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The portion of the Encyclopedia of Jihad dealing with encryption.
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Encyclopedia of Jihad, Security and Intelligence Volume, (pp. 1049-1059)t
SECRET WRITING:
Included in the science of secret commrmication is the topic secret writins:
writing by use of secret ink or ciphers2. kr this study we will explain the meaning of
enciphering, and some other terms that are connected to the topic.
Ciphers is the operation of replacing letters or numbers in such a way that they are
replaced with other lettels that are not the originals, with the intention of concealing,
camouflaging, and hiding the real mer.:ring. This is agreed upon by all of the sides that
are concemed with this enciphering, and especially betwee,n the branches of
headquarters.
Enciphering3: Transforming the plain text into secret writing.
Al-Code (the Code) or The Secret Messaee: - This is a group of letters or words that
represent otler words or topics. For example, I say, "I am starting a business," The
meaning of this phrase is, with rcspect to the other patties, "I am declaring JITIAD; and I
am starting it."
Wtitine with Ciohers: The art of se,nding messages in a method that conceals its true
meaning from everyone but its recipient.
The procedure of writing by means of ciphers, symbols, and riddles and delivery is
composed of a number of basic elements (numerous aspects and standards).
1 - sender 2 - rcceiver 3 - enciphereda message
I The document appearc to be an imprecise trauslafion fronr a second language into Arabic. Underscorirrgand arrolvs have been added to this document to facilitate its reading.t The Arabic nornshfrah [:IFR? in SATTS] is equally translated into the terms "ciphers" or "enciphering"based on its use in the original document.3 Thc verbal noun tasffrft:FlR] could bE translated "encrypting" or "encoding" but is gencrally ransiated
"enciphering" for the sake ofconsistency.
oJUNICLASSIFTEI)
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4 - a common system on the basis of which it operates and the security rules adhered to
by our security sources.
5 - a secure means of h'ansrritting.
These elements are strongly linked together. But if one element fails in its task theu tire
entire operation (of secret communications) tails. On one hand, the information spills out.
On the other, the information is cut offfrom the other party. For a fwther explanation see
Figtne l, which shows the elements' association with respect to each other.
The best means of conveying information is to oombine it rvith obvious meanings
so the one who comes across it does not understand it. Secret writing, also named the
science of concealment, encompasses two methods:
Ciphers and Codes: In the system of ciphers the messages change according to fixed
formulas that make solving thern difficult, except for those who know the formulas.
The systern of codes uses a series of codes and words that represent the words of
the text in such a way that understanding the message becomes impossible without being
acquainted with the codebook and its table. Now, how do we learn the steps of
enciphering a message, and what are the steps? The answer: There are important rules
that must be known first in writing oiphers.
There is a thing in the enciphered message called the solution key: - This is a
number or a code that is agreed upon in advance and is found in the
enciphered message. Naturally, this is to increase the complexity of the
enciphered message. It can be said that the enciphered message relies on a
number of factors in order to increase the complexity: (1) a solution key and
4 Tlre past particrple mush{far [M:FR] can also be tanslated as "encrypted" or "encoded." See footuote 3.
4Ui\CLASSIFIED
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@1 the text, the most direc! clear fomr of the message. The mcaning of this is
clarified inside ofthis study.
Now we take in detail what is memt by the cipher key in a clear way.
The Cipher Kev; It is the path that the reseiver of the code follows in order to arrive at
the breaking down the message's code and oipher. Occasionally the key has an unspecific
goal. It is a communication to the receiver that we are the ones who sent the message and
no one else but us; because it is possible for an organizatiotr to penehate into the systems
and begin inlerference operations with messages-its goal is to fragment the system.
Definitely here, inside of the secret communication is a specific key or, we can call it if
wished, the secret word.
Comments:
Diplomats and sailors prefer using encodeds symbols because they are stationed at
one place.
As for intelligeirce people and the army, they prefer using cipher becawe they are
constantly moving and do not have the time to work throug! lvrittng special books of
synrbols.
Now to the types of cipher, or the methotls of enciphering messages.
Twes of Ciphors:
The Chart's6 Cipher: We vvill clari$r this in its place.
s tbtct.t Th" acfiral word found herc ahdathiaris [AIIDACIAT] is comrnonly translated "coordinates"; but in thiscontcxt the term chart or table is more accurate.
UNCLASSIFIEDFc
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The Cipher of Books, Newspapers, andMagazines include a number of methods. Among
them is assembling the ietters found in a magazine according to apreviously agreed upon
method.
The Cipher of Symbols andTerms: And this also we clarifu in its place.
To use cipher in aprosperous and successful way one must fulfill and accomplish the
following:
The requirement that two copies exist
The requirement of defining beforehand the identity of the sender and the
receiver.
The requireme.nt of appointing the time and date beforehand for the
communication, and an alternate date and time.
Begin the message by defining the sender's identity and the identity of the one to
whom it is sent.
That the message be short and understandable.
The necessity that there be an agreeme,nt beforehand between the sender and the
one to whom it is sent.
Changing the tables'7 key after five or six communications.
Conceal any trace of the key and the message after its solution and
comprehension are guaranteed.
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Also to understand that there are two systems in enciphering, or tlat it includes two
systens upon rvhich it depends in enciphering messages.
The First: It is the System of Tlansp_osine.
The Second: It is the System of Substihrtion.
As for the method of the System of Transposing now we clarifu it as follows: First of all
there is a difference between transposing of the letter from one place to another and
substituting one letter for another. I mean that the esse,ntial nature of the method of
transposing is changing the locations of the letters, and its conventional definition is as
follows:
It is: - Shifting the ciphers. This operation includes reorganizing the leters or changing
their sequence in the open message without making changes to the essence of the letter
itself. This example is provided to you for clarification, for example: "l want to write
"ABW ANS :HID" [which means 'Abu Anas is a marfy'."]
In this example we ire using the method of geometric forms to distribute the letters. If
you noticed the sentEnce, it is composed of three words. The first word is composed of
three letters, the second word likewise, and the third is composed of four letters. Now
follow the numbered steps to increase clarification:
fthis portion of text was illegible]
We distribute the letters along the heads of the fbrms B
aa
HID
2
A
7UNCLASSIFMD
WSD,t /t it/\ /\ / \*_J *J *J
A B A N :HI
4 - Now we take from the figures the higlest horizontal level (--
T]NCLASSIFIEDNGIC-2003-00174-IrT
3 - Now we rotate the letters one rotation to the right [forus to the left]. Therefore it
becomes as follows
> Or we write all of the Ietters fouad on this level. It is as follows: (W S D).
We also write it together with the bottom level. It is (A B A N I H I).
5 - To increase the complcxity of the message we insert some nurnbErs and take down the
number of letters in each word as follows: the first word 3 letters; and the second 3 letters; and
the third 4 laten. We add with each number the number ( 6 ). tt is as follows:
33
+6 +6 +6
9 9 9 [sic]
Thefinalformofthemessage is((WSD) ABAN: Htt9 9 10ll.Now, afterthe final
form of the message, we must nention that the receiver knows this metlod also.
The role of the receiver is as follows:
1 - The first step the receiver does is to take the numbers and subtract the solution k"y ( 6 I
from them. The number is (9 9 10 ). the result of the subtraction = ( 3 3 4 i. Oo tl"
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basis of this result he draws the nunber of figures. The receiver is able to know the
number of words from the number of letters found in the parenthesis (W S D).
Now we draw the agreed upon figures. The agreernent is as follows:
We selectthe number of points of tre triangle on the basis of the number of letters inside
of the first word. For example it means the word (ABW) ["Abu" or "fa*rer"]8 has 3
letters. Therefore, we select a triangle having 3 points, and so on.) The beginner
distributes the letters from the first parentlresis.
3 - The remaining letters are dishibuted according to the empty spaces in sequence from the
right to the lefte.
t The parenthesis should end here, but the author misplaces it firrther in the sent€nce at the end ofthe words
"and so on."e This is for the Arabic version; in our case from left to right.)0
-IDd.d. see diagrarn immediatelr above item 4
UNCLASSTFIEI)
WSD{\ 4\ d\t\ /\ /\/l /l l.)
atsg A< N :'H I
4 - Now he rotates to the opposite of flre se.nders' rotation of the letters. lt means that he
moves the letters in the left directionr0. So the letters go back like so:
4$':tIltll1t,1,,ttt
#)w N4)s s'Po
TINCLASSIFIEDNGIC-2003-00 114-HT
5 - Now he writes the letters of the entire figure together. It is as follows ABW
ANS :HlD ["Abu Anis is a Martyr"].
Another example regarding the method oftransposing, on the basis of the system of geometric
forms:
For example we need to write (ANSIIB FWRA ["withdraw immediately'').
t - We count the number of letters in each word. The tirst word has 5 letters and the second
4 letters, by dropping the nunationll.
2 - We select a pentagonal form for the first word and tetagonal form .or the second word.
We distribute the letters.
BW A
3 - We shift the first cycle to the rightl2 and write the highest horizontal tevel firsl along
with adding the number 5 to the number of letters in each word like so:
.rA
ll This refers to the diacritical mark that changes the sound at tlre end ofa word to 'AN' when converting itinto its advcbial form.l12 [n our case to the left, see diagram below item 3.
T]I\CLASSIFIEI)
N+- tBiH
,-'-ls
AkBTNBA)ASHFwR 10 9t
.ruw
r{\
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UNCLASSIFIEDNGIC-2003-00174-trr
Asweagreedthereceiversubtractsthenumbers ( 10 - 5l:5 and( 9 - 5 l:4. ttris
meaus flrat flre first rvord has 5 leters and the second has 4 letters. Therefore. he draws
the geomefiic figures according to the number of letters [see the figrne below]. After this,
he dishibutes the letters, beginning with the letters of the highest level and then the
remaining letters, incrementally from right to leftr3, The last step is the oppositer4 of the
two rolations. He writes the letters of the figures - and so forth:
As.F .)'n^lrr
,r,Aa"
is
The Cioher's Concealment: One of the many methods is the concealment of ciphers by
tle s)4stem of ffansposing. It is the letters or words in a certain text. We understaud it as
an agreed upon method. This is not obvious, for example ( t *21.
Example 1: Take the following message (LA TSR"WA BL TM?LWA. FAEN
SIAETIKM DWN MJIE ALMDD ['Don'tbe hasty, but proceed carefully. The victory
will come to you without the arrival of help."l).
If the agreement is made between the two sides to depend on the last word of the
ssntence [the bold words of example l].
The result is: "Proceed carefully. Help will come."
The methods vary according to flre agneement.
" Ibid.
'o Or "to reverse.- This portion of the description remains unclear after consulting the final figure that was
been provided. The figure appears to be identical, with respect to the relative locations of [etters, to the
figure immediately preceding it on the previous page.
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Example 2: (ATTNI ALQ:"IR T)GIB?A HMI MwEtM? ["shivering came ro me,
_.accompanied by a painful fever."])
If we take the first letters in the words the unknown word is (A.LTHM [ffanslation:
"sh'ggle"]). This cipher is appropriate for dissemination by telephone.
lmportant comments concerning interacting through cipher:
The sender is not permitted to lflow or carry the cipher key.
Each torvn has its own cipher, and if possible each group.
As a rule expressions of optimism are used with the ciphers, like "Journey on! Allah is
watching over you all."
Conrrentions must be agree upon for writing the following:
The nunationls, is it a letter or not? The hamzat6 is it an independent symbol or is it a
letter? The "taa marbuuta"lT, is it a'tah" [.?'] or a,taa,, [.T'] ? .,A1,,, is it solar or
lunar!8? Foreign words, how do you write them - like RpG [in English] how do you write
it (R BI J [inArabic]), etc.?
Enciphering bythe System of Substitution is understood as follows:
Replace each letter with another letter or designated character or designated nunber
according to the previous agreement between the two parties concerned with the contacl
and the reception, especially (the sender + the receiver).
It Grammar term for the diacritical mark that rnakes a noun indefinite or denotes an adverbial fuirction.16 PhonenricaUy equivalent to a letter, br.rt orthograplrically dependent upon other letter forms.
" A modified Arabic lefter '?' placed at the end of a word to indicate feminine gender functionallye-quivalent to both "ah- and'at''in diffetent contexts-r" Reference to pronunciation as "a!" or "a" plus the assimilation of the following letter.
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The method of zubstitution has degrees of complexity. We will begin with the simplest of
the methods. It is the Method of Coorrdinates (the Table Method). The following example
is among the simplest table forms. It is a very easy method and the first step in it is
drawing the table and its cells as follows:
We draw the horizontal cells (sguares) with the value that you need and arrange
the enkies (the numerals) in them.
We draw the vertical cells (squares) in the amount desired and anz.rge the enfries
(the numerals) in them.
I-ook at figure ( 1 ) (noting that there is an empty square at the beginning.)
Now between the horizontal level for the nurnbers and the vertical level for the
numbers we place the ( 28 ) letters. We place any synbols ttrat we want but with
the condition that the sender and the receiver have the same copy of the table.
Look at the figure.
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11
13
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 K N A R LA
2 S T B It H o
3 X C J W?
tO. Markl
4 U V I L
5 C G M?
fl,etterl R w
6 LBSR'?
lquicktyl
7ASLI{?
lweaponl:?ID
lrnarWrlUWARIElcrisesl
Comments on the Table:
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lf I took any letter from the table, or any sigrr or symbol, then two numbers that I took
iudicate the one we took. The first number is horizoutal. The second number is
vertical. For exa:nple if we took the letter (A) we find the number ( 3 ) above ttre
letter (A); and on the horizontal level to the rightre of the letter (A) is the number ( 1
). This means that the coordinate numbers of (A) are ( 1,3 ). That is, the number of
the place where the letter A is found is in the row ( I ) and column ( 3 ). fnus Ae
numbers found at the top of the table are, in other words, the numbers of the columns
and numbers formd to the right2o of the table are the row numbers.
The second comment is that each letter, symbol, or word that is blue in color [the source
document contains no colors] is indicated by two numbers ouly, and no other, one for tle
row number and the other for the colunm number.
An example oftle use of the table: I assume that I want to write the foilowing: (BDAET
ALHRB [translation: "the war began"]).
Look at the frst word and the fust Ietbr in it, (B). Therefore I search directly in the table
for the letter (B). If I found i! I search for the column number found at the letter. Also I
search for the row number formd at the letter. lt is recorded beginning with the row
number. lf you notice the coordinates of the letter "baa" [B] are ( 2,3 1. I mean by that
the second row and the third column, because the coordinates of letter "daal" [D] are (
6,4)" [sic], the coordinates of letter (A) are ( 1,3 ), and the coordinates of letter (T) are
'n In our case left.to lbid.?l tcp' is rnissing from the sanrple table, and coordinate (6,4) is empty.
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(2,2).As for the second word, it is AL-IIARB ["the war"]. Thus the coordinates of
letter (A) are ( 103 ), the coordinates of letter (L) are (4,4 ), the coordinates of letter (J)
ue (2,5 ) [sic], the coordinates of letter (R) are ( 5,5 ; ana *t" coordinates of letter (B)
(2,3).
The next step is to bring together all of the numb ers {2,3 - 6,4 - I ,3 - 2,2 - 7 ,3
- 4,4.-2,5 -5,5 -2,3 1.
Now we do the step that increases the order in sequence. Remove tt,e commas and the
dashes between the nuurbens as follows: 236413221344255523. Naturallythis
operation does not hinder the receiver's action because he knows tlat each joined pair of
numbers represents one letter.
The last operation that we paform to increase complexity is to add the solution number
(the solution key) to each one of these numbers. Let it be, for example, 3 is as follows:
2364132213442s523
+33 3333333333333333
s697 46ss4677s88856
Thus the final form for the cipher is (5 69146554677 58885 61.
All that remains is for the solver to refer to this cipher. This means the receiver retraces
the steps in reverse exactly, beginning by deducting the solution number and then
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successively separates each number. He searches for these numbers in the copy that he
has, and writes that.
A very important commert assume that you established the solution number as 8, and
you want to add it to each ofthe previous nurnbers. l,et us take for example the first
number. lt is ( 2 ); thus ( 8+2-70 ). When the result of the addition comes out with zero
[sic.] (meaning more than one cell) it is preferred that you write zero, which indicates that
the number is 1 10 ). Therefore when the solver of the message sees ( 0 ) he knows that
it is ( 10 ) and subtacts the solution number from t 10 I tsic.l. T:ris is so that the solver
does not make a mistake in the higher numbers or the result of the additional operation.
Now we take the opposite example: Presune that you are the solver of the message and
that it came to you in this form 4424324532 ). The solutiou uumber agreed upon at
this time is ( 1 ). Consequently the steps are simply, firs! we deduct ( 1 ) from each
number as follows:
4424324s32-11 I 1t 11111
33.t3.2r.34.21Second, we take each number one at a time and search for them in the table. For example
the firstnumberis ( 3.3 ) [seechartonpage 1l]. Itmeansthethirdrow,thirdcolumn.
Therefore it is the letter (J). The number 1 1.3 I is the letter (A). The number ( 3.1 ) tsicl
is the letler (S). The number t3.4 I is the letter (W). The number ( 2.1) is the letter (S).
He joins the letters and the result is the word (JASWS ["spy"])
TNCLASSTFIEI) t4
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UNCLASSIFIEI)NGIC-2003-00174-Frt
Another mcthod for using the table is (by the sptem of fransmitting - the alphabetical
[sequence] search method).
The method is as follows: we make a regular table with cells but according to the nunber
of ietters of the words desired to be chosen. The operating principle of tltis table is to take
the first row of the table and fill the empty spaces found rvith the solution word (the key
word). The row that is directly undorneath it has the solution number. We have the lower
squares left over. Therefore we write our secret message directly in lhem frorn the riglrt to
tlre lef2. Each square takes one letter. To increase the clarity, fbllow the fbllowing steps:
We draw the table and create for example tle key word (XI-AH ALDIN [Sa]lah
al-Din or Saladin, a Medieval Muslim hero]. We write these lettets in the first row.
We give to each letter of the letters of the key word a number, with the condition that a
repeated letter is given the following number. Notice the repeated lettsr (A) in the
solutiou word, how the frst (A) hkes the number 1 I ; ana tfre second (A) takes the
number ( 2 ), beginning from (A to I) according to the alphabetical sequence.
We decide what we want to write. For example, we want to send tlre following message:
(ANTYR T"LIMATI\A IWM ALIlvf'? OMS? SBTBR ["wait for ou inshuctions Friday
5 September"]) Now we write the message from the right to left, square by square (see
the figure.)
2 In our case from teft to tigltt.
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l5
T7
X L A H A L D I N
5 6 I 3 2 7 4 9 8
A N T Y R T tl L I
M A T N A I w M A
L J M ? o M S ?
S B T M B R
UNCLASSIF'IEDNGrC-2003-00 17 4-HT
4 - Look over table wetl. You will observe that each number has a column below it rvith
letters in it. If I now took each number and the letters below it the form is as follows (take
flre numbers in order-) :
1,23456TTMT RA?B YN'M ..WM AMLS NAJB
789TIOR IA? LMS
5 - Now we write the letter groups without numbers:
(TTMT _ RA?B - YN'M _ ..wM - NAJB _ TloR - I,A? - LMS). This is the frnal fonn
for tle cipher.
With regard to the solver, he has the solution nunrber and solution word" which changes
at each agreed upon period. He nothing more to do than to rctum the original numbers to
the groups according to the sequence. He rearranges them in the table and reads the
message in the regular form.
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The method of enciphering letters with lefters [sic.]:
The method of enciphering the symbols with the letter [sic.], where the numbers are
substitrled (the numerical coordinates with tbe alphabetical coordinatesfl]' The
dimensions of this table are 4 columns aud 7 rows. See the figure'
Notice that these are the letter coordinates. Now the empty space we fiIl with the ( 28 I
alphabetical letters. There is no condition on the sequence'
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19
A B J D
A
B
J
D
7
w
A B .I D
A M L A R
B H Y o
J B S a
D F T Z
? J G B V
w c x U L
N ,) w I
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Now we take apractical example on the basis of the table. For example, we wanr to
encipher the word ( AIZR ["be cautious"] )
I- We take the letter ( A ). We obselve the table and find that is the result of the
intersection of the letters (A and J ) frefer to table on the previous page].
II- We take the letter ( H ). We observe the table and find that is the result of the
intersection of the letters ( B and A )
V - We take the letter ( Z ). W e observe the table and find that is the result of the
intersection ofthe letters ( D and J).
VffI - We take the letter ( R ). We observe the table and find that is the result of the
intersection ofthe letters ( A and D ).
The e,ntire result is ( A J ) ( B A ) ( D J) ( A D ). The second form is ( AJBADJAD ). The
solver has a copy of this table. He comes to ( A J ) and takes their intersection. lt is the
letter ( A ), and so on with the remainder.
Exa:nple 2 : we want to write the word ( URIQ ["rcute"]). (U:W I) (R=A D) (I= D)
(Q:JD).
The cipher is ( WJAD;DJD )
Other methods of substituting letter by letter:
Cipher as slow as a Mousez3: This means that alphabetical letters are distributed in the
shape of a rectangular form. This table is fixed. This table can begin with the agreed
upon key word at the top of the table.
r8
tt This is a "Fast Cipher."
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Study the table very well before you read the steps of the operation (frgure 4). |f you
noticed the key word, it is ( M"AWI? ["a howling dog"]), located at the top of the table'
The remaiuing squares have the letters of the alphabetic being distributed just as you
want and according to the agreement.
[Note that B and T are entered twice, while K and L arc missing-]
The first method of the table is: using the horizontal rows. But how are the rows used?
The first of these usages is:
Substinrte each real letter with the letter that follows it on the right fin our case
leftl.
An example from the table: this example is that we want to encipher the word (
AZ?B [,,go"] ). Therefore the enciphering is as follows:
(A:")(bG)(?:I)(B:U).
This is a singular [sic.] method.
[A[CLASSTPTND 19
21
M A w
I ? c s
U B R a
v N J
B T D
Y H G z
T F o x
T]NCLASSIFIEI)NGIC-2003-00174-HT
The final tbnn is ( *Gru ). Tha'e is the dual [sic.] method that enciphers each pair of the
letterstogether.Anexampleis(WA=A")because(A)isontheright2aofthe'waaw'
[W] and the 'eiin' f'l is to the right2s of the 'aliph' [A].
tI - Substitute the desired real letter requested with the cipher letter precisely underneath the
real letter's position. An example is the word ( SJN flaifl ) ( S = D ) ( J : N ) ( N : V )'
Therefore the final form is ( D N V ).
An important comment:
There are letters on the right [for us left] of the chart for which there is no letter on its
righ#. How do we do this? (We take the answer as it is')
A - Substitgte the real letter with a letter along the diagonal line and in the diagonal
direction agreed upon together. So if, for example, we took the diagonal form [sic.] to the
lower left [in olr case the right] and we tookthe word ( JWAB f"answet''] ), the solution
is : ( J = J ) ( W : W ) ( A : S ) ( B : N ). Notice flrat the ( J ) does not have a diagonal
line. The solution -- we took the same letter and can change the method according to tle
agreement. The benefit of this method is that you are able to encipher an entire message!
each word enciphered by a different method than the others, or that you are able to
encipher each letter by its own method. This is very possible.
An example : enciphering words, each word by one of the previous methods.
AL:AR" RQM WAHD I Street Number 1 ]
(A :(3) (L-T) ( :- : ) (A :")( R :B)"
2o lhid.
'5 lbtd.
'o llrtd.
1
UI{CLASSTFIED 2A
22
UNCLASSIFIED
(R:N)(Q:J)(M-I)"
( W : \tr/ ) ( A: S ) ( H: O ) (!:Q )tn
Thus thefinal form is asfollows:("T: "8 i N IL/WS OQ )
NGIC-2003-00 17 4-HT
2-
3-
tt This is the methoddescribed in paragraph I,imnrediatetybelowthe table on p.19. If one of the fwo Benhies in the table is the missing L, then "r.:T" can be correct by this method. The writer Ieft out the lastletter of the first rvord in this example.tE This is the method described in paragraph tr above.t'This
is tbe method described in paragraph A above.
T|r[CLASSIFTED 2l
23