Click here to load reader

Arthrogryposis in Calves - SLU.SE · PDF fileas means of lowering the incidence of arthrogryposis in calves and pros and cons are proposed and ... and Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita

  • View
    214

  • Download
    2

Embed Size (px)

Text of Arthrogryposis in Calves - SLU.SE · PDF fileas means of lowering the incidence of...

  • Fakulteten fr veterinrmedicin och husdjursvetenskap Institutionen fr anatomi, fysiologi och biokemi

    Arthrogryposis in Calves

    Alexandra Odevall

    Uppsala 2016

    Veterinrprogrammet, examensarbete fr kandidatexamen

    Delnummer i serien: 2016:62

  • Arthrogryposis in Calves Artrogrypos hos kalv

    Alexandra Odevall Handledare: Elisabeth Persson, institutionen fr anatomi, fysiologi och biokemi

    Examinator: Eva Tydn, institutionen fr biomedicin och veterinr folkhlsovetenskap

    Omfattning: 15 hp Niv och frdjupning: grund niv, G2E Kurstitel:Sjlvstndigt arbete i veterinrmedicin Kurskod: EX0700 Program: Veterinrprogrammet Utgivningsort: Uppsala Utgivningsr: 2016 Omslagsbild: Drawing by Alexandra Odevall, based on photos in Lee et al., 2007 Serienamn:Veterinrprogrammet, examensarbete fr kandidatexamen Delnummer i serie: 2016:62 Elektronisk publicering: http://stud.epsilon.slu.se Nyckelord: Artrogrypos, kalv, nt, medfdd missbildning, Crooked Calf Disease, lupiner, Lupinus, alkaloider, anagyrine Key words: Arthrogryposis, calf, bovine, congenital deformity, Crooked Calf Disease, lupines, Lupinus, alkaloids, anagyrine

    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

    Fakulteten fr veterinrmedicin och husdjursvetenskap Institutionen fr anatomi, fysiologi och biokemi

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Summary 1

    Sammanfattning 2

    Introduction 3

    Material and Methods 4

    Literature Review 4Development of the Embryo 4Synepitheliochorial Placenta 6Development of the Fetus 6Arthrogryposis in Cattle 8Incidence of Arthrogryposis as a Part of Crooked Calf Disease 9Gross Pathology of Arthrogryposis 9Histology of Arthrogryposis 10Mechanisms of Arthrogryposis 10Etiology of Arthrogryposis 11Lupinus spp. as the Source of Arthrogryposis in Cattle 11

    Discussion 13

    References 16

  • 1

    SUMMARY

    Arthrogryposis is a common congenital malformation in cattle and it affects the limbs through fibrosis of the joints leading to fixation. This is due to paralysis of the fetus because of alkaloid toxicosis in the pregnant dam during gestation day 40-70. When the fetus cannot move, the fibrosis develops in the joints and the extremities are fixated. The condition is more common in the forelimbs than the hind limbs and the hind limbs are usually not affected without forelimbs being affected. When arthrogryposis is accompanied by a combination of kyphosis, scoliosis, torticollis or cleft palate, it is most commonly referred to as Crooked Calf Disease. Arthrogryposis is accompanied by muscle atrophy and sometimes pale muscles and oedema interstitially. The organs appear normal but cavitation in the brainstem and pons medulla, hydranencephaly and a missing cerebellum has been reported. It has been reported that the neurons of the ventral horns are reduced in number and gliosis has been seen. Calves born with arthrogryposis have a hard time surviving as they cannot walk normally or feed as they cannot reach the udder. Also the symptoms worsen as the calves grow because of increased movement and pressure on the joints leading to secondary problems. A variety of lupine plants have been suggested to induce arthrogryposis in calves when ingested by the pregnant dam, especially during day 40-70 of gestation. Lupine induced arthrogryposis is mostly reported on in the United States where an incidence of up to 37% has been seen in grazing areas with an abundance of the most poisonous Lupinus plants, L. caudatus and L. sericeus. The teratogen is reported to most likely be the alkaloid toxin called anagyrine. This has been shown in several studies. Mechanisms of arthrogryposis includes the fetus being exposed to the alkaloid toxin anagyrine ingested by the dam through grazing on lupine abundant lands. The fetus needs to be exposed to the toxin for about 30 days for the congenital deformity to take form. The fetal muscles are not properly innervated because of acetylcholine receptor desensitization or underdevelopment of the innervating nerve leading to fibrosis of the joints and fixating them. The severity of arthrogryposis has been reported to be correlated to the severity of the toxicosis in the pregnant dam. It is dose dependent, although differences in effects at the same toxin level have been seen in different breeds and individuals with different body conditions. Also, the duration of the exposure on the fetus to the toxin correlates with the severity of the deformity. This is why sub-clinical toxicosis should be taken seriously. Viruses such as Akabane virus and Schmallenberg virus have also been suggested to induce arthrogryposis in cattle and are important differential diagnoses. Genetic and physiological differences as well as altered grazing periods have been suggested as means of lowering the incidence of arthrogryposis in calves and pros and cons are proposed and discussed.

  • 2

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Artrogrypos r en av de vanligaste medfdda missbildningarna hos kalvar och fixerar lederna i benen genom fibros. Detta orsakas av att fostret blir paralyserat d den drktiga kon fr i sig en toxisk alkaloid under dag 40-70 av drktigheten. Nr fostret inte kan rra p sina ben utvecklas fibros i lederna som d fixeras. Detta r mer vanligt i frambenen n bakbenen och bakbenen r oftast inte pverkade utan att frambenen ocks r det. Nr artrogrypos ses i samband med kyphos, skolios, torticollis eller gomspalt kallas det ofta fr Crooked Calf Disease. Artrogrypos ses i samband med muskelatrofi och ibland blek muskelvvnad och interstitiella dem. Organen r generellt opverkade men ingrpning i hjrnstammen och pons medulla, hydranencefali och avsaknad av cerebellum har rapporterats. Det har ocks rapporterats att neuronen i de ventrala hornen r frre och glios har frekommit. Kalvar som fds med artrogrypos verlever ofta inte eftersom de inte kan g normalt eller dia eftersom de inte nr juvret. Symtomen blir ven vrre nr kalven vxer eftersom den kade rrelsen och trycket p lederna ger sekundra skador. Flertalet olika lupinvxter har rapporterats inducera artrogrypos hos kalvar nr de ts av den drktiga kon, framfr allt under dag 40-70 av drktigheten. Lupininducerad artrogrypos har i huvudsak rapporterats om i USA dr incidensen kan vara upp till 37% i omrden dr betesmarken har ett stort antal av de giftiga lupinerna Lupinus caudatus och Lupinus sericeus. Den teratogena substansen har rapporterats att till strsta sannolikhet vara alkaloidtoxinet anagyrine vilket flertalet studier visat. Mekanismen bakom artrogrypos innefattar att fostret utstts fr alkaloidtoxinet anagyrine genom att den drktiga kon betat p lupinrika betesmarker. Fostret behver utsttas fr toxinet i cirka 30 dagar fr att den medfdda missbildningen ska ta form. Fostrets muskler innerveras inte ordentligt p grund av att acetylkolinreceptorerna r desensitiserade eller av under-utvecklade nerver vilket ger fibros i lederna och slutligen fixering av dess. Hur allvarlig artrogryposen blir har rapporterats korrelera med hur allvarliga symtomen av frgiftningen i den drktiga kon r. Den r beroende av dos ven om skillnader i effekt vid samma niv av toxinet har rapporterats fr olika raser och kons kondition. Hur lnge fostret utstts fr toxinet pverkar missbildningens allvarlighetsgrad varfr subkliniska frgiftningar br bli tagna p allvar. Virus s som Akabane virus och Schmallenberg virus har ocks rapporterats inducera artrogrypos hos ntkreatur och r drmed viktiga differentialdiagnoser. Beaktande av genetik och fysiologiska skillnader samt frndrade betesperioder har fre-slagits fr att minska incidensen av artrogrypos. Fr- och nackdelar diskuteras.

  • 3

    INTRODUCTION

    Crooked Calf Disease was first reported in the 1950s and confirmed in the 1960s (Panter et al., 2007). It can be seen in sheep, cattle, horses and goats (Panter et al., 2007; Strake, 2015) but in this literature review focus will be on cattle. The plant genus Lupinus, when ingested by pregnant cows, can cause arthrogryposis in the calf (Shupe et al., 1967a) which sometimes is accompanied by kyphosis, scoliosis (Keeler et al., 1969), torticollis and cleft palate (Shupe et al., 1967a; b) and is then referred to as Crooked Calf Disease (Sprake, 2015). Arthrogryposis is one of the most common malformations of Crooked Calf Disease (Shupe et al., 1967b). Other names of arthrogryposis are Multiple Congenital Contractures, mostly used in human medicine (Swinyard et al., 1982) and Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita (Van Huffel et al., 1988) but I will refer to it as arthrogryposis in this study. The plant grows in early spring and flowers in early summer (Panter et al., 2007). Most species of lupines grow in the United States and they increase in abundance after disturbances such as fires, overgrazing and after rainy years. Lupines contain quinolizidine alkaloids and some piperidine alkaloids but this paper focuses on the quinolizidine alkaloid anagyrine. The etiology of arthrogryposis also includes genetics and infections by viruses of the family Bunyaviridae (Green et al., 2012; 2015; Sprake, 2015). In humans the direct cause of arthrogryposis is not known but different etiologies leading to fetal paralysis and arthrogryposis have been reported (Kowalczyk & Felus, 2014). The incidence of Crocked Calf Disease in cattle is estimated to be between 2.7 and 37.2% in Lupine abundant areas in the United States (Shupe et al., 1967b). It has been reported that the teratogen effect of Lupinus plants lies in the amount of the alkaloid anagyrine ingested by the pregnant cow and that the effect is dose dependent (Keeler, 1976; 1973a; 1984). Defects in the calves are also related to the signs of toxicity of the mother cow in Crooked Calf Disease (Keeler, 1976). Clinical signs of toxicosis include incoordination, twitching of th

Search related