Apollo i s the Unit ed States program to land menon the moon for s cie nti fic exploration and returnthem safely to earth. I t has been described as thegreatest scientific , engineering, and exploratory
challenge i n the history of mankind.
The challenge essentially was to create an ar ti fi -ci al world: a world large enough and complexenough t o s upply a l l the needs of three men for twoweeks. A par all el problem was to deve lop a boosterlarge enough to put this world into space and to sendi t on its way t o the moon 250,000 miles away.
NASA announced the program and its o bjectives i nJuly of 1960. More than a year later (N ov . 28,1961), aft er a series of studies on the fea sib ili ty ofthe proiect, NASA awarded the basic Apoll o con-tract to North American Aviation's Space Division.
Development of the booster-the Saturn program-wasbegun in lat e 1958 under the Advanced ResearchProjects Agency.
Briefly, the program i s to send a three-man space-cra ft to the moon and into orb it around it, land twoof the three men on the moon while the third remainsi n orbit, provide up to 35 hours of explorat ion on themoon, retu rn the two moon explorers to the orb iti ngspacecraft, and retu rn a ll three safely to earth. Theentiretrip, from launch to earth landing, i s expectedto last about 8 days; th e Ap ol lo spacecraft has beendesigned for 14 d ay operation to giv e a wide marginof safety.
The program i s the most extensive ever undertakenby any government. More than 20,000 companiesand 300,000 persons throughout the country haveparticipated in it. North American i s principal con -trac tor for the spacecraft's command module, servicemodule, laun ch escape system, and spacecraft -LMadapter. The LM (lunar module) contract or i s Grum-man Ai rc ra ft Engineering Corp. Associate contractorsare Massachusetts Inst itut e of Technology, for theguidance and nav iga tio n system, and Da vid ClarkCo. and Inte rna tio nal Latex Co., for space suits.
1 M A N
THRUST (LB) 360,000
GEM INI APOLLO
TITAN ll SATURN
The Saturn program invo lves two separate launch
vehicles: the Saturn IB , a two-stage vehicle w it hato ta l thrust o f 1,800,000 pounds, wh ic h i s used foreart h-orb ital missions of the Apol lo program; andthe Saturn V, a three-stage vehicle with a totalthrust of 8,700,000 pounds, whic h w i l l be used forsome ear th- orb ita l missions and for the lunar mis-sion. Saturn I B contrac tors are: Chrysler Corp., forthe firs t stage; Mc Do nn el l Douglas Space SystemsCenter, for the second stage; and IBM, for the instru-ment unit. Saturn V contractors are: Boeing Air -craft, for the first stage N ort h American Rockwell'sSpace Div isi on for the second stage; Mc Do nn el lDouglas, for the th ir d stage; and IBM, for the instru-ment unit.
The Apollo program s under the technical d irecfi onof the Off ic e of Manned Space Flight, HeadquartersNAS A. The Apol o spacecraft program i s directed byNASA's Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Tex.The Saturn program i s under the technical directionof NASA1sMarshall Space Flig ht Center i n Huntsville,Ala.
This is the control center for the moon flight; i t
provides living and working quarters for the three-man crew for the entire flight, except for the periodwhen two men wi l l be in the LM for the descent tothe moon and return.
The C M consists o f two shells: an inner crew corn-partment and an outer heat shield. The outer shelli s composed ~ r i m a r i l ~ f stainless steel honeycombbetwe en stainless steel sheets, covered on the out -side wit h abla tiv e material (heat-dissipating materialwh ich can be burned away dur ing re-entry). Theinner shell i s constructed primarily of oluminumhoneycomb betwe en oluminum al lo y sheets. Thetwo shells are fastened rig id ly together, wi th a two-layer insulation (micro-quartz fiber) i n between.This construction i s designed to make the CM as li gh tas possible yet st il l rugged enough to stand the strain
of acceleration during launch and return to earth,the shock and hea t of re-entry, the force of landing,and the ~os sib le mpact of meteorites during flight.
Inside, i t i s a compact but eff icie ntly armngedcombination cockpit, office, laboratory, mdi o sta-tion, kitc hen , bedroom, bathroom, and den. Itswal ls are lin ed wi th instrument panels and consoles,and its cupboards (bays) contain a wide varietyofequipment. The cabin w i l l be a ir conditioned to acomfortable 75 degrees. The atmosphere w i l l be100-percent oxygen, and the pressure w i l l be 5 poundsper square inc h (a l it tl e better than one-third ofsea-le vel pressure o f 14.7 pounds per square inch).
FORWARD HEAT SHIELDARENDEZVOUS
- / /cRwCCESS
SIDE WINDO W(TYP 2 PLACES)' -1
H I G H - G A I NA N T E N N A
The C M i s equipped with controls to enable thecrdw to guide i t during flig ht. Test equipment w i l lgive the crew means of checki ng out malfunctions i nspacecraft systems. Television, tele me try and trac k-ing equipment, and two-way radio w i l l pro videcom -munication with earth and among the astronauts dur-ing moon explo ration and the moon or bit 'rendezvous.
These and othe r systems, such asthe re ac ti on control ,earth landing, and parts of the environ menta l con-trol, and el ec tr ic al power systems, occupy almostevery inch o f avail abl e space in the module.
Althou gh crewmen can move about from one sta-tion to another, much o f their time w i l l be spent onthei r couches. One o f the couches can be foldeddown so the crewman can stand o r move around.Space by the center couch permits two men to standat one time. The couches are made o f steel framingand tubing and covered wi th heavy fireproo f fiber-glass clo th. They rest on eigh t crushable honeycombshock struts whi ch absorb the impact o f landing.Control devices are attached to the armrests.
The service module's function , as its name implies,i s to support the command module and its crew. I thouses the el ec tri ca l power system, reac tion controlengines, and part of the environm ental con tro l sys-
tem, as wel l as the main propuls ion engine for retur nfrom the moon and for midcourse correction.
The SM i s constructed prim arily o f aluminum a lloy.
Its outer skin i s constructed of aluminum honeycombbetween aluminum sheets. Propella nts (hydrogen andoxygen) and vario us systems are housed i n six wedg e-sheped segments surrounding the main engine.
The service module i s attached to the commandmodule unti l just before earth entry, when i t wi ll bejettisoned.
L U N A R M O D U L E
The L M w i ll carry two men from the orbitin g CSMdown to the surface o f the moon, p rovid e a base otoperatio ns on the moon, and return the two men to arendezvous wit h the CSM i n orb it. Its odd appear-ance results in part from the fa ct that there i s nonecessity for aerodyna mic symmetry; the L M i s en-closed du ring launch by the spacecraft-LM adapter(a smooth aerodyn amic shape), and ope rates on ly inthe space vacuum or the hard vacuum of the moon.
The LM structure i s div ide d int o tw o components:the ascent stage (on top) and the descent stage (atthe bottom). The descent stage consists pr im ar il y ofthe descent engine and its propellant tanks, theland ing gear assembly, a section to house scien tifi cequ ipm ent for use on the moon, and ext ra oxygen,water, and heli um tanks.
The ascent stage houses the cre w compartm ent(which i s pressurized for a shirtsleeve environmentl ik e the command module), the ascent engine andits propella nt tanks, and a l l the crew controls. I thas esse ntia lly the same kin d of systems found in thecommand and service modules, inc lud ing propulsion,environm ental control, communications, and guid-ance and control.
Portable scien tific equipment carried in the L Mw i l l inclu de such things as an atmosphere analyzer,instruments to measure the moon's grav ity, magn eticfield, and radiation, rock and soil analysis equip-ment, a seismograph, a soil temp erature sensor, andcameras (including television).
After separating from the command module in lunarorbit, the L M lands on the moon using its descentengine . I t provides she1 er and a base o f operationsfor its two crewmen for the lunar stay of up to 35
hours. Aft er the lunar exploration, on ly the LM'sascent stage returns to o rbi t and rendezvous w it h theCSM; the descen t stage serves as a laun ch pla tfo rmand i s le ft on the moon's surface. Aft er the two L Mcrewmen have returned to the CM, the L M ascentstage i s jettisoned. It remains i n orb it around themoonwhen the CSM begins the journey back to earth.
The launch vehicles used i n the Ap ollo programare the Saturn I B for earth-orbit missions, and theSaturn V for lunar missions.
The Saturn I B was conceived by NASA's MarshallSpace Flight Center, whic h has technical dire ctio no f launch vehicles, as the quickest, most reli able ,and most econom ical way to develop a vehicle wi ththe ab ili ty to check out the Apollo spacecraft and
train astronauts i n earth orbit .
The Saturn IB has two stages and an instrumentunit (IU). The IU, a cylindrical-shaped segmentmounted atop th e second stage, contains equipmentfor sequencing, gu idance and control, tracking,communication, and monitoring. It was designed anddeveloped by MSFC and i s produced by IBM's FederalSystems Division.
Basic Saturn IB facts:
Height 138 ft. (launch vehic le only)224 ft. (with spacecraft)
July 29 - Project Apo llo , an advanced spacecraftprogram to land men on the moon, was announcedby NASA.
Oc t. 25-NASA selected General Dynamics, GeneralElectric, andMartin to conduct individual feasibil-i t y studies of an ad vanced manned spacecraft as p artof the Apollo project.
Jan. - NAS A studies of a manned lunar-landi ng pro-gram were completed. Both a direct-ascent trajec -
tory using large Nova-t ype launch vehicles and anearth -orb it rendezvous technique using Saturn-typelaunch vehicl es were considered.
May 15 - Final reports on Project Apollo study con-tracts were submitted by Gene ral Dynamics, GE,and Martin .
May 25 - President Kennedy presented a plan toCongress for ac cel era tin g the space program basedon a national goal of landing a man on the moonbefore the end of the decade.
July 28 - NASA issued a request for proposal to 12
companies or development of the Apol o spacecraft.
Aug . 9 - NAS A selected MIT' s Instrumentation Labo-rator y to develop theguidance and navigation systemfor the Apol lo spacecraft.
Sept. 19 - NASA announced that the recen tly estab-lished Manned Spacecraft Center would be locatedat Houston, Tex.
Nov. 28 - NASA announced that a contract had beenawarded to North American's Space Divi sion or theApol lo spacecraft program.
Dec. 21 - The first four major Apollo subcontractorswere announced: Coll ins Radio, telecomm unicationssystems; Ga rr et t Corporation' s AiResearch Div isi on,environme ntal control equipment; Honeywel l Inc. ,the stab ili zat ion and control system; and Nor thropCorporation's Ventura Division, parachute earthlanding system.
Jan. 22 - The first A po ll o engineering order wasissued, for fabrication of the first mockups of theApol lo command and servic e modules.
Feb. 13 - Lockheed Propulsion Company was selectedto design and bui ld the soli d-propellant launch-escape motor for Apollo.
Mar. 2 - Marquardt Corp. was selected to designand bu ild the reaction-control rocke t engines forthe Ap ol l o spacecraft.
Mar. 3 - Aer oje t-G ene ral Corp. was named as sub-contractor for the Apollo service propulsion system.
Mar. 9 - Pratt and Whitne y was selected to b uil d theApollo fuel cell.
Mar. 23 - Avc o Corp. was selected to design andinsta ll the abl ati ve mater ial on the spacecraft outersurface.
April 6 - Thiokol Chemical Corp. was selected tobui d the sol id-propel lan t rocke t motor to be usedto jettison the Apollo launch escape tower.
July 11 - NASAannounced that the lunar rendezvousmode wo uld be used for the moon mission. This newplan called for development of a two-man lunarmodule to be used to reach the surface of the moonand return the astronauts to the lunar -orbi ting com-mand module.
July 16 - Beech Aircraft Corp. was selected to buildthe storage tanks for supercritical gases.
Aug. 2 2- The length of the Apo ll o service modulewas increased from 11 feet 8 inches to 12 fee t1 1 inches to provide space for additional fuel.
Sept. 7 - Apo llo command module Boilerplate I wasaccepted by NASA and d elive red to SD's Engineer-in g Development Laboratory for land and waterimpact tests.
Mar. 12 - ApolloBoilerplate 13, the first flight-ratedboil erpla te to be completed, was accepted b y NASAand shipped to MSFC.
July 23 - Dr. George E. Mu el le r was named direc tor,NASA's Of fi ce o f Manned Space Flight.
N o v. 7 - The first launch test - a pad-abort test ofBoilerplate 6 - was conducted at White Sands.
February - A boost prote ctive cover was added to thelaunch escape system i n order to protect the win -dows of the C M and the heat shield surfaces fromsoot from the LES motor.
M a y 13 - The second test fl ig ht of the Ap oll o programoccurred a t Wh ite Sands when Boilerplate 12 waslaunched by a Li t t le Joe II vehicle during a high-stress, hig h-spee d abo rt test . The launch escapesystem wor ked as planne d, except that one of thethree parachutes cu t loose. The C M was landed
M a y 28 - Ap ol lo command module B oilerplate 13 wasplaced in o rbi t from Cape Kennedy following launch
by a Saturn I booster. This was the first Ap ol lovehic le to be placed in orbit, and the third Apo llotest f l ight.
Sept. 18 - Ap ol lo Boil erpl ate 15 was successfullyorbi ted at Cape Kennedy b y a Saturn I two-stagelaunch veh icl e. This was the fourth Apo llo testf l i g h t .
Dec. 8 - The fif t h Apol lo test f l ighto ccurred a t WhiteSands when B oile rplat e 23 was li fte d of f the pad bya Litt le Joe II in a high Q abort test.
Feb. 16 - Apollo Boilerplate 16 was launched fromCape Kenned y in a micromete oroid test. A Pegasussate llite was carried al oft in a modified Apol lo SM.A l l equipment functioned as planned. This was thesixth Apol lo test f l igh t.
May 19 - Apol loBo ilerp late 22was launched at White
Sands in a planned high -al titu de test of the launchescape system. The Lit tl e Joe II disintegrated at
low alt itu de , resulting in an unscheduled bu t suc-cessful low -al tit ud e abo rt test. This was the seventhtest flight.
May 25 - The second Pegasus sa te lli te was p ut int oorb it a t Cape Kennedy during the Saturn I launch ofApo llo Boilerplate 26. This was the e ighth Ap oll otest flight.
June 29 - Apol lo Boilerplate 23A was successfully
launche d at W hite Sands during a pad abort test.A l l systems func tion ed as plan ned . This was thenint h Apol lo test fligh t, and the fifth abort test.This boil erpl ate module, previously designatedBoilerplate 23, had been launched a t Wh ite Sandsduring a high Q test.
Ju ly30 - Ap oll o Boilerplate 9A was launched a t CapeKenne dy and was used to pl ace the t hir d Pegasussatell i te into orbit .
O c t . 2 0 - The first actu al Ap ol lo spacecraft, SC-009,was accepted b y NA SA and subsequently shipped toCape Kennedy.
Dec. 26 - Ap oll o SC 009 was mated w it h UpratedSaturn at the Kennedy Space Center.
Dec. 31 - Command modules accepted by NA SA bythe end of 1965 inclu ded 18mockups, 18 bo il er -plates, and 2 spacecraft.
Jan. 20 - Apower-o n tumbl inga bort test of the launchescape system was cond ucted at Whi te Sands w it h helaunch of SC 002. Thiswasth e sixthan d fin al launch
escape test; the LES was then de cla red qua1 fi ed .
Feb. 26 - SC 009 was launched aboard U prated Saturni n successful test of command module's ab il it y t owithstand re-entry temperatures. Test was fir st f l g hto f unmanned spacecraft and firs t fl ig ht of UpratedSaturn.
Aug. 25 - SC 01 1 was launched successfu lly in theSecond fl ig ht of an unmanned Apol lo space craft to testcommand module's a bi li ty to withstand re entry tempera-tures under high heat load. The fli gh t was thre equarte rearth orbi t wi th recov ery of the command module suc-cessfully completed in the Pacific Ocean near Guam.
Jan. 27 - Threeastronautsdied n a spacecraft acci-dent a t Kennedy Space Center on the launch padduring a prelaunch test.
Nov. 9, 1967 - Apol lo 4 (SC 017) the firs t launch ofa Saturn V space vehicle was successfully carriedout . The spacecraft for the mission entered theatmosphere at almost 25,000 miles an hour. Heatshield temperatures exceeded 5,000 degrees. I twas the first test of a spacecraft retu rning at lunarveloc ities and the first launch of a hydrogen-powered Saturn V second stage (S-11).
-he possibility of a sporadic micrometeoroid as biga cigarette ash striking the commandmodule during
8-day lunar mission has been computed as 1 i n1230. If a meteoroid did strike the module, i t wouldbe at a ve loc ity of 98,500 feet per second. Thepro bab ilit y of the command module getting hi t i s
0.000815. The prob ab ili ty of the command modulenot gett ing h it i s 0.999185.
The heat leak from the Apollo cryogenic tanks,whi ch contain hydrogen and oxygen, i s so small that.if on e hydrogen tank containing ice were placed in aroom heated to 70 degrees F, a tota l o f 8- 1/2 yearswould be required to melt the ice to water at justabove freezing temperature. I t would take approxi-mately4 years more for the water to reach room tem-
perature. Thegases i n he cryogenic tanksare uti li ze din the production o f e lect ric al power by the Apo llofuel ce II system and pro vid e oxy gen for the use of thecrew.
April 4 - Apollo 6(SC 020)second fl ig ht of a SaturnVspace veh icle , was pa rt ia ll y successful. Thespacecraft funct ioned satisf actori ly. However,launch vehicle engine problems caused the space-craft to go in to alt ernate mission mode. Theservice propulsion engine burned for a recordlength. A l l subsystems performed we l .
Wi th g ra vi ty on the moon on ly one-sixth as strongas on earth, i t i s necessary tha t this d iffe ren ce berelated to the Ap ol lo veh icle . A structure 250 feethighand 400 feet long i n which cables l i ft five-sixthof the spacecraft vehicle i s being used in tests tosimulate lunar conditions and th eir e ffe ct on thevehicle.
The command module panel display includes 24 in -struments, 566 switches, 40 event indica tors (mechan-ical), and 71 lights.
The command module offers 73 cubic feet per manas against the 68 cubic feet per man i n a compactcar. By comparison, the Me rcu ry spacecraft offere d55 cubic feet for its one trav eler and Ge mi ni pro-vided 40 cubic feet per man.
When the Ap ol lo spa cecraft passes through the VanAl le n Belts on its way to the moon, the astronautsw i l l be exposed to radiatio n rough1 y equivalent tothat of a dental X-ray.
The angular accuracy requirement of midcoursecorrection of the spacecraft for a l l thrusting maneu-vers i s one degree.
If your car gets 15 miles to a gallon , you cou lddrive 18 mi lli on miles or around the world about 700times on the fue l req uired for the Apollo/Saturn lunarlanding mission.
When the Ap ol lo re-enters the atmosphere i t w i ll
generate energy equiv alent to approximate1 y2300 kilowatt hours of electricity - enough to lightthe c i t y of Washing on for a bout 6-1/2 seconds; or theenergy generated would l if t al l h e people i n he USAthree inches off the ground.
There are 27 different means of communication inthe telecommunications system: ground to spacecraftlinks, 3; spacecraft to ground links, 7 . Ni ne diffe r-ent frequencies are used (1 HF, 3 V H F, 1 UFH,2 S band, 2 C band), and 5 antenna systems.
The fu ll y loaded Saturn V launch veh icle wit h theApollo spacecraft stands 60 feet higher than theStatue of Lib erty on i ts pedestal and weighs 13 timesas much as the statue.
During its 3.5 second fir ing , the Ap ol l o spacecraft'ssol id-f uel launc h escape rocket generates the horse-power equivalent o f 4,300 automobiles.
The engines o f the Saturn V launchvehicle that wi l lpropel the Apo ll o spacecraft to the moon have com-bined horsepower equiv alent to 543 jet fighters.
The Ap ol o envir onme ntal con trol system has 180 partsi n contrast to the 8 for the average home window a ircondi tioner. The Apol o environmental control sys-tem performs 23 functio ns compared to 5 for the aver-age home con diti one r. There are 23 functions of theenvironmental co ntrol system, wh ich includ e: ai rcooling, air heating, h umidity control, ventilatio n
to suits, ventilatio n to cabin, air filtration, C 0 2
The Saturn V that wil l boost the Apo llo spacecraft
to the moon generates the horsepower equivalent todriv e an automobile 18 mi lli on miles-a 34-year tri pat 60 miles an hour.
The maximum dif fer en tia l pressure that the innerstructure of the command module can withstand i s8.60 psi. The environmental c ont rol system restrictsthe differential pressure to be less than 6.0 psi.
The 12-foot-high Apol l o spacecraft command module
contains almost 20 miles of wire, enough to wir e50 two-bedroom homes.
The astronaut contro ls and monitors the sta bi liz ati onand control system by means of two handgrip control-lers, 34 switches, and 6 knobs.
The command system o f the acceptan ce c hec kou tequipment can generate up t o 2048 separate stim ulior 128 analog signals, or combinations of both, and
route them to spacecraft and other checkout systemsat a m il li on bits per second. In contrast, hand-operated commercial tele type generates 45 bits persecond and autom atically, over voic e channel, i tgenerates 2400 bits per second.
The Apollo command module can sustain a hole aslarge as one-half inch i n diameter and st ill m aintainthe pressure inside for fi ve minutes, whi ch i s con-sidered long enough fo r an astronaut to pu t on aspacesuit.
Total amount of fue l i n the booster plus service mod-ule and lunar excursion module i s 5,625,000 pounds.