Text of ANCIENT GREECE. 3 Major Periods of Ancient Greece Civilizations 1. Early Civilizations: Minoans...
3 Major Periods of Ancient Greece Civilizations 1. Early Civilizations: Minoans (Crete) and Mycenaens 2. Classical Greece (flourishing of arts, literature, philosophy; domination by Sparta and Athens) 3. Hellenistic Age: Macedonian Empire and Alexander the Great
3 Major Periods of Ancient Greece Civilizations
Geographic Features 1.Sea: heavy influence on physical environment of Greece (Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea) 2.Mountains (with narrow valleys): cover more than of Greeces surface area and islands: more than 2000 islands (Crete being the largest) 3.No major rivers on Greek mainland but fertile soil 4.Climate: winter= mild climate; summer= hot climate with rainfall from October to March = long growing season
Resources and Crops RESOURCES grain fine cheese made of goats milk timber wild game wool of sheep = cloth MOST IMPORTANT CROPS olives = oil grapes = wine grain clay = pottery
Effects of Geography Seafaring tradition: reliance on navy and fleets for power and protection Sea provided link to trade and cultural exchange with Mediterranean communities Isolationism: protection but lack of effective communication Greece was (eventually) organized into polis - independent city states- separated by seas and rugged mountains Emergence of dominant city states (Athens, Sparta)
Minoan Civilization 3000 1100 BC developing on the island of Crete while Egypt and Mesopotamia were flourishing civilization was named after legendary King Minos, whose father was said to be Zeus
Early Greeks: Early Bronze Age The Minoans c. 3200 -1400 BCE Lived on island of Crete Great navigators and farmers Palace led political, social and economic organization at Knossos Artistic expressions and grand construction Advancements in bronze Matriarchal society Center of worship was a mother goddess Earth goddesses portrayed in various forms.
Palace of Minos at Knossos (NOSS-oss) Palaces controlled all agricultural goods and products Palaces became the centers of exchange for Minoan economy Palaces had dozens of interconnecting rectangular rooms on two or more stories which were grouped around a large open courtyard (administrative and religious)
Palace of Minos at Knossos (NOSS-oss)
Minoan Culture Art work at Knossos shows dangerous sports such as leaping over the backs of charging bulls as well as dancing, athletics, and festivals.
T HEORIES FOR DECLINE OF MINOANS 1750 BCE- earthquake destroys Minoan palaces 1628 BCE- volcano erupts at Thera 1400 BCE- War between Minoans and Mycenaeans led to decline of power
The Mycenaean World
Mycenaean c. 1500 1100 BCE The civilization named by archeologists after the fortress city, Mycenae. Mycenaeans were more aggressive, patriarchal in nature May have come from Russia or parts of Mesopotamia (Kurgans).
Mycenaeans c. 1500 1100 BCE Mycenaeans took control of Crete at Knossos by 1300 BCE Mycenaeans controlled mainland Greece = main political centre was Mycenae More interested in war as pottery and grave sites reflect hunting, weapons, armor and war as well as fortified palace walls
Mycenae Citadel & Reconstuction
Mycenaean religion Seems to have been a mixture of Minoan influences and local deities. There were two types of deities 1. Some were predecessors of Olympian gods and goddesses worshipped by later Greeks and bore the same name. 2. Others were nature divinities and spirits.
THEORIES FOR DECLINE OF MYCEANEANS Shift in climate leading to drought forcing Mycenaeans to migrate to more fertile lands Tribe of nomadic warriors from north of Greece (Dorians) destroyed Mycenaeans
Dark Ages: 1100800 BC After collapse of Mycenaean civilization, a 300 year period called Dark Ages Domination by Doric speaking inhabitants from the north Bronze gives way to iron Transitional time: literacy, culture and daily life; scarce records Mycenaeans flee to Asia Minor. Early Greeks establish life around Aegean and Mediterranean Seas Development of polis: small, independent & loyal
The Archaic Greek Age (Renaissance): 800450 BC After the Dark Ages, the Greeks emerged with a common language, heroic stories, myths, religious practices and trading interests. Oligarchies flourished until emergence of Greek democracy 6 th century BC Eventual creations by Sophocles, Aeschylus, Euripides and the philosophical schools of Socrates and Plato
Archaic Period: Greek Renaissance 800 450 BCE Significant events 1) National literature 2) Resurgence of trade 3) Colonization of Sicily and Italy 4) Olympic Games -776 BCE 5) Stone sculptures of human figures 6) Rise of city states (polis)