2. Lesson 13 : Vocal Music from AfricaAfrica- home to approximately 80 million people from different cultural backgrounds and tradition. -this content is the birthplace of one of the worlds most unique musical styles.Music- an integral part of the lives of the African people. It is closely related to any aspects of their lives. It goes much deeper than just singing songs for rituals 3. Traditional African Music-it is used for worship and courtship, foreasing hard work, and simply for givingpleasure or entertainment.The Griots- a highly skilled musicians- pass on tribal history through oraltraditions.African music developed through theblending influences of the following: - European - African-American - Middle Eastern 4. Soukous- the congolese guitar band music - one of the most influential styles ofpopular music in Africa. -Characteristics of African Music-Characteristics of predominate African music: - Rhythmic patterns / movements - Percussive soundsPolyrhythmic- means they perform two ormore basic rhythms simultaneously.Vocal style- another important element ofAfrican music. 5. Call-response Technique- in this technique,the lead singer who is highly trained, sings aline or a phrase which the rest of the groupsings or echoes back.Most commonly observed musical practicesin Vocal Music: -Glissandos - Bends - Swoops 6. Lesson 14: African Musical InstrumentAfrican Vocal Music- polyrhythmic andresponsorial style.- its music is predominantly rhythmicand percussive.Handclapping- the basic rhythmicaccompaniment of nomadic tribes.African Rituals and Ceremonies- on themusical accompaniment of drums, which idbelieved to help summon spirits. 7. Music- used as a means to communicateeveryday tasks, religious events and calls towar.Some prominently known instruments: -Talking drums- of West and CentralAfrican tribes. -Talking xylophones- of the Jabo tribe. -Talking flutes- of the Nigerian tribe.Important as the playing of musicalinstruments: -Dancing, singing, clapping 8. IdiophonesMost commonly used in Africa. These arecommonly played by societies that did notused drums.1.Rattles- made of dried gourd from thecalabash tree and are covered with beads tocreate rattling sounds when tapped or shaken. Two kinds of Rattles:Primary Rattles- held by the hands. 9. Secondary Rattles- are worn by theperformers on their bodies and activatedthrough bodily movements.2.Clappers- reproduce the sound of handclapping for ceremonial purposes. 10. Scrapped and Stamped Idiophones- somesounds are produced by rubbing a gourdagainst a board by scrapping a bottle with athin.Mbira (Sansa or hand piano)- this melodicidiophone is made from graduated series ofwooden or metal strips that are arranged. 11. Xylophone- Made up of a series of woodenslabs or keys mounted on a clay post or on awooden frame. Membranophones-Used to emphasize the rhythmic andpercussive nature of their music.Drums- carved out of wood or made of stripsof wood that are bound together. 12. -Come in various size and shapes. The mostcommon instrument throughout Africa.Flutes- usually made from bamboo, stalks ofmillet, the tip of gourd, and the husk of cane. 13. Reed pipes- it is played by inhaling andexhaling through the slit around its opening.Trumphets and Horns- made from animalhorns, elephant tusks and wood. Used forconveying signals and messages as well asmusic. 14. ChordophonesMusical bows- the simplest of all Africanchordophones.Zither- are stringed instruments that arepositioned horizontally. 15. Lutes- instruments with strings that runparallel to their necks and are played throughplucking or bowing. 16. Lesson 15: Latin AmericanMusicLatin America- refers to the countries foundon the South America Continent, as well as theentire Caribbean. -Latin American Musical Styles-Calypso- a form of music and dance popularin the Caribbean. It originated from the pre-Lenten carnival in Trinidad where musiciansplayed their music nightly. 17. Rumba- an Afro-Cuban song and dancemusic that is polyrhythmic and is natural andspontaneous in its movements. It exhibits tofast tempos.Three part form:1. improvised verses2. repetitive call3. response singingMerengue- well known vocal and dancemusic that was adopted from the DominicanRepublic. 18. Tango- emerged at the end of 19th centuryfrom Buenos Aires. This dance was probablyderived from the Milonga, a lively suggestivedance Argentina.Salsa- a musical style that was developed inNew York City by the Urban CaribbeanHispanics. 19. Lesson 16: MusicalInstruments ofLatinAmericaLatin American Music- one of the mostinfluential kinds of music in the world. Different Musical Styles: 1. Tango4. Rumba 2. Cha- cha 5. Salsa 3. Samba6. Merengue 20. -Percussion Instrument-Maracas- a pair of dried gourds with woodenhandles. They are played by shaking.Claves- pairs of round, hardwood sticks thatare tapped together. They are used to play aspecial on going syncopated rhythm. 21. Bongo Drum- pair of drums struck by thehands.Congo Drum- single extra tall bongo, struckwith the players hand.Cabasa- looks like a wooden spool with metal 22. beads wound around it and a wooden handle.Steel Drums- tuned metal barrels. 23. -String Instruments-Puerto Rican Cuatro- small four-stringedinstruments similar to the largest ukulele.Tiple- it has four double/triple sets of stringsthat are used to accompany a certain music. 24. Charango- lute-shaped instrument with fivepairs of string. -Wind Instrument-Panpipes- known as antaras, a type ofwooden instrument from the Andes Mountain,now Peru. 25. Trumpets- wind instruments that are madefrom conch shells, tree barks and bamboo. 26. The end..