Andaman & Nicobar- State Action Plan on Climate .State Action Plan on Climate Change Andaman and

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Text of Andaman & Nicobar- State Action Plan on Climate .State Action Plan on Climate Change Andaman and

  • Draft November 2013

    State Action Plan on Climate Change

    Andaman and Nicobar Islands 2013

  • A&N Islands Action Plan on Climate Change i

    Supported by

    United Nations Development Programme

  • A&N Islands Action Plan on Climate Change ii

    FOREWORD (Optional: to be completed)

  • A&N Islands Action Plan on Climate Change iii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    (Optional: to be completed)

  • A&N Islands Action Plan on Climate Change iv

    CONTENTS

    FOREWORD ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii CONTENTS iv

    CHAPTER 1 1 INTRODUCTION 1

    1.1 Background 1 1.2 Climate Change: The Indian Context 2 1.3 National Imperatives to Address Climate Change 3 1.4 Need for Climate Change Action Plan for Andaman and Nicobar Islands 4 1.5 Core Principles of the Andaman and Nicobar Climate Change Action Plan 5

    CHAPTER 2 11 ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS: AN OVERVIEW 11

    2.1 Geographic and Geophysical Profile 11 2.2 Ecological Profile 12 2.3 Demographic Profile 13 2.4 Economic Profile 14

    2.4.1 Small-scale Industries 15 2.4.2 Employment generation 16

    2.5 Social Profile 17 2.6 Governance Profile 18 2.7 Major Sectors 18

    2.7.1 Forests 18 2.7.2 Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 19 2.7.3 Fisheries 19 2.7.4 Industry 19 2.7.5 Tourism 20 2.7.6 Transport 20

    CHAPTER 3 21 CLIMATE PROFILE 21

    3.1 Observed Trends in Global Climate 21 3.2 Projected Changes in Global Climate 21 3.3 Observed Trends in Indian Climate 22 3.4 Climate Profile of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands 24

    3.4.1 Rainfall 24 3.4.2 Temperature 24 3.4.3 Humidity 25 3.4.4 Wind Speed 26

    3.5 Future Climatic Projection for Coastal Areas Including Andaman and Nicobar Islands 26 3.5.1 Annual mean temperature 26

  • A&N Islands Action Plan on Climate Change v

    3.5.2 Sea level rise 27 3.6 Potential Impacts of Climate Change in Coastal Regions in India 28

    CHAPTER 4 30 EXPOSURE PROFILE 30

    4.1 Introduction 30 Cyclone 31 Floods 31

    4.2 Strategies for Addressing High Exposure to Disasters 31 4.3 Relevant Initiatives, Plans, and Policies 33

    Disaster Management Plan, 2010 33

    CHAPTER 5 34 VULNERABILITY OF KEY SECTORS AND SYSTEMS TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND STRATEGIES TO

    ADAPT 34 5.1 Forests and Biodiversity 34

    5.1.1 Overview and Status 34 5.1.2 Threats, Issues, and Challenges 37 5.1.3 Vulnerability to Climate Change 38 5.1.4 Strategies to Address Challenges and Vulnerability to Climate Change: Effective Forest

    Management for the Present and the Future 38 5.1.5 Relevant Initiatives, Plans, and Policies 40 5.1.6 Proposed Plans and their Linkages to the National Action Plan on Climate Change 40 ANI Mission for Green Islands 41 Action Items: 47

    5.2 Coastal Ecosystem and Marine Resources 49 5.2.1 Overview and status 49 5.2.2 Threats, Issues, and Challenges 51 5.2.3 Vulnerabilities to Climate Change 52 5.2.4 Strategies 53 5.2.5 Relevant Initiatives, Plans, and Policies 54 5.2.6 Proposed Plans and their Linkages to the National Action Plan on Climate Change 55 ANI Mission on Sustaining Island Ecosystems 56

    5.3 Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 60 5.3.1 Overview and Status 60 5.3.2 Threats, Issues, and Challenges 61 5.3.3 Vulnerability to Climate Change 62 5.3.4 Strategies: Converting Challenges into Opportunities 63 5.3.5 Relevant Initiatives, Plans, and Policies 64 5.3.6 Proposed Plan and Linkages to the National Action Plan on Climate Change 66 ANI Mission on Sustainable Agriculture 67

    5.4 Fisheries 71 5.4.1 Overview and Status 71 5.4.2 Threats, Issues, and Challenges 72 5.4.3 Vulnerability to Climate Change 73

  • A&N Islands Action Plan on Climate Change vi

    5.4.4 Strategies: Climate-proof, Sustainable Fisheries Development 73 5.4.5 Relevant Initiatives, Plans, and Policies 74 Tuna Mission 2009 75 5.4.6 Proposed Plan and Linkages to the National Action Plan on Climate Change 76

    5.5 Water Resources 78 5.5.1 Overview and Status 78 5.5.2 Threats, Issues, and Challenges 79 5.5.3 Vulnerability to Climate Change 80 5.5.4 Strategies 80 5.5.5 Relevant Initiatives, Plans, and Policies 81 5.5.6 Proposed Plans and Linkages to the National Action Plan on Climate Change 83 ANI Mission on Sustainable Water 84

    5.6 Energy 85 5.6.1 Overview and Status 85 5.6.2 Threats, Issues, and Challenges 87 5.6.3 Strategies 87 5.6.4 Relevant Initiatives, Policies, and Plans 90 5.6.5 Proposed Plans and Linkages to National Action Plan on Climate Change 92 Summary of the Components of the ANI Solar Mission 93 Summary of the ANI Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency 95

    5.7 Tourism 96 5.7.1 Overview and Status 96 5.7.2 Threats, Issues, and Challenges 97 5.7.3 Vulnerability to Climate Change 97 5.7.4 Strategies for Sustainable Island Tourism 98 5.7.5 Relevant Initiatives, Plans, and Policies 99

    5.8 Urban Planning and Transport 101 5.8.1 Overview and Status 101 5.8.2 Threats, Issues, and Challenges 102 5.8.3 Vulnerability to Climate Change 102 5.8.4 Strategies 103 5.8.5 Relevant Initiatives, Plans, and Policies 103 5.8.6 Proposed Plans and Linkages to the National Action Plan on Climate Change 103 ANI Mission on Sustainable Habitat 104

    5.9 Health 105 5.9.1 Overview and Status 105 5.9.2 Vulnerability to Climate Change 106 5.9.3 Strategies 107 5.9.4 Relevant Initiatives, Plans, and Policies 107 5.9.5 Proposed Plans 109

    ACTIVITIES IDENTIFIED FOR PREPARATION OF SECTORAL ACTION PLAN FOR CLIMATE

    CHANGE (SAPCC) FOR ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS 115 Sustainable Habitat Mission 116

    Transport Sector 118 Urban Development Sector 119

  • A&N Islands Action Plan on Climate Change vii

    Abstract of Fund Requirement for sustainable habitat 126 Sustainable Water Mission 127 Mission on Sustainable Agriculture 130

    Component1: Development of Database & Vulnerability Map 130 Component2: Access to Information - Use Of ICT 130 Component3: Surveillance & Monitoring 131 Component4: Contingency Plan 131 Component5: Micro-Level Weather Forecasting & Crop Insurance 132 Component6: Focus on Sustainable Agriculture Development 132 Component 7.Management of Sea Water Intrusion & Change in Coastal Morphology 135 Component8: Reduction in Green House Gas Emission 137 Component9: Socio-Economic Security of Farmers 137 Component10: Capacity Building 138 Component11: Research Need 139 Component12: Soil & Water Conservation 140 Component13: Research Need 141 Abstract of components of Sustainable agriculture 142

    Mission on Green India 144 Component 1. Protection of Existing forest areas 144 Component 2. Increasing density of the Open forests 146 Component 3. Phasing out of monoculture plantations and conversion into secondary forests 148 Component 5. Development of small wood and NTFP based industries 151 Abstract of components for Green India Mission 152

    Mission for Sustaining Island ecosystem 154 Component 1. Management of coastal ecosystem 154 Component 2. Monitoring and Research on Impact of Climate Change on Island Ecosystem & Forests.

    155 Abstract of Sustaining Island ecosystem 156

    Mission on Solar Energy 157 Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency 160 Mission of Strategic Knowledge 162 ANNEXURES 164

    ANNEXURE 1 164 ANNEXURE 2 168

  • A&N Islands Action Plan on Climate Change 1

    CHAPTER 1

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background

    Climate change threatens the basic tenets of life for people around the world access to water,

    food, health, and use of land and the environment. The earth has already warmed by 0.7oC since

    around 1900, and is projected to further warm over the coming decades simply due to historical

    accumulated emissions. As per the current trends, average global temperatures could rise by 2

    30C within the next 50 years or so, leading to many severe impacts, often mediated by water.1

    These impacts would broadly result in rising sea level with serious impacts on coastal

    population including the threat of inundation of low-lying coastal areas and small island

    territories; ocean acidification; coral bleaching; increased heat stress and its health implications,

    collapse and crippled functionality of ecosystems (in terms of provisioning goods and services);

    changes in cropping patterns and declining crop yields; melting of glaciers and the threat of

    floods during wet season; reduction in off-season water supply; etc.

    IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4)2 confirmed the findings of the Third Assessment Report

    (TAR) which stated that small islands territories are the most vulnerable to climate variability

    and long-term climate change impacts.3 It is projected that the rising sea level will result in

    millions of people facing floods each year and this will be particularly severe in island territories,

    with some of them even facing the threat of inundation. The peculiar features of island

    territories, such as small or very small physical size, remoteness from mainland, limited natural

    resources (often with unique animal and plant life), innate vulnerability to natural disasters and

    extreme weather events, economies sensitive to external shocks, populations with high growth

    rates and densities, poorly developed infrastructure, and limited financial and human resources,

    constrain the adaptive capacity of islands to climate change.4

    1 IPCC, 2001 and Nicholas Stern, 2007, The Economics of Climate Change, Cambridge University 2 IPCC, 2007. IPCC Fourth Assessment Report AR4 Climate Change 2007 3 IPCC, 2001 4 Nurse LA et al., 2001. Small island states. In: McCarthy JJ et al., eds. Climate change 2001. Impacts, adaptati