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ANNOTATION: A VERY BRIEF HISTORY John Unsworth Brandeis University David Foster Wallace’s copy of Don Delilo’s The Players

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  • Slide 1
  • ANNOTATION: A VERY BRIEF HISTORY John Unsworth Brandeis University David Foster Wallaces copy of Don Delilos The Players
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  • Scholarly Primitives Discovering Annotating Comparing Referring Sampling Illustrating Representing "Scholarly Primitives: what methods do humanities researchers have in common, and how might our tools reflect this? http://goo.gl/pV7FkL
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  • Samuel Johnsons Dictionary (1785)
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  • Cognates NamePertinent to Carrier Content Embedded in Carrier Medium Meant for others to read AnnotationYes Usually ScholiaYesInitiallyYes CommentaryYesNot necessarilyYes MarginaliaUsuallyAlwaysPerhaps GraffitiUsually notEmblazoned uponYes
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  • Annotations Address Particulars Commentary can address itself to a whole work, and it can stand apart from the work to which it is addressed. Graffiti is usually not about the thing it is on. There are exceptions. Text annotation usually addresses itself intellectually to the semantic particulars of a specific text (the word, the phrase, the concept, the passage) while locating its target according to the physical particulars of the specified text (the margin, the page, the volume, or the line) Digital annotation must likewise address itself to the logical content of human discourse online while locating the targets address in the chaotic welter of fleeting and competing standards, inexorable bit-rot, and universally re-flowable text.
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  • Scholia Scholia (singular scholium or scholion, from Ancient Greek: , "comment, interpretation") are grammatical, critical, or explanatory comments, either original or extracted from pre-existing commentaries, which are inserted on the margin of the manuscript of an ancient author, as glosses. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scholiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scholia
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  • Scholasticism: MotivationsMotivations A method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics," or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700 A program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context An attempt on the part of medieval Christian thinkers to harmonize the various authorities of their own tradition, and to reconcile Christian theology with classical and late antiquity philosophy, especially that of Aristotle. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scholastichttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scholastic
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  • Talmudic Commentary By far the best known commentary on the Babylonian Talmud is that of Rashi (Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac, 1040 1105). The commentary is comprehensive, covering almost the entire Talmud. Written as a running commentary, it provides a full explanation of the words, and explains the logical structure of each Talmudic passage. It is considered indispensable to students of the Talmud. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talmud
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  • Commentary on Selected Matters Medieval Ashkenazic Jewry produced another major commentary known as Tosafot ("additions" or "supplements") One of the main goals of the Tosafot is to explain and interpret contradictory statements in the Talmud. Unlike Rashi, the Tosafot is not a running commentary, but rather comments on selected matters. Often the explanations of Tosafot differ from those of Rashi. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talmud
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  • Derrida: Supplement A supplement is something that, allegedly secondarily, comes to serve as an aid to something 'original' or natural. Writing is itself an example of this structure, for as Derrida points out, "if supplementarity is a necessarily indefinite process, writing is the supplement par excellence since it proposes itself as the supplement of the supplement, sign of a sign, taking the place of a speech already significant --Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Derrida http://www.iep.utm.edu/derrida/#SH3e
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  • Annotation as Transaction Widespread annotation is a byproduct of putting language on paper. Theres not a lot of annotation of stone inscriptions. Starting with papyrus scrolls, though, annotation appears. Annotation leverages papers inherent ability to give text material existence, making it addressable in the transaction of reference. New media require new rules of transaction, in order to continue to support reference. In the print world, annotation addressed itself to either a local or a canonical text. In the digital world, annotation must have a target, and that target must have coordinates (extent, location, etc.)
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  • Annotation as Translation The transition from oral to written records (and from written to digital) create conditions that make annotation particularly complex and important. Up to now, annotation has been a creature of print, but moving annotations from print to digital is not just a metaphor (not another desktop or window), because Annotations core concepts and motivations still apply.
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  • Annotation as Metadata The term annotation is used in many different contexts, usually to signify information about information, or metadata. The nature of metadata depends quite a bit on the nature of the data in question. For example, we annotate: Genes Parts of speech Bibliographies Digitized texts
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  • Genome Annotation: The process of identifying the locations of genes and all of the coding regions in a genome and determining what those genes do. An annotation (irrespective of the context) is a note added by way of explanation or commentary. Once a genome is sequenced, it needs to be annotated to make sense of it. -- http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp? articlekey=16833
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  • Part-of-Speech Annotation: the most basic type of linguistic corpus annotation - the aim being to assign to each lexical unit in the text a code indicating its part of speech. Part-of-speech annotation is useful because it increases the specificity of data retrieval from corpora, and also forms an esential foundation for further forms of analysis (such as syntactic parsing and semantic field annotation). -- http://www.sal.tohoku.ac.jp/ling/corpus2/2pos.ht m
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  • Annotated Bibliography An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited. -- http://guides.library.cornell.edu/annotatedbibliog raphy
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  • Manuscript Annotation Digital libraries often integrate high-resolution viewers which allow codicological and paleo- graphical analysis of manuscripts online. There- fore, there is an increased demand that the results of such analysis (e.g., manuscript descriptions) also be available online. Manuscript descriptions often refer to other manuscripts, collections, or scribes. Therefore an adequate system for annotating content of manuscripts is needed. --http://jtei.revues.org/392.
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  • Further reading John Unsworth, "Scholarly Primitives: what methods do humanities researchers have in common, and how might our tools reflect this? May, 2000. http://people.brandeis.edu/~unsworth/Kings.5- 00/primitives.htmlhttp://people.brandeis.edu/~unsworth/Kings.5- 00/primitives.html Todd Carpenter, iAnnotate Whatever Happened to the Web as an Annotation System? April 30, 2013. http://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2013/04/30/iannotate-whatever- happened-to-the-web-as-an-annotation-system/ http://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2013/04/30/iannotate-whatever- happened-to-the-web-as-an-annotation-system/ Michelle Baldonado, Steve Cousins, Jacek Gwizdka, and Andreas Paepcke, Notable: At the Intersection of Annotations and Handheld Technology. P. Thomas and H.-W. Gellersen (Eds.): HUC 2000, LNCS 1927, pp. 100-113, 2000. http://comminfo.rutgers.edu/~jacekg/pubs/txt/2000_GwizdkaJ- HUC2K-LNCS-Springer_14pgs.pdf http://comminfo.rutgers.edu/~jacekg/pubs/txt/2000_GwizdkaJ- HUC2K-LNCS-Springer_14pgs.pdf Catherine C. Marshall, The Future of Annotation in a Digital (Paper) World. March, 1998. http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/~marshall/uiuc-paper- complete.pdfhttp://www.csdl.tamu.edu/~marshall/uiuc-paper- complete.pdf

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