport provider shall not charge the contracting carrier a price that goes beyond the average price paid by its own passengers for equivalent services in the last three months. However, carriers are complaining that it is not clear how this requirement could be enforced, particularly with regard to non-EU carriers and how third party carriers could be persuaded not to charge premium fares for last minute bookings.EU REGULATION 261/2004 IS THE ONLY KNOWN LAW TO IMPOSE UNLIMITED FINANCIAL LIABILITY AND OBLIGATIONS ON A BUSINESS ENTITY TO ITS CUSTOMERS FOR EVENTS THAT ARE BEYOND ITS CONTROL.Caroline GreenHead of Customer Service, Ryanair In recent years, a number of specialist websites have been created which encourage passengers to claim ight compensation.AEROSPACE/JUNE 201325i fJUNE 2013EU261 IS AN INCREDIBLY EMOTIVE SUBJECT. IT WAS PUT IN PLACE TO DEAL WITH PROBLEMS OF OVER BOOKING BUT IT HAS SINCE GOT MORE AND MORE EXTENDED AND COMPLICATED. Simon McNamaraDirector General, European Regions Airline Association For ights 1,500km and all other 1,500-3,500km ights For all other ights 250 400600 1hr1hr1hrPotential compensation payouts after three hours Connecting ightsNor do the complaints end there. Another cause for concern among carriers relates to the rules for connecting ights. In cases where a delay on one ight causes a passenger to miss a following connecting ight, the responsibility for nancial compensation will fall upon the rst carrier while responsibility for passenger care and re-routing will be up to the airline operating the onward connection.Airlines argue that that this requirement may discourage the opening of new feeder routes to and from international hubs, if they runs the risk of having to pay for delays to other carriers ights. What concerns me is the sense of uncontrolled power, commented a representative from BMI. We will need to consider carefully whether to start new connecting ights if this legislation is swinging like a big axe in the background.DiversionsAnother bone of contention concerns diversions. The new proposals will treat diversions as if they were cancellations and therefore eligible for compensation payments. This regulation does not protect passengers, declares Martin Isler of Luxair. No airline diverts for fun or to save money, they only do for reasons of health or safety. There is a risk that airlines might save costs by ying when its risky to save money.The list goes on. Carriers are also not happy about revisions to the rules applying to passengers who book cheap return ights but fail to show up for the outward leg. Under existing rules, passengers who only turn up for the return ight may be denied boarding but the new provisions would not allow this. Airlines argue that this would lead to more empty seats on aircraft and an inefcient use of capacity.Safety EU261 is an incredibly emotive subject, concludes Simon McNamara of ERA. It was put in place to deal with problems of over booking. but it has since got more and more extended and complicated. There is also a disparity between different modes of transport; the compensation rules apply to airlines but not to other modes of transport. We are also concerned that, not only do are these new rules starting to interfere with the commercial practices of airlines, but there are also unintended ight safety consequences creeping in. There is a danger that airlines might try to avoid paying passenger compensation charges by ying aircraft in situations where it might not be safe to do so.The EC parliament is scheduled to debate the nal wording of the new compensation legislation over next 12 months.Hitting the airline jackpot@aerosociety linkedin.com/raes facebook.com/raes www.aerosociety.com26AEROSPACE/JUNE 2013INDUSTRYDefence consolidationA FITTING DESCRIPTION OF EUROPEAN DEFENCE: BIG HAT. NO CATTLEJohn HamrePresident and CEOCSIS European defence industry:Consolidation... or else?In an era of declining European defencebudgets, and the US pivot to Asia-Pacific,will we now see a spate of merger andacquisition activity in the aerospace anddefence sector? RICHARD HOOKEassesses the environment.It started in earnest about 25 years ago around the time of the notorious Last Supper in the US at the end of the Cold War. But, in the wake of EADS and BAEs abortive efforts to merge the two companies last year, a lively discussion continues on the need for consolidation of Europes defence industry. Yet the debate seems rooted in the last century. In particular, it seems to be based upon a perception that Europe is a single market and politics gets in the way. That government meddling is to blame for an inherent inefciency in how defence companies perform. Hence The Economists view (2 March, 2013): Nobody doubts what is needed: a more rational, less nationalist demand side and a supply side (ie, the equipment-makers) with the political space to work out their own solutions.Shouldnt we be having a more modern discussion? In particular, a discussion that recognises that Europe is not a single nation state. That is informed by an appreciation that many companies in this sector are nanced by private often international equity investors and bond holders. And that, accordingly, defence rms aim to operate like international increasingly global businesses. Businesses that now serve a range of regional markets outside Europe. Above all, a debate that acknowledges the fact that most businesses know the importance of understanding customer behaviour and, while this varies according to the preferences of individual customers (French, British, German or American, for example), the level of variation also depends on what is being sold to them. Ammunition or a combat aircraft, for example. We know this as market segmentation. Some segments require suppliers to compete on cost, while others require differentiation.If we had such a discussion, what would we say are the real factors driving some form of consolidation in Europe? What are the real barriers to such consolidation? And what are the implications for defence companies? Its a discussion in which most international defence company CEOs have been engaged for several years. And its a discussion that the tri-service military ofcers, civil service and agency managers who are students on the Craneld Defence MBA programme at the UK Defence Academy have been having for the past ten years. They understand the issues broadly as the diagram above.So, while our business executives and emerging military leaders and civil servants have developed an understanding of the issues, we now need more engagement from service chiefs and senior civil servants. There are signs that this is happening and, whilst defence ministers come and go, they are receiving better advice and are therefore better placed to make informed decisions. We now need to see a modern assessment of the issues in the news media. Then politics will be seen as a less appropriate and acceptable explanation of events in place of rational analysis.Consolidation: the four main factors1. Smart defenceThe EUs military is as busy as ever. In 2012, forces were on duty in Mali, Somalia, Afghanistan, Bosnia and Kosovo plus UN operations in the Congo, Lebanon, Iraq, Uganda and Libya. And with US defence policy shifting to the east, Europes military strength looks likely to be fully occupied for several years yet. And it will need to 27i fJUNE 2013 @aerosociety linkedin.com/raes facebook.com/raes www.aerosociety.comoperate effectively and efciently without American leadership. In the wake of the Lisbon Treaty and the formation of the EUs Common Security & Defence Policy and noting the lessons learned from the campaign in Libya (where the US, UK, Norway, Belgium, Canada, France, Italy and Denmark operated together with some notable European absentees) the then US Defense Secretary Robert Gates gave the equivalent of a message I rst heard from CSIS President & CEO John Hamre at a British-American Association conference at RUSI in London several years ago. Secretary Gates urged Europe to pull its weight in defence by spending more and co-ordinating their efforts. In the past, Ive worried openly about NATO turning into a two-tiered alliance between members who specialize in soft humanitarian, development, peacekeeping and talking tasks and those conducting the hard combat missions between those willing and able to pay the price and bear the burdens of alliance commitments and those who enjoy the benets of NATO membership, be they security guarantees or headquarters billets, but dont want to share the risks and the costs This is no longer a hypothetical worry We are there today. And it is unacceptable. (Robert M Gates, Brussels, 10 June 2011)John Hamre put it slightly differently, suggesting that a Texan term provided a tting description of European defence: Big hat. No cattle.Both prompted the question: where next for consolidation in Europe? NATO Europe responded with a focus on Smart Defence pooling and sharing defence capabilities and assets.Much of the argument for consolidation therefore focuses on the efciencies that Europes buyers primarily national Defence Ministries can extract from a consolidated and rationalised supplier base in the region. According to The Economist (2 March 2013), Neil Hampson, my successor as Aerospace & Defence Leader at PwC, believes that Europe is paying 30-40% more than it should for military equipment as a result. Guy Anderson of IHS Janes, estimates that excess capacity is as high as 30% in combat aircraft, land vehicles and naval shipbuilding. There is clearly room for rationalising the European supplier base. The continuing proliferation of European defence companies still owes much to the notion that the ability to sustain a national Defence Industrial Base (DIB) is integral to a countrys ability to defend itself. However, the importance of a DIB has been undermined since the WW2 by three factors:1.The threat to peace has changed and taken on different complexions2.International alliances and security structures have replaced or supplemented national capabilities3.Maintaining an indigenous DIB is expensive: equipment and support can be acquired more cheaply in the international defence market.Even so, it is clear that customers defence ministries buy equipment using a range of criteria, only one of which is price. Other criteria are important. Hence a nuanced approach to consolidation seems prudent. An approach that deals effectively with different market segments, different requirements and different trade-offs to be made between low cost, commodity items and highly differentiated, specialised capabilities. 2. Stock valuesMuch of the European industrial base is now in private ownership. While the companies involved here might have started out as part of the national defence effort, theyre now committed to delivering shareholder value. This may or may not align with the national governments defence objectives. Most CEOs are nding it tough going in todays uncertain environment. Those operating in Europes defence industry may nd that having a pile of cash makes the uncertainty more bearable but investors want to know that growth is on the agenda. If not, and if they dont see that cash put to good use, then theyll ask for it back so that it can be invested somewhere else. The cash pile may diminish anyway as governments increasingly buy off the shelf and advance payments feature less regularly in contractual terms. For a public company, its share price reects investors expectations of future value creation the return generated on the capital invested in the business. Past performance can offer guidance but an uncertain future undermines any condence drawn from yesterdays heroics. Consequently, a atlining business wont attract investment. A declining share price will follow and no amount of cost reduction will fully compensate. And the CEOs term of ofce said to be typically around ve years these days may well come to a premature end. From a UK perspective, a glance at the share price performance of FTSE companies like BAE Systems, Cobham and Chemring over the past two years will demonstrate this very clearly. The US is now pivoting to the Asia-Pacic. Eurofghter Typhoon did BAE Systems and EADS miss an opportunity for European defence consolidation?BAE SystemsUS Navy28AEROSPACE/JUNE 2013INDUSTRYDefence consolidationSo growth or the expectation of growth is vital. But investment in growth, throu