ANN-KATHRIN BECK, AARON KORENEWSKY AND ASYA Ann-Kathrin Beck was a student in the Erasmus Mundus Masters

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  • P O L I C Y L A B R E S E A R C H R E P O R T

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    Enabling the Future of Public Service Broadcasting in the Western Balkans:

    Working Towards Improving the European Commission’s Enlargement Package Reporting as an Instrument for Shaping the Reform of Public Service Broadcasters in EU Candidate

    Countries

    A N N - K AT H R I N B E C K , A A R O N K O R E N E W S K Y A N D A S Y A M E T O D I E VA

  • ABOUT THE PROJECT This study was commissioned by the Center for Social Research Analitika, based in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The work was conducted and recognized in partial fulfillment for the “Policy Labs” course within the School of Public Policy at Central European University.

    Policy Labs are part of the MA curriculum and give an opportunity for small teams to work for external clients producing and presenting policy relevant research that will be used for advocacy, assessment and development. Clients are civic organizations, donors, research centers and international organizations. The Policy Lab focusing on this project for the Center for Social Research Analitika was mentored by Andrew Cartwright from the Center for Policy Studies.

    ABOUT THE AUTHORS Ann-Kathrin Beck was a student in the Erasmus Mundus Masters Program in Public Policy at the School of Public Policy at Central European University during the 2015-2016 Academic Year. Aaron Korenewsky and Asya Metodieva were students in the one-year Master of Arts program of the School of Public Policy at Central European University during the 2015-2016 Academic Year.

    TERMS OF USE AND COPYRIGHT The views in this report are the authors’ own and do not necessarily reflect those of the Central European University or the Center for Social Research Analitika. This text may be downloaded only for personal research purposes. Additional reproduction for other purposes, whether in hard copies or electronically, requires the consent of the author(s), editor(s). If cited or quoted, reference should be made to the full name of the author(s), editor(s), the title, the Policy Lab Research Report series, the year and the publisher.

    CENTER FOR POLICY STUDIES CENTRAL EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY Nador utca 9. H–1051 Budapest, Hungary cps@ceu.edu http://cps.ceu.edu

    © Central European University

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    Table of Contents

    ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................................. 4

    INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 5

    THEORETICAL BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................. 8 THE EU AND PSBS ................................................................................................................................................... 9

    METHODOLOGY ..................................................................................................................................... 11

    OVERVIEWING THE LITERATURE ON POLITICIZATION OF PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTING IN THE WESTERN BALKANS ............................................................................ 13

    LACK OF STABILITY IN THE POLITICAL SYSTEM ................................................................................................ 14 ETHNOCENTRISM .................................................................................................................................................. 16 ECONOMIC TRANSITION AND HARDSHIP .......................................................................................................... 18 ENSUING IMPLICATIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 20

    Political Parallelism ............................................................................................................................................ 21 Lack of Editorial Independence ..................................................................................................................... 22 Concentration of Media Ownership ............................................................................................................. 23

    ANALITIKA’S MAY 2016 CONFERENCE ............................................................................................................ 23

    THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION ON REFORMING PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTING IN THE WESTERN BALKANS ................................................................................................................... 27

    EU PROGRESS REPORTS 2011-2015 ............................................................................................................... 28

    A DISCUSSION: COUPLING ANALITIKA FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS WITH THE EC’S ENLARGEMENT PACKAGE REPORTS .............................................................................................. 32

    RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................................................................ 34

    WORKS CITED ........................................................................................................................................ 37

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    Abstract

    The situation regarding the politicization of public service broadcasters (PSBs) in the Western Balkans (specifically for this study: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia), Montenegro, and Serbia) is widely considered to have stagnated or deteriorated in the past several years. While the prospect of EU accession has been a driver for reform in the past, this decline will likely not be improved by the fact that the European Commission (EC) announced in July 2014 a five-year hiatus on admitting any new members to the European Union (EU)—dampening the pressure and urgency to make necessary reforms or to cease bad practices. This study asks whether the announcement of the hiatus has had any effect on the EC’s consideration and monitoring of politicization of PSBs in the Western Balkans and what needs to be done to revert the worrying trend in the region. To do so, the study surveyed the most recent scholarly literature on the politicization of Western Balkan PSBs and then compared this materials’ findings to the conclusions published in the progress reports for the Western Balkans issued as part of the EC’s “Enlargement package” reporting. By incorporating into this analysis the most recent policy recommendations and findings from the Center for Social Research Analitika’s May 2016 conference “The Future of Public Service Media in the Western Balkans: Never- Ending Transition?,” this study aims to jump start the policy discussion and highlight what the EC could do to improve and supplement its reporting before the EC’s hiatus concludes.

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    Introduction

    The general consensus today is that the media environment in the Western

    Balkans—defined in this study as Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; the Former

    Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (hereinafter “Macedonia”); Kosovo; Montenegro;

    and Serbia—has stagnated or even worsened, especially as donor support and

    international attention have shifted away from these countries since the mid-2000s.1

    Freedom House’s “Freedom of the Press 2016” report goes so far as to mark

    Macedonia’s media as having slipped to the status of “not free,” while the rest of the

    Western Balkans stands at “partly free.”2 Moreover, this same report recognizes a

    regional pattern of declining indicators for media freedom, with Macedonia and

    Serbia even being registered among those countries with the steepest recorded

    declines in scores worldwide.

    As Analitika’s current project3 and previous working paper series on media

    and democratization in the Western Balkans has suggested, the situation is

    particularly poor with respect to public service broadcasters (PSBs), which are often

    the subject of direct political interference and influence, and furthermore stunted by

    particularly small media markets and unsustainable funding mechanisms. Reversing

    such a worrying trend in the Western Balkans will certainly not be easy, although

    Analitika has intimated that the pressure for the necessary reform of PSBs and media

    laws throughout the region can and must come from within—through the work of

    civil society organizations, the wider community of experts, professional associations

    of journalists, the public, and from the PSBs themselves.

    But this process is not happening in a vacuum. Above all, the Western Balkan

    countries either carry the status of official candidate countries (Albania, Macedonia,

    1 These six countries are the focus of the Center for Social Research Analitika’s (hereinafter “Analitika”) current project "The Prospect and Development of Public Service Media: Comparative Study of PSB Development in Western Balkans in Light of EU Integration.“ Croatia, which is politically and geographically a part of the Western Balkans, was also included as a case study in some parts of Analitika’s project and the