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Text of Android Case Study.pdf

  • 1

    Company /developer Google

    Programmed in C, C++, Java[1]

    OS family Unix-like, Linux

    Initial release September 23, 2008

    Latest stable release 4.1.1 "Jelly Bean"

    Package manager Google Play, APK

    Supported platforms ARM, MIPS,[6] x86[7]

    Official website

    Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California in October 2003 by Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger),[20] Rich

    Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.),[21] Nick Sears[22] (once VP at T-Mobile),[23] and Chris White (headed

    design and interface development at WebTV)[9] to develop, in Rubin's words "...smarter mobile devices that are more

    aware of its owner's location and preferences."[9] Despite the obvious past accomplishments of the founders and early

    employees, Android Inc. operated secretly, revealing only that it was working on software for mobile phones.[9] That same

    year, Rubin ran out of money. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope and

    refused a stake in the company.[24]

    Google acquired Android Inc. on August 17, 2005, making it a wholly owned subsidiary of Google. Key employees of

    Android Inc., including Rubin, Miner and White, stayed at the company after the acquisition.[9] Not much was known about

    Android Inc. at the time, but many assumed that Google was planning to enter the mobile phone market with this

    move.[9] At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google

    marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradable system. Google

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    had lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various

    degrees of cooperation on their part.[25][26][27]

    Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December

    2006.[28] Reports from the BBC and The Wall Street Journal noted that Google wanted its search and applications on

    mobile phones and it was working hard to deliver that. Print and online media outlets soon reported rumors that Google

    was developing a Google-branded handset. Some speculated that as Google was defining technical specifications, it was

    showing prototypes to cell phone manufacturers and network operators. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered

    an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony.[29][30]

    On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device

    manufacturers such as HTC and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint Nextel and T-Mobile, and chipset makers

    such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop open standards for mobile

    devices.[10] That day, Android was unveiled as its first product, a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version

    2.6.[10] The first commercially available phone to run Android was the HTC Dream, released on October 22, 2008.[31] In

    early 2010, Google launched the Google Nexus series - a line of consumer devices implementing the Android operating

    system and built by an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) partner. Google collaborated with HTC to release its first

    Nexus phone[32], the Nexus One. This was followed later in 2010 with the Samsung-madeNexus S and in 2011 with

    the Galaxy Nexus. In 2012, Nexus 7 - the first Nexus tablet, was released in collaboration with Asus.

    The Android Product

    Android is a Linux-based operating system designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such

    as smartphones and tablet computers, developed by Google in conjunction with the Open Handset Alliance.[2] Initially

    developed by Android Inc, whom Google financially backed and later purchased in 2005,[9] Android was unveiled in 2007

    along with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 86 hardware, software,

    and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices.[10]

    Google releases the Android code as open source, under the Apache License.[11] The Android Open Source

    Project (AOSP), lead by Google, is tasked with the maintenance and further development of Android.[12] Additionally,

    Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of devices, written

    primarily in a customized version of Java.[13] They are available for download through Google Play or third-party sites. In

    September 2012, there were more than 675,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications

    downloaded from Google Play was 25 billion.[14]

    The first Android-powered phone was sold in October 2008,[15] and by the end of 2010 Android had become the world's

    leading smartphone platform.[16] It had a worldwide smartphone market share of 68% at the second quarter of 2012,[17] and

    as of Q3 2012, there were 500 million devices activated and 1.3 million activations per day.[18][19]

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    While Android is designed primarily for smartphones and tablets, the open and customizable nature of the operating

    system allows it to be used on other electronics, including laptopsand netbooks, smartbooks,[33] ebook

    readers,[34] and smart TVs (Google TV). Further, the OS has seen niche applications

    on wristwatches,[35] headphones,[36] car CD and DVD players,[37] smart glasses (Project Glass), refrigerators, vehicle

    satnav systems, home automation systems, games consoles, mirrors,[38] cameras,[39][40] portable media

    players[41]landlines,[42] and treadmills.[43]

    The Android logotype was designed along with the Droid font family by Ascender Corporation,[44] the robot icon was

    designed by Irina Blok.[45] Android Green is the color of the Android Robot that represents the Android operating system.

    The print color is PMS 376C and the RGB color value in hexadecimal is #A4C639, as specified by the Android Brand

    Guidelines.[46]The custom typeface of Android is called Norad (cf. NORAD). It is only used in the text logo.[46]


    Figure 1: HTC Evo with Android

    Android's user interface is based on direct manipulation,[47] using touch inputs that loosely correspond to real-world

    actions, like swiping, tapping, pinching and reverse pinching to manipulate on-screen objects.[47] The response to user

    input is designed to be immediate and provides a fluid touch interface. Internal hardware such

    as accelerometers, gyroscopes and proximity sensors are used by some applications to respond to additional user

    actions, for example adjusting the screen from portrait to landscape depending on how the device is oriented, or allowing

    the user to steer a vehicle in a racing game by rotating the device, simulating control of a steering wheel.[48]

    Android devices boot to the homescreen, the primary navigation and information point on the device, which is similar to

    the desktop found on PCs. Android homescreens are typically made up of app icons and widgets; app icons launch the

    associated app, whereas widgets display live, auto-updating content such as the weather forecast, the user's email inbox,

    or a news ticker directly on the homescreen.[49] A homescreen may be made up of several pages that the user can swipe

    back and forth between.

    Present along the top of the screen is a status bar, showing information about the device and its connectivity. This status

    bar can be "pulled" down to reveal a notification screen where apps display important information or updates, such as a

    newly received email or SMS text, in a way that doesn't immediately interrupt or inconvenience the user.[50] In early

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    versions of Android these notifications could be tapped to open the relevant app, but recent updates have provided

    enhanced functionality, such as the ability to call a number back directly from the missed call notification without having to

    open the dialer app first.[51] Notifications are persistent until read or dismissed by the user.

    Applications Applications are usually developed in the Java language using the Android Software Development Kit, but other

    development tools are available, including a Native Development Kit for applications or extensions in C or C++, Google

    App Inventor, a visual environment for novice programmers and various cross platform mobile web applications


    Applications can be acquired by end-users either through a store such as Google Play or the Amazon Appstore, or by

    downloading and installing the application's APK file from a third-party site.[52]

    Google Play

    Google Play is an online digital distribution service for Android devices. The Play Store application allows users to browse

    and download apps published by third-party developers, hosted on Google Play, and is pre-installed on most devices. As

    of June 2012, there were more than 600,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications

    downloaded from the Play Store exceeded 20 billion.[53] The operating system itself is installed on 400 million total


    The Play Store is available on devices that comply with Google's compatibility requirements.[55] The app filters the list of

    available applications to those that are compatible with the user's device, and developers may restrict their applications to

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