Acta hydrochim. rt hydrobiol. 12 (1984) 0, 609-613
OMKAR, R. >IURTI and G. 8. SHURLA
Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Vniveraity of
Aldrin Induced Changes in the Activities of Three Phosphstases
of Mucrobruchium Znmarrei (H. Mane EDWARDS)
S ' w n m z r y : Xucrobrachiun~~ Zu,mzn.ei is exposed to 0.008,
0.017 and 0.021 mg/l aldrin (0.4. 0.8 and 1.0 of the LCjO,Stih) for
24 ... 96 h and aft.er exposure the activities oftheacid, alkaline
and glurose-6-phosphatascs are determined. With concentration and
t,ime of exposure the acid phos- pliatase shows an increasing
activity up to 170 o:'o compared with the control,
whichisinterpreted as a part of prenecrotic changes in the cells.
With concentration and time of exposure the alkaline phosphatasc
shows a decreasing activity down to 20 0,'11 of the control, which
is indicative of considerable disturbances of the t.otal
metabolism. The glucose-ti-phosphatasesiio~~aan inereasins
act,ivit.y with the a.ldrin concentration up to 150 9;) during 72 h
; then the activity drops t o 60 ... 80 "',,. The initial rise in
t.hc glucose conccntrat.ion of blood eai isd by t.hat is t.he
ctlear consequence of a stress reaction and thc change of
metabolism resulting from it.
The increasing contamination of the aquatic environment by the
indiscriminate arid widespread use of pesticides is a serious
problem for environmental biologists. Organochlorine pesticides are
more hazardoils since t,hey are not only highly toxic h i i t , are
also residual in nature. The deleterious effects of aldrin on
several criistaceans have been studied (NEBRKER and GACFIN;
K1sLE:H: SANDERS: SHCKLA and OXIRAR). But these studies are
confined to the determination of its niedian lethal conc,entr:i-
tions. Studies on the effects of uldrin on the biochetnical
aspect.s of c~ristaceans a re meagre. Sonie reports on tkese
aspects in a fish Iletero~3iei'atI's fossilis are availa1)lP (
VEIIMA, TOKK and DALELA; SRIVASTAVA and SJXGIJ). While studying the
:Iciite t.oxicit>- of aldrin to a n ecoiioiiiically important
frcshwater prawn having a nutritive value, the authors felt, t.lie
need to study the effects of this cheniical on the hio- c.hemical
aspects in various tissues of N . lrmctrrcii. Therefore, an attempt
was niacle to investigate the effects of a lethal and two sublethal
exposiirrs to aldrin 011 acid, alkaline and glucose-6-phosphatase
activities in t,he hepatopancreas of Jf. / (ouurre; which has R
significant role in the physiology of t.he organisms, for
iintlerstandinp the nature of changes causing t,he death of
organisnis due to aldrin stress.
Material and Methods
111. lccnwrrri were collected froiii the Raiiigarh lake of
(;orakhpur city and iiiinie- cliately brought to the laboratory.
They were kept in large reservoirs and accliniatized for three days
at room temperature (20.05 1.5 "C). Aldriri solritions of 0.008,
610 Scta hydrochiin. et hydrobiol. It? (1984) (i
arid 0.021 riig/l (0.4, 0.8 ant1 1.0 of 96 h IAcl3,,) were
prepared in 10 1 dechlorinatetl t ap water in pl:tst.ic containers
on the day of exposure and t,wenty healt,hy specimens were
transferred carefully to each container. Controls were also set
sirnult aneoiisly. cloni- pressed air was supplied continuously to
the prawns during a(,Cliiriat,izat,ion and ex- perinients. The
speciniens were taken froin esperiniental and corit.ro1 sets, antl
hepa- topancwas was dissected out . A weighed quantity of tissue
was homogenizetl in 0.9 S KaCl solution for acid and alkaline
phosphatase and in 0.25 M sucrose solution for
glucose-6-phosphRtase, in glass homogenizers. These hoiuogenates
were centrifuged a t 5000 rpni for 20 niin. The supernataiits were
collected arid used as the enzyme source. 1'-nitrophenyl phosphate
of pH 5.0 and 9.3 for acid antl alkaline pliosphat.ase,
respect.ively, was used as siihstrate, while sodirirn salt of
glricose-6-phosphate (pH =. 6.5) was the siihstrate for
glir~ose-6-~~hospIlntase. The activities of acid and alkaline
phosphatase were nieasirred hj- the niethods of HERGMEYER. The
Iiiethod of SWANSUN was used for t,he determination of the activity
of glucose-6-phosphatase. Each experi- ment was replicated six
t,iriies and the data were statistically analysed for significant
The data in Tab. 1 show an elevation in the acid phosphatase
activity after aldrin treatment. The increase in the acid
phosphatase activity showed a time- and dose- dependent
relationship. The increase in the acid phosphatase activity was
Table 1 . ('hanges in the Activities of Phosphataxes in the
Hepatopancreas of :2ldrin Rxposed M . Lamnrrei Tabrllr 1 .
VerLndcrungen der ;\ktivitat vonI'hospllntnsen in der
Hrpatopankreas von M. Zainarrei Linter der Eiii\virkung von
Kxposurc ('oncen- period trations I1 m g i l __ - . . .. . -. ..
OMKAR, et al . : .\ldrin Induced Changes of Ihosphatasrs 61
continued Table 1
Exposure Coneen- Phosphatase activity period trations Acid
Alkaline Glucose-& h mg/l Phosphntase Phosphetase Phosphat m
0.008 10.63 :50.6O* 3.52 k0.48* 5.75 f0.51 ( 1 34) (61)
(1.50) (43) (142)
(158) (35) (149)
72 0.017 11.91 :k0.71*** 2.47 50.72** 6.54 *0.44**
0.021 12.54 C0.74*** 2.02 *0.58** 7.08 f0.45**
11.27 k0.69** 2.87 ?O.61** 3.75+0.4i
12.78 f0.72*** 184.50.66*** 3.23 50.48*
13.49 f0.76*** 1.15 ? 0.71 *** 2.98 S0.47*
(142) (50) (79)
(161) (32) (68)
(170) (20) (03)
b o l e : (a) =The yalues (Mean f SEM, of six replicate$) of
acid and alkaline phospliatase are expressed in y nioles of 1)-
( t i ) =The values (JlrJan f SEM, of six replicates) of
glucose-a-pliciPphatasc are rxprrssrd in y iiiolesofinorgmic
(c) =Figirru in brackets indicate 1111: par-cent ncf ivity. ((1)
= *, ** h * * * indicate yalues significant at P ~ 0 . 0 5 , P
~0.01 nntl Y -.0.001, rwpwtively.
~iitrophenol lilieratt!d/g wet weight. of tissue.
phale lilirrated/g wet weight of tissue.
ficnnt (P-=O.05) in two higher concentrations after 24 11 of
esposiire and in t.he lowest. concent,ration (0.008 nig/l) after 48
and 72 h of exposure. Elevation in the activityof enzyme was
612 Acta hydrochim. et hydrobiol. 12 (1984) 6
activity was recorded. A similar increase in t.he acid
phosphatase activity in the liver of a teleost Chunna punctatus
after endrin exposure (SASTRY and SHARMA 1978, 1979 a, b) and in
nine freshwater teleosts exposed to thiodan (SHAFFI) was reported,
too; SHAFFI suggested that the increase in the acid phosphatase
activity might be attributed to the rupture of cellular and
lysosoinal membranes. The activity of alkaline phosphatase was
inhibited after aldrin exposure to M . Znwarrei, which is similar
to the findings of other workers (SASTRY and SHQRMA 1978, 1979b;
THOMAS and MURTHY : SIIAFFI; UPADHY,AY and S H ~ K L A ) . The
inhibition in t'he alkaline phosphatase activity may he ascribed
t'o the fall in pH due to the rupture of the inenihranes (
Although the physiological role of acid and alkaline
pliosphatases are not clearly uncterstood yet, some possible role
has been assigned to them by the workers. Acid phosphatase is a
lysosoinal enzyme (DE DUVE et al.: ARUNA et al.) which helps inthe
aiitolysis of cell after it.s death. The increase in the acid
phosphatase activity in the injured cells occiirs as a part of
prenecrotic changes (NOVIKOFF). Alkaline phosphatqse is a brush
border enzyipe, splits varioiis phosphate esters a t an alkaline pH
and me- diates nieinbrane transport (GOLDFISHER, EWER arid
XOVIIIOFF). Alkaline phospha- t a . G : e also takes part in
transphosphorylation reactions, protein synthesis (PILO, ~ ~ W A X
I and SrrA~r) thereby involved in t.he s\-nt.hesis of certain
enzymes (SUMNER) and secretary activit;v ( IDRAHIM, HIGAZI and D E
X I ~ N ) . Thus the inhibition of alkaline phosphatase indicates a
general distiirb:rnce of various physiological ;irocesses of the
(.;luc.ose-B-pliosI,Iiatase catalyses the hrealidown of
glucose-B-pliospl.iate to glucose and phosphoric acid. The
hF-drolysis of plucose-6-phosphate is a kej- step I n gluconeo-
genesis and in the conversion of liver glycogen to blood glucose
(HOCHACIIAKA). Thus the elevation in the glncose-6-phosphatnse
actirit7- accelerates thc conversion of liver glycogen to blood
glucose, while the inhibition in enzyme act,ivitj- adversely affect
the process. O N I L ~ et. al. (1983, iinpiihlished findings)
recorded a decrease in t'he hepatic glycogen content with a
convoniitnnt increase in the Mood gliicose leveliip to 7 2 11 of
aldrin exposure to M . Imnrirre i , after 7% 11 a decrease in the
glucose level was noted, which support the present findings.
Thus i t is concliided that the exposure of aldrin to Jf.
lanzccrrei creates a widespread disturbance in the general
physiological process which i11tiniatelj- valises the death of the
A c kiiowledgeirieiit
>luthors (OYKAR orid RAX JIuRTI) are grateful to L-niversity
Grants Commission, SelT Delhi for financial assistanoe.
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OMKAR, et al.: Aldrin Induced Changes of Phosphatases 613
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Anaehrift der Verfasser:
Dr. OSIKAR, RAM MURTI and G. S. SIIUKLA, Pollution Relevant
Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of
Gorakhpur, IND - 273001 Gorakhpur.