Joseph Campbells Journey of a Hero Based on The Hero with a Thousand Faces: a Theory for All the Ages.
ANCIENTS AND ARCHETYPES
Joseph Campbells hero cycle Joseph Campbells Journey of a Hero
Based on The Hero with a Thousand Faces: a Theory for All the Ages. = = = = Gilgamesh Odysseus Aeneus Buddha Moses Joseph Campbell, a historian/writer/linguist/mythologist, studied ancient texts and traveled the world to understand myths from both eastern and western cultures.He noticed uncanny connections among the heroes of the ancient world. (Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, 1949.)
The MonoMYTH It will always be the one, shape-shifting yet marvelouslyconstant story that we find, together with achallengingly persistent suggestion of more remainingto be experienced than will ever be known or told. (Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, 1949.) Campbell found connections and patterns among characters, which are called ARCHETYPES.Writers should not be frozen by the fear of repeating the same old story, because every hero brings new details or circumstances that will interest the reader.The Hero Cycle is not a formulaits a naturally occurring phenomenon that humans have been repeating as long as stories have been told! arch = first, orginal and type = model
ARCHETYPES arch = first, orginaland type = model Around the same time that Joseph Campbell was writing about theheros journey, Carl Jung theorized that different character types are apart of our psyche were all telling the same story based on ourcollective unconscious. Archetypes: The heroThe explorerThe trickster The innocentThe shadowThe child The caregiverThe anima/animusThe maiden Modern-day writers and filmmakers often study Campbells work to create characters who represent archetypes like: the hero, the mentor, the villain, the trickster, etc.d Youve already experiencedthe hero cycle if youve seenor read:
The Matrix Star Wars Excalibur Superhero movies likeSuperman, Batman, etc. Pinocchio The Odyssey The Legend of King Arthur Indiana Jones movies Several biblical parables Aladdin (and most otherDisney movies) Star Wars is often used as anexample of the hero cycle becauseGeorge Lucas stumbled across a copyof Hero with a Thousand Faces andthen consulted with Joseph Campbellas he developed his master blueprintfor the films. OVERVIEW of the hero cycle
Each chapter within the book Hero with a Thousand Faces can be interpretedas a substep of the hero cycle (there are 17 substeps). Some writers/mythologists have condensed the steps or they may call themby different names.The gist the heros tale is always the same! The steps of the hero cycle do not have to unfold in a specific order, but theydo typically follow these three major steps:separation, initiation, and return. Heres a condensed version ofthe hero cycle that displaysthe most important steps! Heres a really, really, reallycondensed graphic image ofthe hero cycle! How are you like harry potter, Frodo baggins, and Katniss everdeen?
Link to TED Ed Lesson: CALL to adventure There are 4 major types of calls:
1) Something has been taken: the quest is to find it 2) Something is missing in life: the quest isto find what is lacking 3) Honor has been sullied: someones good name or reputation must be restored 4) Something is not permitted: the quest is to right the wrongs of the world CALL to adventure Some heroes are willing to go on theadventure (like Harry Potter orEnder); others are reluctant orunwilling, at least at first (like BilboBaggins). transformative crisis v. gradual call heralds (often a stranger or ananimal) may deliver the call Transformative crisis:Prims name is called at the Reaping. Harrys call to adventure is announced via an animal (owls), then a stranger (Hagrid). The hero may not be 100% on board right away!
Refusal of the call The hero may not be 100% on board right away! Look for an obvious negative reaction OR just a last moment of hesitancybefore the hero leaves the ordinary world based on fears of the unknown or societal/familial/cultural constraints may be manifested through a regret or desire for normalcy the call may be refused on behalf of the hero by someone else can only result in stagnation, disintegration, and death, so this alwaysleads up to an ACCEPTANCE OF THE CALL "We are plain quiet folk and have no use for adventures
"We are plain quiet folk and have no use for adventures. Nasty uncomfortable things! Make you late for dinner! I can't see what anybody sees in them...we don't want any adventures here, thank you! You might try over The Hill or across The Water. ~ Bilbo Baggins, The Hobbit Supernatural aid (mentors and helpers)
Heroes get help along the way! 1) Mentors are protective figures whocounsel or teach the hero. 2) Helpers or sidekicks are sometimes calledthe loyal companions. 3) Aid can arrive in the form of a magicalobject called a talisman (sword, map,helmet, ring, light saber, etc.) MENTORS: Mentors dont always wear pointy hats and long,white beards.Can you identify these mentors? Can you name the sidekicks for these heroes? Crossing the threshold
Leaving the ordinary world passage must be earnedby overcoming somekind of obstacle threshold is often blocked by an adversary or guardian who requires the hero to rethink theplan threshold = the territory between the knownand the unknown The Star Wars cantina scene is a famous crossing the threshold moment, because Luke encounters strange beings and must overcome obstacles to leave his ordinary life behind. Click on the image above or on this link to see a Lego rendition of the cantina scene: Belly of the whale/into the abyss
Pausea hero is born! The final stage of leaving the ordinary and moving into the known world iscalled the BELLY OF THE WHALE (if the hero is in an enclosed womb-likespace) or INTO THE ABYSS (if the hero is alone and wandering).Its a timeof contemplation, and often includes imagery of death (of the old self) andbirth (of the hero, ready to face trials and challenges). 2) The Belly of the Whale step = a symbol of the womb a form of self-annihilation a near-death (or death of the old ways/the old self) and a resurrection A series of obstacles/challenges/quests
THE ROAD OF TRIALS A series of obstacles/challenges/quests Common types of TRIALS include:brother battle, dragon battle,abduction/sea/night journeys, symbolic dismemberment or death. Campbell noted that: tests may be physical or spiritual the trials become progressively more difficult the hero discovers and assimilates his opposite either by swallowing it or by beingswallowed (Cambell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces). 3)Another testfor our hero is facing TEMPTATION (often represented by atemptress character distracting the hero from the intended quest.) THE ROAD OF TRIALS The ultimate trial or challenge is called the Supreme Ordeal You mean you'll put down your rock, and I'llput down my sword and we'll try and kill eachother like civilized people? -- Wesley, The Princess Bride MEETING WITH THE GODDESS
Girl power!Campbell said the woman representsthe totality of what can be known. 1) Be on the lookout for a female character who offersaid/nurturing/healing to the hero in a time of need. 2) Sometimes this character is a love interest, and the story incorporatesa mystical marriage. 3) Sometimes the goddess is more of a fairy godmother/nurturer. 4) A hero may find intuition; a heroin may rely more on logic. Seducing the hero away from his path
THE TEMPTRESS Seducing the hero away from his path 1)the meeting with a woman may be another obstacle to overcome woman = a symbol of life, so recognizing the woman as temptress = a revulsion of the flesh or earthly self The hero finds the power within
transformation The hero finds the power within 1)Ultimately, the hero must come to grips with the thing that held themost power over him in life.For many, thats the father figure.In theATONEMENT stage, the hero becomes at one with himself and hisnew identity as a hero.He realizes (often after encouragement orrecognition) that he has replaced his father he is in control of hisdestiny. 2)APOTHEOSIS happens to some hero figures, when they reach amoment of such triumph that they temporarily feel god-like, like theycan accomplish something that ordinary humans could not. 3)The ULTIMATE BOON is the realization of the quest, but its not alwayswhat the hero was looking for (love, truth, justice, etc.). Watch the following video and search for steps of the hero cycle:
transformation Watch the following video and search for steps ofthe hero cycle: The hero returns to the known world, but hell never be the same
THE RETURN The hero returns to the known world, but hellnever be the same 1) REFUSAL OF THE RETURN: the hero may not feel ready to return toordinary life (Nobody gets me!!) 2)RESCUE FROM WITHOUT:an outside source (sometimessupernatural) helps the hero return home safely 3)MAGIC FLIGHT:the journey home is often miraculously shorterthan the journey away from home (a blessing from the gods) 4)MASTER OF TWO WORLDS: the hero reconciles their experienceson the journey and their existence in the everyday world And the adventure never ends