definitionIt denotes the means by which an artist communicates
his idea. It is the material/s which the artist uses to translate
his feelings or thought into a beautiful reality.
classification Visual or space arts are those mediums which can
be seen and occupy space. Auditory or time arts are those mediums
that can be heard and which are expressed in time.
2 clASSES OF VISUAL ARTS: Dimensional or 2 Dimensional Arts
painting, drawing print making & photography. Three Dimensional
Arts sculpture, architecture, landscape, community planning,
industrial design, and crafts like ceramics & furniture
CLASSES OF AUDITORY ARTS: Music / performing arts Literature Can
be seen and heard and these exist in both space and time. Ex.
dance, opera, drama & movie
Artist & his mediumsWhen an artist chooses his medium, he
believes that this can best express the idea he wants to convey. It
always depend on the artist himself. The distinctive character of
the medium determines the it can be worked on and turn into a work
Technique It is the manner in which the artist controls his
medium to achieve the desired effect. It is the ability with which
he fulfills the technical requirements of his particular work of
Musician ability to make music sound the way he wants it.
Sculptor his way of handling chisel and hammer to produce a desired
effect. Pianist his handling the instrument & interpreting a
Distinction between art & craftThe distinction between art
and craft is made on the basis of the technique used. Artist it is
not the end but the means Craftsman it is the end not the means
Both require technical knowledge and competence, creativity
apparently comes into play in the work of the sculptor.
Watercolor Fresco Tempera Pastel Encaustic Oil Acrylic Mosaic
Stained glass Tapestry Drawing Bistre Crayons Charcoal Silverpoint
Printmaking Woodcut Engraving Relief Intaglio Stencil Printing
Mediums of visual arts:
Ceiling of the Sistine chapel by Michaelangelo 1505-1512 fresco
sculptureIt is the aesthetic art defined by the technique of
modeling. Modeling means the shaping of a single block or mass of
material into a tridimensional art.
Earliest works of sculpture Small figurines of clay Porcelain
Wood At first, natives did not appreciate these objects but some
used them as household decorations.
When the Spaniards came and before the end of 16th century, the
Augustinian friars established the Academy of Arts & Sciences
w/c helped to discover & train potential artist. Gradually, the
art form developed & the influence of Spanish art became more
discernible. Most active sculptors: Napoleon V. Abueva & Ed
The mediums of sculpture Stone is the hard substance formed from
mineral & earth material. Granite is a granular igneous rock
composed of feldopars and quartz, usually combined w/ other
minerals and is quite difficult to chisel. Marble is limestone in a
more or less crystalline state and is capable to taking a high
polish, occurring in many varieties; softer in character
Persues w/ the head of Medussa by Antonio Canova (1757 -
Nymph & Satyr by Clodion (1738- 1814
Jade is a fine, colorful stone, usually green, and used widely
in Ancient China. It is highly esteemed as an ornamental stone for
carving and fashioning jewelry.
Julius Caesar statues in Bronze Ivory Metals Bronze Brass Copper
Gold Silver Lead Plaster Clay Glass Wood
AlsoMediums of Music Stringed- violin Woodwinds- flute Brass
trumpet, horn Percussion chimes
Literature 2 categories imaginative Non-imaginative(fiction)
Literary types ( genres) Fiction, essay, poetry, & drama