All cells need ENERGY to: Digest Molecules Build Molecules Move Molecules Organize Molecules.

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All cells need ENERGY to:Digest Molecules Build MoleculesMove MoleculesOrganize MoleculesThe form of energy cells use is CHEMICAL.Cells chemical energy is found in ATP.ATPADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATEPOATPENERGYENERGYADPATPPOAdenosine Triphosphate =adenosinePOPOPOAdenosine Diphosphate =adenosinePOPOHow does a cell obtain energy?1.) Trapping light energy

photosynthesis = Sunlight/UV radiation Glucose

2.) Eating other organic material

Respiration = Glucose 36 ATPRespiration ATPProcess that converts, packages, changes energy into a usable form Light Energy

Electromagnetic SpectrumLight Energy

Bacteria Experiment with PhotosynthesisQuick Quiz!! Which condition will allow a plant to grow the best?

Yellow lightBlue lightOrange lightGreen lightRed lightViolet lightWhite lightBlack light12345678910111213141516171819Structure of a chlorplast

Photosynthesis capturing light energy

Photosynthesis Light Reactions

Quick Quiz!! What is produced during the light reactions?

GlucoseOxygenCarbon dioxidesunlight12345678910111213141516171819Photosynthesis capturing light energy

Photosynthesis Dark Reactions, Calvin Cycle

Quick Quiz!! Of the reactants in the Calvin Cycle, which comes from the light reactions?

ATPCarbon dioxideWaterGlucosePGAL12345678910111213141516171819Photosynthesis capturing light energyConnection Between Light Dependent Rxn and Calvin CycleQuick Quiz!! Where does photosynthesis take place?

CytoplasmCell membraneCell wallChloroplastMitochondrion12345678910111213141516171819PhotosynthesisENERGY (sunlight)+ 6CO2Carbon dioxide+ 6H2O waterC6H12O6 glucose+ 6O2 oxygenPhotosynthesis vs. Respiration6 CO2 + 6 H2OPhotosynthesisRespirationEnergy Changes:Glucose (C6H12O6) + Oxygen (6 O2)Energy6 CO2 + 6 H2O 36 ATPEnergyEnergyAmount of energy stored in chemical bondsPhotosynthetic cells carry on both processesSome eukaryotic cellsAll Eukarytoic cells carry on respirationQuick Quiz!! Which process occurs in fungi?

PhotosynthesisRespirationNeitherBoth12345678910111213141516171819Cellular Respiration Releasing Chemical Energy2 Steps in releasing energy from glucose:- Glycolysis- Respiration(or Fermentation)GlycolysisGlucose2 ATPPyruvic AcidEnergyPyruvic AcidQuick Quiz!! What is glycolysis?

A process that splits glucoseA process that releases energy from chemical bondsA process that creates pyruvic acidAll of these are true12345678910111213141516171819Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle)Pyruvic AcidCO2Acetyl GroupCoenzyme AAcetyl CoACitric Acid CycleAcetyl GroupCO2CO2e-NAD+FADFADH2NADHElectron Transport Chaine-EnergyADP34 ATP+ H+ + O2 =H2OCristaeMatrixQuick Quiz!! Where does the electron go after passing through the electron transport chain?

WaterATPglucose12345678910111213141516171819Respiration+ ENERGY (ATP and Heat) 6CO2Carbon dioxide+ 6H2O waterC6H12O6 glucose+ 6O2 oxygenLightReactionsElectronTransportChainGlycolysisDarkReactionsC6H12O6 Simple SugarContaining storedChemical energyNADPHH+ATP6H20 6O2CO2~36 ATPCitric AcidCycleChloroplastMitochondrionCytoplasmReview - PhotosynthesisGoal: To trap UV energy into chemical energy = GLUCOSELocation: Chloroplast in photosynthetic cellsSteps:1) Light is absorbed within the photosynthetic membranes(chlorophyll of photosystem I and photosystem II.)Water is split2) High energy electrons produced through the absorption of UV light are passed down an electron transport chain.3) As energy is lost from electrons, NADPH and ATP are produced through the conversion of energy into chemical bonds in those molecules.4) ATP and NADPH are used in the CALVIN CYCLE to convert CO2 to glucose (1 carbon compound into a 6 carbon compound)RespirationGoal: To convert chemical (food) energy into small packages so that usage can be efficient and least amount possible is lost as heatLocation: Mitochondria in all eukaryotic cells

Steps:1) Glucose is broken down into pyruvic acid (3 carbon compound) outside of the mitochondrial membranewithout oxygenANEROBIC PROCESS. Pyruvic Acid converts to an acetyl group (2 carbon compound).2) Acetyl group gets picked up by Coenzyme A and is transported to the Krebs Cycle3) The cycle pulls apart high energy bonds left after glycolysis and releases electrons.4) High energy electrons are delivered to the ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN. Their energy is reduced to produce ATP.5) Energy depleted electrons combine with oxygen and hydrogen to form water.Quick Quiz!! What is missing from this formula?C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy

GlucoseCarbon dioxideOxygenWaterHeatSummaryGlucoseGlycolysisPyruvic AcidKrebs CycleElectron Transport Chain2 ATP2 ATP32 ATPGrand Total:36 ATPAnaerobic CyclesWhen you are out of oxygen you resort to anaerobic cyclesGlucosePyruvic AcidLactic Acid FermentationAlcoholic Fermentation2 molecules of ATPCarbon DioxideLactic AcidEx. Muscle cells2 molecules of ATPCarbon DioxideAlcoholEx. Yeast, microorganismsQuick Quiz!! What is the key difference between cellular respiration and fermentation?

12345678910111213141516171819Fermentation creates much less ATP.Respiration is less efficient.C. Fermentation is used more frequently in animal cells.


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