Art in Chemistry, Chemistry in Art

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<p>Art in Chemistry; Chemistry in Art</p> <p>Art in Chemistry; Chemistry in Art</p> <p>Second Edition Barbara R. Greenberg and Dianne Patterson</p> <p>An imprint of Libraries Unlimited Westport, Connecticut London</p> <p>Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Greenberg, Barbara R. Art in chemistry, chemistry in art / Barbara R. Greenberg and Dianne Patterson. 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-59158-309-7 (alk. paper) 1. ChemistryStudy and teaching (Secondary) 2. ArtStudy and teaching (Secondary) I. Patterson, Dianne. II. Title. QD40.G73 2008 540.712dc22 2007027276 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available. Copyright 2008 by Barbara R. Greenberg and Dianne Patterson All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer, who may quote brief passages in a review. Reproducible pages may be copied for classroom and educational programs only. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2007027276 ISBN: 978-1-59158-309-7 First published in 2008 Libraries Unlimited/Teacher Ideas Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881 A Member of the Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. www.lu.com Printed in the United States of America</p> <p>The paper used in this book complies with the Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National Information Standards Organization (Z39.481984). 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1</p> <p>This book is dedicated to Anne, Emily, Vicki, Kimmy, Josh, and Betsy</p> <p>ContentsPreface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv</p> <p>1Colors Do Matter: How Do We See Color? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Modeling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Activity 1.1: Atomic Modeling and Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The Nature of Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Activity 1.2: The Psychology of Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Activity 1.3: Color versus Black and White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Light as a Source of Color: The Electromagnetic Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Activity 1.4: The Rainbow: A Chorus of Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Activity 1.5: Color and Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 The Psychological Significance of Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Activity 1.6: Color Psychology I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 The Principles of Good Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Commercial Use of Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Activity 1.7: Color Psychology II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 The Connection Between Light and Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Activity 1.8: Create Your Own Atom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Demonstration 1.1: Light from Excited Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Demonstration 1.2: More Excitement in Atoms: A Fireworks Display . . . 31 The Connection Between Pigment Colors and Light Colors . . . . . . . . . . 33 Activity 1.9: Mixing Primary Pigments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Color Systems and Color Wheels: A Ride Through Color . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Handout 1.1 Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Activity 1.10: Creating a Color Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Activity 1.11: Warm and Cool Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 The Three Properties of Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Activity 1.12: Solution Preparation and Pigment Primary Hues . . . . . . 45 Activity 1.13: Elements and the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Demonstration 1.3: Copper Sulfate Dilution, Mass Percent, and Color Value . . 54 Activity 1.14: Color Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Handout 1.2 Three-Dimensional Value Cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Handout 1.3 Pattern for a Three-Dimensional Value Cube . . . . . . . . 61</p> <p>vii</p> <p>viii \ Contents</p> <p>1Colors Do Matter: How Do We See Color? (Continued)Demonstration 1.4: Color Intensity in a Saturated Solution and in a Pigmented Hue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1.15: Intensity Painting (or Chroma Painting) . . . . . . . . . . Handout 1.4 Pyramid Intensity Critter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handout 1.5 Pattern for the Body of a Pyramid Intensity Critter . . . . . Color Relativity: All Things Are Relative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1.16: Color Relativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1.17: Color Relativity: Physical Properties and Physical Change . Demonstration 1.5: Color Relativity: Chemical Properties and Chemical Change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Color Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1.18: Color Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Why Is the Sky Blue? Finally, an Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers to Activity and Demonstration Questions and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 64 66 67 68 69 71 72 74 74 76 76 77 78</p> <p>2Paint Does Matter: What Is Paint? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 A Brief But Colorful History of Paint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 The Composition of Paint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Activity 2.1: Saturated Solutions and Temperature Change . . . . . . . . 96 Resources for Student Viewing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Pros and ConsWhich Medium Is Best? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Activity 2.2: Experimenting with Paint: Similarities and Differences. . . . 103 Making Paints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Activity 2.3: Preparation of Colored Pigments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Activity 2.4: Preparation of Binders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Activity 2.5: Preparation of Paint from Pigments and Binders . . . . . . 112 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Answers to Activity Questions and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115</p> <p>3Supports and Grounds: Down Under: What Is Underneath? . . . . . 119Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Brief History of Supports and Grounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparing Grounds: Chemical Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 3.1: The Preparation of Grounds: Preparing Whiting Compounds . Activity 3.2: The Preparation of Grounds: Using Whiting Compounds to Prepare Gesso Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonobjective Art: No Objects, But Plenty of Feeling . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 3.3: Nonobjective Art: Egg Tempera Paint on a Gesso Ground . Support for the Artist: Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 120 122 123 128 130 131 132</p> <p>Contents / ix</p> <p>Demonstration: 3.1: Comparing Results of Paint Applied to Various Watercolor Papers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 3.4: Papermaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 3.5: Handmade Paper and Collage . . . . . . . . . . . . The Future of Painting Supports and Grounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers to Activity and Demonstration Questions and Conclusions. . .</p> <p>. . . . . . . .</p> <p>. . . . . . . .</p> <p>. . . . . . . .</p> <p>135 136 141 141 143 143 144 145</p> <p>4Three-Dimensional Works of Art: Playing with Clay . . . . . . . . . 149Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 A Brief History of Clay, Pottery, and Ceramics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 The Third Dimension: Additive and Subtractive Construction Methods . . . . 151 Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 The Glaze Maze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Glaze or Glass: What Is It? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Activity 4.1: Atomic, Ionic, and Molecular Crystalline Structures: Three-Dimensional Works of Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Demonstration: 4.1: The Difference Between Crystalline-Solid Formation and Glass Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Relative Weights: Periodic Table Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Activity 4.2: Glazing Pottery: Calculations Needed to Prepare a Glaze . . 169 Glaze Ingredients: The Key to Glaze Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 The Kiln: Clay in the Oven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Activity 4.3: Preparing Glazes and Clay Slabs and Testing the Glazes on the Clay Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 The Periodic Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Activity 4.4: Construction of a Three-Dimensional Periodic Table . . . . 179 Bonds in Marriage and in Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Activity 4.5: Solid Bonding and Clay Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Three-Dimensional Construction: Forming the Clay Object. . . . . . . . . . 186 Texture as an Element of Design in Ceramics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Activity 4.6: Experimenting with Actual Textures . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Activity 4.7: Making Pinch Pots Using Actual Textures. . . . . . . . . . 190 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Answers to Activity and Demonstration Questions and Conclusions. . . . . . 194</p> <p>x \ Contents</p> <p>5Sculpture and Organic Chemistry: Macroscopic and MicroscopicSculpture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Macroscopic Sculpture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Elements of Sculpture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 5.1: Exploration of Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Microscopic Sculptures: Organic Molecules and Sculpture Elements . . . . The Names and Shapes of Organic Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 5.2: Modeling Hydrocarbon Molecules: Microscopic Sculptures. Shape in Macrosculptures and Microsculptures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 5.3: Examination of Negative and Positive Shapes in Macrosculptures and Microsculptures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principles of Good Composition in Three-Dimensional Sculpture . . . . . . What Is Material to the Sculpture? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 5.4: Plaster Three-Dimensional Macrosculpture . . . . . . . . Activity 5.5: Preparation of a Polymer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Expanding on Organic Molecules: Functional Groups Make a Difference . . The Kinetic World of Mobiles and Molecules: Kinetic Sculpture . . . . . . . Activity 5.6: Mobile Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 5.7: An Examination of Line in Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 5.8: Descriptive Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 5.9: One- and Two-Point Linear Perspective: Discussion and Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 5.10: Line as an Element of Three-Dimensional Sculpture . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Books on Mobiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Films on Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers to Activity Questions and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 201 202 203 204 205 206 208 209 214 215 217 217 222 224 225 225 227 228 229 231 232 235 235 236 237</p> <p>6Jewelry: Heavy Metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metals: A Unique Set of Physical and Chemical Properties . . . . . Activity 6.1: The Physical and Chemical Properties of Metals . Metalworking Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 6.2: One-Piece Adjustable Ring with Interrelated Design Electrochemistry: Protective Coats for Metals . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 6.3: Making an Electrochemical Cell . . . . . . . . . Activity 6.4: Electroplating a Copper Ring . . . . . . . . . . Wirework: Line in Metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 6.5: Linear Jewelry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Revisiting Fabrication: Soldering and Coloring . . . . . . . . . . . Demonstration 6.1: Soldering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coloring Metals: A Pleasant Patina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Casting: The Plot Thickens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 240 240 255 257 258 261 264 266 266 268 269 270 273</p> <p>Contents / xi</p> <p>6Jewelry: Heavy Metal (Continued)Activity 6.6: Plaster Gravity Mold Using Leaf Forms as Subject Matter Heavy Metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers to Activity and Demonstration Questions and Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 274 275 275 276 276 277</p> <p>7Two- and Three- Dimensional Works of Art Revisited: PuttingTogether the Pieces of the Puzzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . It Is a Relief: But What Is It? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Molecular Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 7.1: Making Molecular Models . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 7.2: Relief Plaster Sculpture Using a Clay Mold . . . . The Last Piece t...</p>