APES Midterm Exam - Chapters 1-9 Study ?· APES Midterm Exam - Chapters 1-9 Study Guide. 9 1 Explain…

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<ul><li><p>APES Midterm Exam - Chapters 1-9 Study Guide </p><p>9 1 Explain the plight of the honeybee, including CCD, and the important ecological role and ecological service they provide. </p><p>9 2 Background vs. Mass Extinction rates 9 3 What are biodiversity hotspots? 9 4 Explain the difference between endangered, threatened, and vulnerable species. 9 5 List characteristics that make some species especially vulnerable to ecological and biological extinction. 9 6 Explain indicator species, keystone species, foundation species. 9 7 Explain biomagnification and bioaccumulation. 9 8 Explain invasive species, native species, endemic species. Why are invasive/nonnative species a problem? 9 9 List 4 examples of invasive species. What is the best method to control them? 9 10 What is HIPPCO? 9 11 Explain, briefly, each of the invasive species below: </p><p> Kudzu Pythons Zebra &amp; Quagga mussels Nutrias Sea lampreys </p><p>9 12 What is poaching? 9 13 What is the greatest threat to biodiversity and species extinction? 9 14 Explain the Endangered Species Act. 9 15 What is CITES? 1 16 Explain sustainability, natural resources, natural capital. 1 17 Explain the difference between renewable and nonrenewable resources and give a few examples of each. 1 18 Explain sustainable yield, perpetual resource, and natural capital degradation, pollution (point and </p><p>nonpoint). 1 19 What is the tragedy of the commons? 2 20 What is the law of conservation of matter? 2 21 What are fossil fuels? What are 3 examples? 2 22 Explain the 1st and 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics. 2 23 Explain how energy is "lost" by a system. 3 24 List the layers of the atmosphere. What are the significance/importance of the troposphere and the </p><p>stratosphere? 3 25 Write down the equations for photosynthesis and cellular respiration. 3 26 Which terrestrial ecosystems or life zone produce the highest net primary productivity per year? Lowest? 3 27 Know the basics of the water, nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus, and sulfur cycles. 4 28 Why do species such as humans take a much longer time (thousands to millions of years) to adapt through </p><p>natural selection than species such as bacteria and insects? 4 29 Explain natural selection, evolution, adaptation, genetic drift, mutation. 4 30 Explain the difference between species diversity, species richness, and species evenness. 4 31 Explain the difference between a specialist and generalist species, and give a couple examples of each. 5 32 Explain why the Southern Sea Otter is considered a keystone species? 5 33 Explain competition, resource partitioning, camouflage, mimicry, and the 3 types of symbiotic </p><p>relationships. 5 34 Why are kelp forests important and what are some ways they are threatened? 5 35 Explain the difference between primary and secondary ecological succession. Know examples of each. 6 36 What has led to the exponential rate of growth of the total human population over the past 100 years </p></li><li><p>6 37 List the factors that affect birth and fertility rates. What are birth and death rate? What is life expectancy, infant mortality rate? </p><p>6 38 What are the keys to lowering total fertility rates? What is replacement level fertility? 6 39 Population change is calculated using what formula? 6 40 What does an age structure diagram plot? Be familiar with the shapes associated with different population </p><p>growth rates. 7 41 What are El Nino and La Nina? 7 42 What is the greenhouse effect? List common greenhouse gases. 7 43 What factors determine what biome is found in a particular area? What is the most important determining </p><p>factor? 7 44 Explain why there are limited soil nutrients available for agriculture in a tropical forest. 7 45 List the major factors that influence global air circulation. The major factors that influence ocean currents. 8 46 What are the threats to coral reefs? What are the two greatest long-term threats? 8 47 Several key factors help to determine the types and numbers of organisms found in the various layers of </p><p>both freshwater and marine systems. What are these? 8 48 Explain turbidity, dissolved oxygen levels, cultural eutrophication. 8 49 List the major threats by humans to marine ecosystems. The major threats to freshwater ecosystems. 8 50 List the ecological and economical services provided by inland wetlands. </p></li></ul>

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