Analyzing of Organizational Factors on Work Ethic - Work ethic is a factor that makes people to have…

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<ul><li><p>Online Access: </p><p>*Corresponding author: Sahar Farahnak M.A. Student of management University of Guilan Campus, Iran. </p><p>E-Mail: </p><p>48 </p><p>Management and Administrative Sciences Review </p><p>Volume 5, Issue 1 </p><p>Pages: 48-59 </p><p>January 2016 </p><p>e-ISSN: 2308-1368 </p><p>p-ISSN: 2310-872X </p><p>Analyzing of Organizational Factors on Work Ethic </p><p>Mahmoudreza Mostaghimi1, Dr. Mohammad Doostar2, Sahar Farahnak3* </p><p>1. Assistant Professor Of Management, University Of Guilan, Rasht, Iran </p><p>2. Associated Professor Of Management University Of Guilan .Rasht .Iran </p><p>3. M.A. Student of management University of Guilan Campus, Iran </p><p>Work ethic is a factor that makes people to have sense of duty and work regulation. Since ethics makes people be committed and makes them be sensitive toward their duties and job behavior in the best way without external factor controller, paying attention to the concept of work ethics is like paying attention to ethics and human relationships. The existence of work ethics increases the productivity, sustainable development, human cultural development, management stability and economic order level in an organization. There are several factors in different dimensions that affect the work ethics. The goal of this study is to examine the effects of organizational factors, organizational justice, participatory management, motivation and the role of ambiguity and training on work ethics of Melli bank staff of the Guilan province and providing a solution to increase it. This research is a descriptive correlational design. The statistical society of this research includes all Melli bank staff of the Guilan province. 225 people were selected through quota sampling. This questionnaire consists of 52 questions. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS and Smart PLS3. The findings show that all hypotheses were confirmed and among them the organizational justice, participatory management, motivation, and education on work ethics have a positive impact and the factor of role ambiguity has a negative impact on work ethics. </p><p>Keywords: Work ethic, organizational factors, participatory management, organizational justice, training, motivation, role ambiguity </p><p>INTRODUCTION </p><p>Organizations will improve by using organizational investments and these investments are defined in two concepts of financial and human that combination of them will fulfill the improvement of human goals. Today, the dynamics of the organizations and administrative </p><p>system by itself requires new technology, restructuring and additional investments; although these factors are important, human has a main role in management and organizational excellence (Goshtasp, 2010). </p><p></p></li><li><p>Manag. Adm. Sci. Rev. e-ISSN: 2308-1368, p-ISSN: 2310-872X Volume: 5, Issue: 1, Pages: 48-59 </p><p>49 </p><p>Current world is the world of organizations and the administrators of organizations are the human resources that empower the spirit and body of it and moving forward more efficiency (Mirsepasi, 1997). In addition to social, economic and political environment in each country, the characteristics of people in that society is the key success in some developed countries. The people in every society are the main source and energy for development in each country (Movahhed, 1375). This objective can be achieved when the original source of this effort if the industrious people, labor-intensive, equipped with awakened consciousness are available in the society. Abundant natural resources, vast production opportunities and great scenes of action will have no result unless the awakened consciousness in society has become internalized (Alvani, 1997). Various issues has been raised regarding to work ethics and reinforcement in importance and necessity fields that each one to some extend has explained this social strategic phenomenon, in spite of importance and role of this developing basic phenomenon, people`s behavior in different organizations all over the country shows the weakness of work ethic as a cultural feature in society and is needed to be reinforced. Perhaps because of increasing unresolved problems, lack of understanding the relationships between components and intensified variables that have made these problems; in other words work ethic reinforcement and/or any other social and cultural phenomenon needs to discover the source of that phenomenon till to identify its reason and the effective factors on it (Safari et al., 2011). Considering the importance of staff work ethic and self-control in performance and results, appropriate platforms should be provided in organizations to institutionalized work ethic and self-consciousness culture in organizations. Organizations that have recognized the importance role of human resources in work improvement, value of committed and conscientious labor work, hence, the important resources use a lot of energy to create an environment where staff be involved with the innate desire to improve the performance of the system (Salehi et al., 2012). Regarding to the fact that government staff are as an important part of the executive body and service in country, is at a high position, and the success of each organization </p><p>and achievement of any goal in different dimensions is due to their hard work and effort, so this research is trying to examine the organizational factors affecting the staff`s work ethics of melli bank branches in Guilan province and the impact of organizational factors on staff`s work ethics. Cognitive achievement to this has a key role in presenting solutions and guidelines to improve the staffs` work ethics. </p><p>LITRATURE REVIEW </p><p>Work Ethic: Work ethics is an accurate definite of a good worker or staff`s characteristics that include issues such as competence, discipline, sense of duty, attempt to succeed, restraint and caution in making decision (Grosi Farshi, 1380). Indicators of the work ethic include competence, discipline, sense of duty, effort as a basis of success, restraint and caution in decision-making (Kasta and Mc. Gray). </p><p>Factors Affecting the Work Ethic: Regarding to the factors affecting the work ethic, examining the sociological and administrative resources show that these factors are noteworthy in two dimensions: first, the factors that create the culture, ethics, and work ethics from outside and before entering the person to the organization, and during the socialization and sociability which includes family, school and educational centers; the second factors are those which affect the person`s behavior, ethics and work ethics after entering to the organization (Goshtasb and et. 2010). This study investigated the organizational factors. Concerning to noticeable number of classified factors in each branch, only those factor that were applied in most previous researches has been selected. These factors include: organizational justice, participatory management, motivation and staff training. the following describes the addressed issues. </p><p>Main Hypothesis: Organizational factors affect the work ethic of Melli bank staff of the Guilan province. </p><p>Organizational Justice: Organizational justice refers to subjective perception of individuals from organization`s fairness in resource allocation, rewards and punishments and is a multi-</p></li><li><p>Manag. Adm. Sci. Rev. e-ISSN: 2308-1368, p-ISSN: 2310-872X Volume: 5, Issue: 1, Pages: 48-59 </p><p>50 </p><p>dimensional structure (Amirkhani and Aghaz, 2012). </p><p>First Hypothesis: Organizational Justice affects the work ethic of Melli bank staff of the Guilan province. </p><p>Participatory Management: Participative management is a kind of management that its philosophy of it is decentralization in making decision and in fact, in this management, the power is delegated from a high level to subordinates and horizontal coordination is approved (Salehi et al., 2012). </p><p>Second Hypothesis: Participatory management affects the work ethic of Melli bank staff of the Guilan province. </p><p>The Role Ambiguity: The role ambiguity is the lack of clarity in relation to the role of individuals (Arshadi &amp; Shekarshekan 2007). </p><p>Third Hypothesis: The role ambiguity affects the work ethic of Melli bank staff of the Guilan province. </p><p>Training: Nou (1999) stated that Staff training refers to a planned work for an organization in order to facilitate learning competence associated with the job reference. These competence contains knowledge, skills or behaviors that are crucial for successful careers (Abbas Pourdehghani, 2012). </p><p>Fourth Hypothesis: Staff training affects the work ethic of Melli bank staff of the Guilan province. </p><p>Motivation: The term motivation means dynamic and motivation. In organizational point of view, motivation consists of and internal factor that makes changes in behavior and movement toward prompting organizational goals (Bahadori et al., 2012). </p><p>Fifth Hypothesis: Staff training affects the work ethic of Melli bank staff of the Guilan province. </p><p>Domestic and Foreign Literature: Alirezaee et al., (2013) examined the relationship between work ethic with job performance. The results show that work ethics dimensions (reliability and success oriented) has a meaningful and positive relation </p><p>with job performance (task performance and contextual). </p><p>Fathi et al., (2013) explained the relationship between organizational socialization with work ethics of Sports and Youth workers North West of Iran. These findings show that there is a meaningful and positive relation between organizational socialization and its components (training, understanding, staff support and future point of view from organization) with work ethic. </p><p>Jozberg and Sundin (2009) have conducted a research and examined the challenges and psychological stress that affects individuals and causes their work ethic. The results show that situational factors and personal problems as two important factors, can influence an individual`s work ethic in an organization. </p><p>In another study by Jenson and Lidel (2009)s, the effects of ethic on business activities have been discussed. In this study, the ethic have been examined in three aspects including ethic as a work stimulant, deterrent and as a resource of work motivation and the results of this research have shown that individuals accepted the ethic as an important factor that leads to all three cases that has been mentioned above. </p><p>Conceptual Model: Figure 1 has demonstrated the conceptual model. </p><p>FIGURE 1 HERE </p><p>Research Objectives </p><p>This research is done in order to achieve the following objectives: </p><p>Evaluation of the impact of organizational factors on work ethic of Melli bank staff of the Guilan province. Providing a solution to improve the work ethic of Melli bank staff of the Guilan province. Research Method: The research approach of this study is descriptive and the method is survey research. The statistics include all Melli bank staff of the Guilan province that the number of staff is 1426 and by using Kokran formula, the confidence coefficient and sample size respectively was estimated 95% and 225. These numbers have been </p></li><li><p>Manag. Adm. Sci. Rev. e-ISSN: 2308-1368, p-ISSN: 2310-872X Volume: 5, Issue: 1, Pages: 48-59 </p><p>51 </p><p>selected by quota sampling that has been determined based on the number of staff and sample size in each city. The collected data is a 52 item questionnaire in which Niehoff and Moorman (1996) has been used for assessment of organizational justice (9 questions), Shepherd questionnaire (2010) to evaluate participatory management (6 questions), a researcher made questionnaire to assess training (4 questions), Hackman and Oldham questionnaire (1976) for assessing motivation (4 questions), Rizzo and et. questionnaire (1970) to evaluate the role ambiguity (4 questions) and Kaska and Mac. Gray questionnaire (1992) for assessing the work ethic (25 questions). Cronbach`s alpha coefficient has been used for validation and reliability and results show that alpha for organizational justice, participatory management, training, motivation, role ambiguity and work ethic respectively are 0.947, 0.875, 0.857, 0.838, 0.856 and 0.904 which are appropriate for questionnaire reliability. In order to analyze the data, descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation are used to evaluate the research variables and inferential statistics using structural equation modeling, load factors and level of significance. Inferential statistics have been analyzed using partial square analysis and Smart PLS3 application. </p><p>Research Findings: Evaluating the Normality Distribution of Data: First of all in order to review and test of hypotheses, the normality of data should be examined. In this study the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is presented to examine the normality of variables and the related results have been shown in table 1. </p><p>TABLE 1 HERE </p><p>As has been mentioned in all examined variables, a significant level of type I error rate in 0.05 is lower. Thus, assuming the normality of examined variables is not accepted. Since the data in this research do not have a normal distribution, they are using partial least squares method and Smart PLS3 application. </p><p>The Research Measuring Model Fit: Measuring model is a part of a general model including a variable along its questions (Davari and </p><p>Rezazadeh, 1392). Three criteria such as reliability index, convergent validity, and Discriminant In order to measuring model fit have been used. </p><p>Reliability Index: The reliability index is measured by three criteria such as factor loading coefficients, Cronbach's alpha, and composite reliability. Questions 1, 4, 6, 10, 11, 12, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 35, 43, 47, 49 were excluded from the model due to the following factor loading. Cronbach's alpha coefficient and composite reliability of are shown in Table 2. </p><p>TABLE 2 HERE </p><p>As shown in Table (1) you can see that all factors have acceptable combined reliability coefficient. The reliability coefficient is also acceptable; so it can be concluded that the questionnaire has an appropriate reliability. </p><p>Convergent Validity: The average variance extracted (AVE) is used to evaluate the convergent validity (Davari and Rezazadeh 2013). The results of convergent validity are shown in Table 3 and demonstrate the model convergent validity in all dimensions (values above 0.5). </p><p>TABLE 3 HERE </p><p>Discriminant: In this study in order to demonstrate the independence of used concepts in research, the Discriminant using Fornell and Larker has been used (Davari and Rezazadeh 2013) which its results are presented in Table 4. Regarding to these results the Discriminant of measurement model has been confirmed. </p><p>TABLE 4 HERE </p><p>The research structure model fit: </p><p>t-value Significant coefficients: The existing significant relationship between variables in order to examine the existence of relationship between the variables should be considered (Davari and Rezazadeh, 2013). There are significant results in the Table 5. </p><p>TABL...</p></li></ul>