Relationship with Macedonians
The Sogdian RockUse the clip from In the Footsteps of Alexander to answer the following questions:1. What was it about the Sogdian Rock that made it supposedly impenetrable? 2. How did Alexander overcome the challenge of the Sogdians to find soldiers who can fly?
Alexander Gets Married!After the capture of the Sogdian Rock, Alexander fell in love with Roxane the daughter of Oxyartes, the local satrap. They were married in a traditional Persian ceremony.
The picture of the ceremony is from a later Indian source.
Was it love or politics?
In small groups discuss whether you think Alexander married for love or politics.
Some things to think about....Roxanne was the daughter of Oxyartes (local baron who Alex defeated in The Sogdian Rock) Why did Alex choose to get married in a traditional Persian ceremony? What were the positive and negative outcomes of this?
The Policy of FusionAlexander knew that if he was to rule the Persian Empire, he would need to gain the support of the Persians. This seems to have been his main motivation behind his Policy of Fusion, the name given to his attempts to bring Greeks and Persians together. Some features of the Policy of Fusion: Appointment of Persians to leadership positions (First example Mazaeus was reappointed satrap of Babylon) Adoption of Persian dress by Alexander. Adoption of some Persian customs (eg. proskynesis).
Problems caused by the Policy of Fusion Burning of Persepolis 330BC Death of Philotas and Parmenio 330BC Death of Cleitus 328BC Callisthenes and proskynesis 327BC Royal Pages Conspiracy 327BC Mutiny on the Hyphasis 326BC Journey through Gedrosia 325 BC Execution of Generals of Medea 325BC Flight of Harpalus 325BC Mutiny at Opis 324BC The Susa Weddings 324BC
The Burning of the Palace at PersepolisArrians version: Alexander wished to punish the Persians for their invasion of Greece; his present act was retribution for the destruction of Athens, the burning of the temples, and all the other crimes they had committed against the Greeks. My own view is that this was bad policy.Read Diodorus account of the burning of the palace (booklet), then Plutarchs (Artus p.63)
Answer the questions in your booklet on p. 5
THEN highlight the key parts in Diodorus account
The Conspiracy of Philotas
The Conspiracy of Philotas PhilotasBoyhood friend of AlexanderCommander of Companion CavalryWhy get rid of him? He was an egomaniac who often boasted of his achievements and belittled Alexanders Others had reported his disloyalty to Alex. He and his father represented the older Macedonians who had served under Philip and did not support the Policy of Fusion. He could be a potential rival to Alex - conspirators against Alex would look to him for help Alex was becoming increasingly paranoid If he made an example of Philotas, other conspirators would be discouraged.
The Conspiracy of Philotas ParmenioMurdered at EcbatanaBy officers acting under Alexs ordersIn 330BCParmenio was executed as well the reason for (his) execution may have been that Alexander could not believe that he had no share in his sons conspiracy; on the other hand, even granting his innocence, his living on after his sons execution was already in fact a danger; for he was a man of immense prestige: he had great influence not only with Alexander but also with the army and not only the Macedonian units, but also with the mercenary soldiers. - Arrian
The Murder of CleitusCleitusGeneral in armyHad served under PhilipSaved Alexs life at GranicusKilled at MaracandaEvents leading to Cleitus death (flowchart)
TASK: In your booklets (p. 9) make a flowchart of events leading to Cleitus death. The first one has been done for you.
Callisthenes and ProskynesisComplete the notes on this, using Hamilton (top p105-top p107) and Artus p.95Persians: This is showing respect to someone of greater social rank. And who is greater than the Great King?Greeks: We only bow down before the gods. No way should this be done before a mortal man it is hubris.
The Pages Conspiracy
The Pages ConspiracyThe Necessary Knowledge: (Booklet p. 11)Who were the Royal Pages?Why did the Pages get upset with Alexander?What did they plan to do about it?Why did the plot fail?How was Callisthenes involved? And what happened to him? What events related to the conspiracy?
The Two Mutinies at the River Beas/Hyphasis (India) 326BC at Opis (Central Persia) 324BCWatch the clip and note down what happens.Fill in the table in your booklet (p. 12)Watch the clip again which bit is which?
The Mutiny at the River Beas (Hyphasis)The Necessary Knowledge:List the reasons why Alexanders men refused to go any further than the river Beas.How did Alexander react to the mutiny? Why did he decide to take an alternative route back?
The Gedrosian DesertThe Gedrosian Desert 325BC
Read Artus account of the crossing of the desert (pg.69). As a class: Brainstorm the difficulties faced by the Macedonians in this crossing. 2. Read the accounts of the crossing of the Gedrosian Desert by Arrian (Artus pages 70-71). Why did Alexander want to cross the Desert? What action does Arrian call one of Alexanders noblest?What evidence is there of Alexanders excellent leadership skills during the difficult march through Gedrosia?The Gedrosian DesertPic: www.livius.orgThe Gedrosian Desert 325BC
Hamilton 128-130, Artus p.721. Which Macedonians were involved in the abuse of power? How many?2. What were the charges?3. How did Alexander react?4. Why did Alexander punish them so severely?
Result: Fear spread throughout the empire and even Harpalus fled in fear.The Macedonian Generals of Media
Harpalus was one of Alexanders boyhood friends, who had been left with the job of looking after Alexanders Treasury at Babylon in 331. Six years later, upon hearing that Alexander was returning to Babylon, Harpalus panicked and fled with 5000 talents and 6000 men.Where to and Why?Athens. Harpalus had become corrupt and misspent Alexanders money. Alex had executed a number of his officials. H feared he was next. H had been made Athenian citizen.What happened?H tried to stir up a rebellion against Alexander. Athens refused H. entry to city, because of his army. Took his forces to Taenarum and left them there. This time, Athens put him under open arrest and took his 700 remaining talents.The Harpalus Affair
The Susa Weddings 324BC
The Wedding Ceremonies:
The weddings were celebrated after the Persian manner, seats being placed in a row for the bridegrooms; and after the banquet the brides came in and seated themselves, each one near her own husband. The bridegrooms took them by the right hand and kissed them; the king being the first to begin, for the weddings of all were conducted in the same way. This appeared the most popular thing which Alexander ever did; and it proved his affection for his Companions. Each man took his own bride and led her away; and on all without exception Alexander bestowed dowries, He also ordered that the names of all the other Macedonians who had married any of the Asiatic women should be registered. They were over 10,000 in number; and to these Alexander made presents on account of their weddings. The wedding ceremonies lasted for 5 days and took place in a luxurious tent erected for the occasion.
Who married who?
Alexander married 2 princesses, the eldest daughter of Darius, Barsine, and the youngest daughter of Artaxerxes III.
Hephaistion married another daughter of Darius (so that Alexander was uncle to his children).
The other companions married Persian noble women; more than 90 noble marriages were celebrated and each pair was given a handsome dowry by Alexander.
Alexander also ordered all the Macedonians who had previously married Asiatic women to register their marriages. 10,000 men followed this order and Alexander rewarded them with wedding gifts. (This act was designed to improve relations with his troops and it had nothing to do with the policy of fusion which was confined to Macedonians and Persians, not all Asians).
The Susa Weddings 324BCAnswer the following questions:
Briefly describe how the Susa Weddings were staged.How and why did Alexander acknowledge existing relationships between Greeks and Persians?
TASK: To what extent did Alexander believe in the Brotherhood of Man? Was the policy of fusion about equality between races, or maintenance of an Empire?
Explain your view in 400 words, using examples from the information gathered over the past few lessons.The significance of the Susa Weddings:
Many of these marriages did not last after Alexanders death but they were very important:Symbolic of the fact that power had now passed to the Macedonians.Marked the fact that Alexander was now the Great King ruling in anoriental style as the absolute monarch (the weddings were another example ofAlexanders policy of fusion).
**Video Clip: Footsteps of Alexander 20 the Sogdian Rock