Artillery Ammo General

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    UNCLASSIFIED

    AD NUMBER

    LIMITATION CHANGES

    TO:

    FROM:

    AUTHORITY

    THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED

    AD830290

    Approved for public release; distribution isunlimited. Document partially illegible.

    Distribution authorized to U.S. Gov't. agenciesand their contractors; Critical Technology; SEP1963. Other requests shall be referred to Army

    Materiel Command, Attn: AMCRD-TV, Washington,DC 20315. Document partially illegible. This

    document contains export-controlled technicaldata.

    USAMC ltr, 2 Jul 1973

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    fQ E CK K l sA L

    R E P O R T

    S E C T I O N

    1

    /

    V L

    POSTGR A D U A TE

    S C H O O L

    MONTERtV,CALIFORNIA

    9394Q

    M C

    P M P H L E T

    M C P706-244

    THISIS AREPRINTWITHOUTCHANGEOFORDP20-244

    R E S E A R C HA N D

    D E V E L O P M E N T

    O M A T E R I E L

    ENGINEERINGDESIGNHANDBOOK

    A M M U N I T I O N

    S E R I E S

    S E C T I O N 1 ,

    A R T I L L E R Y

    A M M U N I T I O N - G E N E R A L

    WITH

    TABLEOFCONTENTS,GLOSSARYANDINDEX

    FORSERIES

    B E S T

    A V A I L A B L E

    C O P Y

    HEADQUARTERS,U .S.ARMYMATERIELCOMMAND EPTEMBER963

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    i

    HEADQUARTERS

    UNITED

    STATES

    ARMY

    MATERIEL

    COMMAND

    WASHINGTON

    25,

    .C.

    30

    September

    1963

    AMCP

    706-244,

    ection

    1,

    ArtilleryAmmunition--General,

    formingpartof

    the

    Ammunition

    Series

    oftheArmyMateriel

    Command

    Engineering

    DesignHandbook,

    spublished

    for

    the

    information

    and

    guid-

    anceof

    allconcerned.

    ( A M C R D )

    FOR

    THE

    COMMANDER:

    SELWYN

    D.SMITH JR.

    MajorGeneral USA

    Chiefof

    Staff

    OFFICIAL:

    DAVIDSON

    Colonel,S

    Chief,

    Administrative

    Office

    DISTRIBUTION:

    Special

    (

  • 8/10/2019 Artillery Ammo General

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    F O R E W O R D

    T heA R T I L L E R YA M M U N I T I O NSERIES

    sbeing

    ssued

    s

    an

    interim

    publicationofth e

    O rdna nceEngi neeri ngD es ign

    H an d bo o k,

    a

    comprehensive

    sequenceof

    publications

    planned

    to

    treatth eentire

    ield

    ofO r d n a n c e

    design.hen

    th eH a ndbook

    w as

    begun

    it

    w as

    found

    tobe

    impractical

    o

    ntegrate

    nto

    t

    he

    series

    relating

    to

    Arti l lery

    Am m u n i-

    tion

    alr ead y

    in

    preparation

    under

    th e

    direction

    ofPicatinnyArsenal.

    A l-

    thoughhey

    were

    imilar,

    he

    bjectivesofh e

    w o

    rojectswer e

    ot

    identical.h esubjectbrea kdownadoptedfo r

    th e

    H an d bo o k

    would

    have

    necessitated

    edistribution

    f

    heaterial

    f

    h iseriesh r o u g h o u t

    severalofth eplanned

    volumes

    of

    th e

    H an d b oo k ,

    with

    onsequent

    elay

    in

    publication

    of

    much

    ofth ematerial .t

    w as

    therefore

    decidedto

    issue

    this

    m at er ia l

    intactasan

    interim

    publication

    to

    makeit

    ava i lableasearly

    as

    ossible.

    he

    m at er ia lppearing

    inthisserieswil lbegradual l ysu -

    perseded

    s

    ertinent

    olumesfherdnance

    ngineering

    esign

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    become

    available.

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    w as

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    of

    th e

    M c G r a w - H i ll

    B o o k

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    Contract

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    echnical

    supervision

    and

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    f

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    nfor-

    mationer e

    urnished

    y

    icatinny

    Arsenal.

    ngineers

    romther

    O r d n an c eDes i gn

    Centers

    alsosuppliedmuchinformation,andaidedin

    th e

    review.

    nfact ,

    so

    ma ny

    persons

    havegivent imeandenergy

    to

    this

    projectthatithasbeendifficult

    to

    compile ompleteistofcknowl-

    edgements.

    T he

    fol lowing

    wer eresponsiblefo rth econceptionand directionof

    th eroject.

    A R T I L L E R Y

    A M M U N I T I O N

    S E C T I O N ,

    ARTILLERY

    A M -

    M U N I T I O N A N D

    ACKING

    D E V E L O P M E N TL A B O R A -

    T O R Y ,

    S A M U E L

    F E L T M A N

    A M M U N I T I O N

    L A B O R A -

    TORIES,PICATINNYARSENAL

    A l fredF.Teitscheid

    hief,

    Arti l lery

    Am m u n it io nB r a n c h

    W i ld e r

    R .

    Carson

    hief,

    Arti l lery

    Am m u n it io n

    B r a n c h

    R oyH .W o o d

    hief,

    Arti l lery

    Am m u n it io n

    Laboratory

    A

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    M A J O R

    C O N T R I B U T O R S

    GeorgeDemitrack

    Lars

    Enequist

    H e n r y

    P.Hitchcock

    Dr.

    RobertH .

    K e n t

    Charles

    Lenchitz

    Prof.

    A r t h u r

    F.

    M a c C o n o c h i e

    A r n o l dO .

    Pallingston

    Richard

    E .

    T o d d

    Col.

    H e r m a n

    U .

    W a g ne r ,

    U SA

    (Retired)

    Picatinny

    Arsenal

    Ballistics

    Research

    Laboratory

    Ballistics

    Research

    Laboratory

    BallisticsResearch

    Laboratory

    Picatinny

    Arsenal

    Prof.f

    Mechanical

    Engineering,

    Uni-

    versity

    of

    Virginia

    Picatinny

    Arsenal

    Interior

    Ballistics,

    P

    rope H a n t s

    Lethality

    Criteria

    Exterior

    Ballistics

    Exterior

    Ballistics

    Thermodynamics

    of

    Explosive

    Materials

    M a n u f a c t u r i n g

    M e t h o d s

    Physical

    Testing

    f

    Explosive

    Materials

    Picatinny

    Arsenal

    Qual i ty

    Control

    GeneralContributor

    andConsultant

    M u r r a y

    Weinstein

    Picatinny

    Arsenal

    PhysicalTesting

    f

    Explosive

    Materials

    Dr.LewisZernow

    Col.H e r m a n

    H .

    Zornig,U SA

    (Retired)

    BallisticsResearch

    S h a p e d

    Charge

    Laboratory

    heory,Blast

    O r d n a nc e

    Specialist

    andCon sul tan t

    G E N E R A LA S S I S T A N C E

    K e n ne th

    H .

    A bbott

    Theodor

    A d v o k a t

    N o r m a nE .Beach

    D o n a l dR .Beeman

    W a t er t ow n

    Arsenal

    KineticE n e r g y

    A m m u n i t i o n

    PicatinnyArsenal

    PicatinnyArsenal

    Picatinny

    Arsenal

    SpecialPurpose

    Shell

    ChemicalTesting

    f

    Explosive

    Materials

    H e a d

    A m m u n i t i o n

    DesignB r a n c h

    11

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    G E N E R A L

    A S S I S T A N C E

    (cont)

    W i ll a r d

    R .

    Benson

    lcatlnnyArsenal

    WarrenBllttersdorf

    rankford

    Arsenal

    Joseph

    I.

    B l u h m

    at er t o wnArsenal

    WilliamByrne

    rankfordArsenal

    John

    E .

    Capell

    lcatinny

    Arsenal

    Herbert

    N .

    C ohen

    icatinny

    Arsenal

    C o r w i nS.

    Davis

    lcatinny

    Arsenal

    A b r a h a m

    L.

    D o r f

    m a n

    icatinny

    Arsenal

    CyrusG .

    D u n k l e

    icatinnyArsenal

    LeonardH .EriksenicatinnyArsenal

    H a r o ld

    N .

    E u k e r

    PatrickFalivene

    A r t h u rP.Field

    A l

    Fox

    Leo

    J .Frey,

    Jr.

    RobertFrye

    A n d r e w

    J.

    G a l k o

    ThomasH a l l

    Dr.

    DavidH a r t

    FloydHill

    SidneyJacobson

    Frankford

    Arsenal

    PicatinnyArsenal

    Picatinny

    Arsenal

    Frankford

    Arsenal

    Picatinny

    Arsenal

    Picatinny

    Arsenal

    Picatinny

    Arsenal

    Picatinny

    Arsenal

    PicatinnyArsenal

    Ballistics

    Research

    Laboratory

    PicatinnyArsenal

    Lethality

    Theory

    Cartridge

    Case

    Design,

    Manufac-

    tur i ng

    M e t h o d s

    R o t a t i n g

    B a n d s

    Cartridge

    Case

    Ammunition

    Design

    Standards

    Pyrotechnics

    C hi efPropellant

    Section

    Pyrotechnics

    Sh apedCharge

    Ammunition

    ExplosivesChem-

    istry

    Laboratory

    A PShell

    PropellantIgnition

    Inspection

    M a n u f a c t u r i n g

    M e t h o d s

    Special

    Purpose

    Shell

    H e a d

    Chemical

    Branch

    G B

    Shell

    H E P

    Shell

    H e a d

    Pyrotechnics

    Laboratory

    T a n kVulnerability

    KineticEnergy

    Ammunition

    111

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    G E N E R A L

    A S S I S T A N C E

    cont)

    WilliamJosephs

    K u r t

    K u p fe r m a n

    Picatinny

    Arsenal

    Picatinny

    Arsenal

    RobertG .

    Leonardi PicatinnyArsenal

    WilliamL.

    Lukens

    Propellants

    Sh aped

    Charge

    A m m u n i t i o n

    Primer

    Ignition

    Formerly

    incharge

    of

    Ammunition

    De-

    sign

    Branch,

    PicatinnyArsenal

    Ulysses

    S.

    M a c D o n a l d

    Picatinny

    Arsenal Inspection

    James

    R -M c K a y

    icatinnyArsenal

    Special

    Purpose

    Shell

    H a r o ld

    M a r k u s

    rankford

    Arsenal

    A P

    Shell

    Ant hony

    Muzicka

    atervlietArsenal

    Jacob

    H .

    Niper

    K a r l

    G .

    O t t os o n

    PicatinnyArsenal

    Picatinny

    Arsenal

    LawrenceW .Pell Picatinny

    Arsenal

    BallardE .

    Quass

    icatinnyArsenal

    Lt.Richard

    Rhiel

    Dr.

    William

    H .

    R i n k e n b a c h

    D

    P

    SAberdeen

    Proving

    G r o u n d s

    GilbertE .

    Rogers PicatinnyArsenal

    M a x

    Rosenberg

    WilliamM .

    R o w e

    SamuelSage

    Picatinny

    Arsenal

    PicatinnyArsenal

    Picatinny

    Arsenal

    M a r v i nB .Schaffer Picatinny

    Arsenal

    A r t h u r

    B .Schilling Picatinny

    Arsenal

    Rifling

    and

    G u n

    Chambers

    Inspection

    Asst.

    Chief,

    Chem-

    ical

    Test

    Section

    H i g h

    Explosives

    Special

    Purpose

    Shell

    Plate

    Penetration

    Monograms

    Formerly

    ncharge

    of

    Picatinny

    Arsenal

    General

    Artillery

    Ammunition

    Design

    Ammunition

    Design

    H E PShell

    Chief,

    H i g h

    Ex-

    plosives

    Section

    Canister

    Shell

    ForeignAmmunition

    IV

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    G E N E R A LA S S I S T A N C Econt)

    RobertM .

    Schwartz

    Picatinny

    Arsenal

    William

    F.Sh irkicatinny

    Arsenal

    M o r g a n

    Smith

    allisticsResearch

    Laboratory

    JosephV.

    Sperazza

    BallisticsResearch

    Laboratory

    JosephSterne

    BallisticsResearch

    Laboratory

    Theodore

    W .

    Stevens

    icatinnyArsenal

    N o a h

    A .

    Tolch

    allisticsResearch

    Laboratory

    Paul

    B .

    T w e e d

    icatinny

    Arsenal

    Robert

    J .

    Vogel

    icatinny

    Arsenal

    LeoVolkheimericatinnyArsenal

    Stanley

    W a c h te il

    Garry

    Weingarten

    icatinny

    Arsenal

    General

    Ammunition

    Design

    Canister

    Shell

    Aircraft

    Vulnera-

    bility

    BlastTheory

    Lethality,

    Frag-

    mentation

    H i g hExplosives

    Lethality,Frag-

    mentation

    H i g hExplosives

    Assistant,

    Research

    and

    Development

    Section

    W P

    Shell

    Chief,

    Physical

    TestSection

    H e a d ,

    Chemical

    ResearchSection

    Pyrotechnics

    Laboratory

    E d w a r d

    Wurzell

    PicatinnyArsenal InteriorBallistics

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    P R E F A C E

    T h is

    eries

    s

    ompilation

    ofvailable

    ata

    n

    h e

    esign

    f

    arti l lery

    ammunition.tisintended

    to

    introduce

    th e

    graduate

    engineer

    toth ea rtofammunitiondesignandtoserveas

    areadyreference

    fo r

    th e

    practicingarti l leryammunitiondesigner.

    Inform ati on

    ontainednheseublicationsas

    ee n

    btained

    from developmentreportsandd r awin g s

    of

    ammunition

    items,fromproof

    firing

    records,

    an d

    from

    research

    reports

    by

    Uni ted

    States

    nd

    B r i t i s h

    government

    agencies.

    he

    nformation

    obtained

    fromthese

    sources

    w as

    corroborated

    and

    supplemented

    y

    mea ns

    of

    direct

    interviews

    and

    cor-

    respondencewithpersonnelofU .S.overnmentnd

    rivate

    esearch

    and

    designagencies.

    Th is

    series

    consistsofsixsections.

    ection

    1

    is

    anintroduction

    to

    th e

    general

    subjectof

    ammunition

    an d

    it s

    design.

    t

    is

    prima ri ly intended

    to

    familiarizenewcomers

    to

    th e

    fieldw i th

    th e

    nomenclature

    and

    classifi-

    cation

    of

    ammunition

    items.Forconveniencein publication,th efeatures

    applyingto th eentireseries,

    such

    as

    Table

    f

    Contents,

    Glossarynd

    Index,

    have

    been

    bound

    w i th

    Section

    1 .

    Section

    2

    is

    concerned

    w i th

    terminal

    ballistics,orth eproduction

    ofeffect

    by

    th evarioustypes

    of

    ammunition.

    ection

    3

    dealswith

    h e

    control

    offlight,

    and

    exterior

    ballistic

    esignofot hin-stabilizednd

    spin-stabilizedrounds.

    Section

    4,ondesignorprojection

    ofmmunition,ncludes

    h e

    designofpropel lantsfo rdesired

    nteriorballisticcharacteristics ,stress

    analysis,

    and

    th e

    designof

    cartridgecase,

    u n

    chamber,and

    ifling

    nd

    rotating

    bands.

    Section5

    describes

    th e

    inspection

    aspects

    of

    arti l lery

    ammunition

    design.

    t

    is

    included

    to

    ac q u ain t

    th e

    designer

    with

    imensioning

    rac-

    t ices

    nd

    h e

    at u r e

    of

    he

    imitations

    placedondesignbyth e

    require-

    ments

    of

    gaginga ndqualitycon tro l

    Section6,on

    m anufacturi ng

    methods,

    a s

    ee n

    ncluded

    o

    iv e

    th e

    neophyte

    designer

    some

    insight

    into

    th e

    overal lproblemof

    th e

    ma nu-

    VI

  • 8/10/2019 Artillery Ammo General

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    facture

    f

    etal

    artsfmmunitiontems,incemethods

    of

    ma nu-

    facture

    impose

    l imitationsupon

    th e

    design

    of

    such

    items.

    M u c h

    effortas

    ee n

    pent

    n

    ocatingnderifying

    h is

    ata.

    H o w e v e r ,

    in

    spiteofthis,itisprobable

    hat

    aluableources

    ave

    ee n

    overlooked

    andthat

    a

    certainpercentage

    f

    h enformationslready

    obsolescent

    ecause

    f

    he

    apiddvances

    eing

    made

    n

    he

    ield.

    t

    ishopedthatth eusersofth e

    Arti l lery

    mmunition

    eries

    wil lnform

    th eO f ficeofO rdna nceR esear c h ,

    B ox

    CM ,D u k e

    Station,

    D u r h a m ,

    N o r t h

    Carolina,

    of

    any

    omissions

    or

    errorsthattheym ay

    notice.

    Vll

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    table

    o f

    contents

    Section

    age

    Paragraphs

    F O R E W O R D

    iii

    P R E F A C E ix

    1

    R T I L L E R YA M M U N I T I O N

    G E N E R A L 1

    Types

    and

    Classification

    of

    Complete

    R o u n d s

    1

    -1o

    1-12

    Types

    f

    Projectiles2

    -13to

    1-21

    Projectile

    C om ponents3

    -22to1-28

    Fuzes,

    Boosters,

    ndDetonators

    ...

    1-4

    -29to

    1-37

    Explosives

    for

    A m m uni t i on

    6-38

    to

    1-41

    Propelling

    Charges

    6

    -42to1-50

    GeneralDesignRequirements

    8-51to

    1-54

    ReferencesandBibliography

    8

    2

    E S I G N

    FO R

    T E R M I N A L

    E F F E C T S

    2-1

    Introduct i on

    1-1

    o

    2-16

    BlastEffect 7-17to2-49

    viu

  • 8/10/2019 Artillery Ammo General

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    Section a ge Paragraphs

    2ESIGN

    FO RT E R M I N A L

    E F F E C T S(cont)

    Re fe re nce sandBibl iography

    -

    20

    Characteristics

    of

    High

    Explosives

    .

    -2 2

    2-50

    to

    2-70

    Shaped

    Charge

    Ammunition

    -30

    2-71

    to

    2-153

    Fragmentat ion

    -93

    2-154

    to2-207

    R e f e r e n c e s

    and

    Bibl iography

    -

    1

    1

    3

    K inetic

    Energy

    Ammunition

    fo r

    th e

    De f e a tofA r m o r-1 17

    2-208

    to 2- 265

    Re fe re nce s

    and

    Bibl iography-14 8

    Canister

    Ammunition

    -

    1

    5

    0

    2 - 2 6 6

    to

    2-278

    Re fe re nce s

    and

    Bibl iography

    -1 55

    H igh -E x plosive

    Plastic

    ( H E P )

    Shell.

    - 1 5 6 2-279to2-291

    R e f e r e n c e s

    an dBibl iography

    -1

    59

    Special

    Purpose

    Shell

    -1

    6 0

    2-292

    to

    2-371

    Re fe re nce san dBibl iography-199

    3

    ESIGN

    FO R

    C O N T R O L

    O F

    FLIGHT

    CHARACTERISTICS

    -1

    D e s ign

    for

    Precision-1

    -1to3-22

    R e f e r e n c e s

    and

    Bibl iography

    33

    D e si gn

    fo r

    Maximum

    Range

    or

    Minimum

    Tim e

    ofFlight

    -38 3-23to

    3-48

    R e f e r e n c e san dBibl iography-77

    Projectile

    Geometry

    -81

    3-49

    to

    3-64

    4

    ESIGNFO R

    P R O T E C T I O N

    -

    1

    Propellants

    nd

    InteriorBallistics

    4 -1

    -1

    to

    4-75

    Cartridge

    Case

    an d

    Gu nChamber

    D e s i g n -11 7

    4-76

    to4 - 1 1 6

    R e f e r e n c e s

    an dBibl iography-1 37

    ix

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    Section

    age

    Paragraphs

    4

    ESIGNFO R

    PROJECTION

    cont)

    Rotating

    Bandand

    Rifling

    Design4-149-117

    to

    4-154

    ReferencesandBibliography

    1

    76

    StressnShell

    1

    77

    4-155to

    4-177

    References

    and

    Bibliography

    190

    5

    NSPECTION

    ASPECTS

    OF

    ARTIL-

    LERY

    AMMUNITION

    DESIGN

    1

    QualityAssuranceAspectsof

    Ammunition

    Design

    1

    -1

    to5-21

    References

    andBibliography12

    Effect

    of

    Dimensioning

    and

    Tol-

    erancing

    onInspection

    13

    5-22

    o5-28

    6

    ANUFACTUREOFMETALLIC

    COMPONENTSOFARTILLERY

    AMMUNITION1

    Introduction 1-1o

    6-10

    Forging

    of

    HE

    Shell

    4-11

    to

    6-33

    Machiningof

    HE

    Shell

    14

    -34to

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    ColdExtrusionofH E

    Shell

    21

    -57to6-68

    Compromise

    Method

    ofShell

    Forming 25 6-69to6-70

    Manufacture

    of

    High-Explosive

    Plastic

    Shell 26 6-71

    to

    6-77

    Manufacture

    of

    Armor-Piercing

    Shotand

    Caps29 6-78

    to6-86

    The

    Manufacture

    of

    Hypervelocity

    Armor-Piercing

    HVAP)

    Shot

    35

    6-87

    to

    6-91

    TheManufactureofTungsten

    Carbide

    Cores

    36 6-92to

    6-95

    The

    Manufacture

    ofBrass

    Cartridge

    Cases

    37 6-96

    to

    6-103

    The

    Manufacture

    of

    Drawn-Steel

    CartridgeCases4 1

    6-104o

    6-122

    x

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    Section age Paragraphs

    6A N U F A C T U R EO F

    M E T A L L I C

    C O M P O N E N T S

    O FA R T I L L E R Y

    A M M U N I T I O N

    cont)

    T h e

    M a n u f a c t u r eol

    Trapezoidal-

    W r a pp e dSteel

    Cartridge

    Cases . 6-46 6-123

    to

    6-131

    T he

    M a n u f a c t u r e

    l

    Perforated

    Cartridge

    Cases

    48

    6-132

    to

    6-133

    References

    nd

    Bibliography

    49

    G L O S S A R Y -l

    I N D E X 1

    xx

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    G L O S S A R Y

    ABSOLUTE

    EVIATION:

    Theshortest

    distance

    between

    heenterf

    he

    arget

    ndhe

    point where a projectile hits or

    bursts.

    ABSOLUTE

    RROR:

    hortestdistance

    between

    the

    enterf

    mpact

    r

    heenter

    ofburst

    of

    roup

    f

    hots

    nd

    he

    ointofmpact

    or

    urst

    f

    ingle

    hotithinheroup.

    ACCURACY

    IFE:

    he

    stimated

    verage

    number

    founds

    hat

    articulareapon

    can

    ireeforets

    ube

    ecomes

    oworn

    that

    its

    accuracy

    tolerance is

    exceeded.

    ACCURACY

    F

    IRE:

    he

    easurement

    f

    the

    recisionfire

    xpressed

    s

    hedis-

    tancef

    he

    enterfmpactromhe

    center

    ofthetarget.

    ADIABATICLAMEEMPERATURE:he

    temperature

    a

    combustiblesystem

    would

    at-

    tain

    f

    ll

    he

    nergy

    f

    ombustion

    ent

    into

    he

    ormation

    fasithout

    nergy

    losstothe

    surroundings.

    AMATOL:ig h

    xplosive

    made

    of

    a

    mixture

    of

    ammonium

    itrate

    nd

    rinitrotoluene;

    sometimes

    sed

    s

    urstingharge

    n

    high-explosiveprojectiles.

    AMMONAL:

    igh-explosive

    ubstance

    made

    of

    aixture

    f

    mmonium

    itrate,

    rinitro-

    toluene,

    nd

    laked

    r

    owdered

    luminum.

    Ammonal

    sometimes

    seds

    ursting

    charge

    n

    igh-explosive

    rojectiles,

    nd

    producesbrightflashesonexplosion.

    AMMUNITION

    ATA

    CARD:

    Identification

    card

    preparedorach

    ndividual

    lot

    of

    ammuni-

    tion

    manufactured,

    ivingheypeand

    com-

    position

    fhemmunition,

    nd

    dentifying

    its components by lot

    number andmanu-

    facturer.

    he n

    ecessary,

    t

    ay

    lso

    include

    nstructions

    or

    handling

    theammu-

    nition.

    AMMUNITIONDENTIFICATIONODE:ode

    symbolforxample,

    5HBA)

    ssigned

    o

    each

    mmunition

    tem

    or

    dentificationand

    to

    acilitatehe

    upply

    fmmunition

    o

    the

    ield.

    heirstwoharacters

    refero

    theertinent

    rdnance

    atalog,

    nd

    he

    re-

    maining

    hree

    haracters

    ohe

    eapon

    group,

    ype

    nd

    odel,

    nd

    ackaging.

    n

    small

    rms

    mmunition

    he

    rade

    s

    n-

    dicated.

    AMMUNITIONOT

    UMBER:

    ode

    umber

    that

    dentifies

    articular

    uantity

    f

    m-

    munitionrom

    ne

    manufacturer.

    Thenum-

    bersssignedoeach

    otf

    mmunition

    when

    its

    manufactured.

    ANGLE

    FEPARTURE:ngleetweenhe

    line

    fightndhe

    xis

    fhe

    oreof

    a

    gun

    at

    he

    nstant

    he

    rojectile

    eaves

    he

    muzzle.

    ngle

    f

    eparture

    s

    he

    um

    f

    the

    ngles

    f

    ite,

    levation,nd

    ertical

    jump.

    ANGLE

    F

    ALL:

    ngle

    etween

    heori-

    zontalnd

    he

    angento

    he

    rajectory

    t

    thepointatwhichaprojectile

    falls.

    ANGLEF

    MPACT:cute

    ngle

    etween

    the

    tangento

    he

    rajectory

    theoint

    f

    impactfrojectilendtheplane

    tangent

    toheurface

    fheround

    thepointof

    impact;

    ngle

    t

    hich

    projectile

    trikes

    thegroundor

    a

    target.

    ANGLE

    F

    NCIDENCE:

    nglet

    hich

    projectile

    trikes

    urface;

    cute

    ngle

    between

    he

    angent

    o

    he

    ine

    of

    mpact

    of

    a

    rojectile

    nd

    heerpendicularo

    he

    surfacef

    he

    ground

    at

    thepointof

    mpact.

    It

    s

    heomplementoftheangleofmpact.

    G-l

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    A R E A

    A R G E T :Targetfor

    gunfire

    orb omb in g

    covering

    onsiderable

    space,

    uch

    as

    am-

    munitions

    actory,irport,rreightyard.

    A narea

    arget

    differs

    rom

    oint

    target,

    which

    is a

    particular

    bject

    rtructure.

    A R M I N G :sppliedo

    uzes,h eh an gin g

    fromsafecondition

    toastate

    freadiness

    for

    nitiation.

    enerally

    uze

    is

    caused

    to

    arm

    ycceleration,

    otation,

    lock

    mech-

    anism,rir

    ravel,

    r

    by

    combinations

    of

    these.

    A R M O R :rotectiveovering,

    especially

    metal

    platessedn

    ships,

    anks,

    motor

    vehicles,

    etc.

    A R M O R - P I E R C I N G :ermappliedo

    bullets

    and

    rojectiles

    esigned

    o

    ierce

    rmor

    plate.

    A R M O R - P I E R C I N G

    A P P E D :

    erm

    pplied

    to

    armor-piercing

    rojectiles

    hich

    a ve

    steelapnrontfheprojectile

    poin t ,

    o

    assistnefeatingace-hardenedrmor

    plate.

    A U T O M A T I C(Self-Acting):

    M o v i n g

    or

    acting

    by

    itself.

    Afterth e

    first

    ound

    is

    fired,n

    auto-

    matic

    e a p o n

    ires,

    xtracts,

    jects,

    nd

    reloads

    w i t h o u tapplicationofpowerfroma n

    outsideource,epeating

    he

    ycles

    long

    as

    the

    firing

    mechanism

    sheld

    in

    the

    proper

    position.

    utomatic

    ction

    nvol^s

    epeat-

    in g

    he

    ycle

    f

    peration,

    s

    distinguished

    from

    emi-automatic,w h i c hisrestricted

    to

    on e

    complete

    cycle

    a t

    a

    time.

    A U T O M A T I C

    EEDE C H A N I S M :

    Mechanism

    inan

    utomatic

    u n

    hat

    u tsresh

    hells

    into th e chamber

    in

    positionor

    firing.

    B

    B A C K - B L A S T :

    earwardlastf

    gases

    rom

    the

    reech

    f

    ecoilless

    eaponsand

    rock-

    ets

    pon

    h eurn in g

    f

    h e

    ropellant

    charge.

    t

    s

    ometimes

    eferred

    o

    s

    breech-blast.

    B A L L I S T I C

    A P:

    a p

    or

    projectile,designed

    toimproveitsballistic

    efficiency.

    B A L L I S T I CO E F F I C I E N T :easuref

    h e

    abilityf

    issile

    overcomeire-

    sistance.

    B A L L I S T I C

    O N D I T I O N S :

    onditionshich

    affect

    h e

    otionfprojectile

    nth ebore

    andh roughheatmosphere,ncluding

    muz-

    zle

    elocity,eightfrojectile,izend

    shapef

    rojectile,otation

    f

    h e

    arth,

    densityf

    h e

    ir,lasticity

    fheira nd

    th ew i nd.

    B A L L I S T I C

    U R V E :

    ctual

    a th

    r

    trajectory

    of

    a

    bullet

    or

    hell.

    B A L L I S T I CE N S I T Y :

    o m p u t e d

    constantir

    density

    h a t

    w oul d

    h a v e

    thesametotaleffect

    on

    rojectileurin g

    ts

    light

    s

    he

    varyingdensitiesactuallyencountered.

    B A L L I S T I C

    F F I C I E N C Y :

    bilityfro-

    jectileo

    vercome

    he

    esistance

    f

    h e

    air.

    allisticfficiency

    epends

    hieflyn

    th eeight,

    iameter,

    ndhape

    f

    h e

    projectile.

    B A L L I S T I C

    I M I T :

    elocity

    t

    h ich

    given

    type

    f

    rojectileill

    erforate

    iven

    thicknessnd

    ypefrmorlatet

    specified

    obliquity.

    B A L L I S T I C

    O R T A R :

    nstrument

    sedode-

    termine

    heelativeenergyobtainable

    from

    explosivematerials.

    B A L L I S T I C S :

    T h e

    projectiles.

    science

    of the

    motion

    of

    B A L L I S T I C

    E M P E R A T U R E :

    Acomputedcon-

    stantemperature

    ha t

    ouldhaveth esame

    total

    ffectnprojectile

    raveling

    rom

    theu n

    o

    h e

    arget

    s

    h e

    arying

    em-

    peratures

    actuallyencountered.

    B A L L I S T I CA V E :udib le

    isturbancer

    wave

    ausedy

    h e

    ompression

    f

    ir

    a h e a d

    ofaprojectile

    in

    flight.

    B A L L I S T I C

    I N D :

    ssumed

    constant

    wind

    that

    w o u l d

    aveheameotalffect

    n

    apro-

    jectileravelingrom

    he

    u n

    o

    h etarget

    as

    th e

    varying

    winds

    ctually

    ncountered.

    B A L L I S T I T E :mokeless

    owder

    seds

    propellingcharge

    nsmall-armsandmortar

    ammunition.

    B A L L O T I N G :The

    boundingfromside

    to

    side

    of

    a

    projectile

    inth e

    bore

    fagun.

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    B A S EJ E C T I O N

    S H E L L :

    T y p e

    of

    special

    pur-

    pose

    hell

    w h i c h

    unctions

    y

    expelling

    ts

    filleru t

    f

    he

    base

    of

    th e

    shell.

    Expulsion

    issuallychievedymallcharge

    f

    propellant,called

    a n

    expelling

    charge.

    B A S E

    I N E :

    Line

    of

    k n o wn

    length

    and

    direction

    between

    w o

    oints

    hose

    ocations

    re

    known;used

    in

    firecontrol.

    B A S E

    P L U G :

    Seal

    in

    base

    ofprojectile.

    B A S E

    F

    R A J E C T O R Y :

    traightorizontal

    linerom

    h e

    enter

    f

    h e

    uzzle

    f

    w e a p o n

    to

    th e

    point

    inth e

    d o w n w a r dcurveof

    th ea th

    f

    a

    projectile

    t h a tis

    levelwithth e

    muzzle.

    B A S E

    S P R A Y :

    See

    S P R A Y . )

    B I O L O G I C A L

    A G E N T :

    iruses,ny

    fcertain

    classifications

    f

    icro-organisms

    nd

    toxic

    ubstances,erived

    rom

    iving

    or-

    ganisms

    sedo

    produce

    eath

    r

    disease

    in

    m a n ,animals,

    nd

    growing

    plants.

    B I O L O G I C A L

    A R F A R E :

    actics

    nd

    ech-

    niques

    f

    on ductin g

    arfarey

    se

    f

    biologicalagents.

    B L A C K

    O W D E R :

    ensitive,easily

    ignitible

    explosive

    ixture,hi chroduces

    ense

    smoke;

    ew

    emaining

    ilitary

    uses,

    uch

    as

    gniters,

    xpelling

    nd

    lank-fire

    charges.

    lack

    p o w d e rwasused

    as

    pro-

    pellant

    efore

    h e

    dventfo-called

    smokeless

    p o w d e r .

    B L A N K

    A M M U N I T I O N :

    m m uni t i onontaining

    poweru toprojectile.lank

    ammunition

    is

    sed

    n

    raining,

    n

    ignaling,nd

    n

    firing

    salutes.

    B L A S T :

    u d d enir

    ressurereated

    y

    h e

    dischargefu nrh explosion

    f

    charge.

    B L A S T I N G

    A P:Small

    cylindrical

    casewitha

    thin

    alln

    h ich

    s

    nclosedaensitive

    explosive,

    uch

    sercury

    fulminate,used

    as

    detonator

    o

    et

    ff

    n oth er

    xplosive

    charge.

    h e

    explosive

    nth e

    blasting

    ca p

    is

    fired

    ither

    y

    aurni ng

    use

    r

    y

    elec-

    tricity.

    Also

    calleda

    detonator.

    B L A S T

    C U B E :

    ngle

    ron

    rame

    overed

    with

    alumin um

    heets;

    used

    for

    testingeffective-

    ness

    of

    blast.

    B L A S TU B E :evice

    sed

    orh e

    t u d y

    f

    shockaves,nd

    or

    alibration

    f

    ir-

    blast

    gages.

    B L A S T I N G

    A C H I N E :

    mall

    and-powered

    generatoror

    lectrically

    iring

    ne

    r

    more

    etonatorsr

    quibs

    o

    xploder

    ignite munitions or series ofmunitions.

    B L O W B A C K :scape,oheear

    nd

    nder

    pressure,f

    gases

    ormed

    duri ng

    the

    firing

    of

    u n.

    l o w b a c k

    a y

    e

    ausedy

    defectivereech

    echanism,

    u p t u r e d

    cartridge,or

    a

    faulty

    primer.

    B O A T - T A I L :

    ear

    nd

    f

    projectile

    ha t

    s

    tapered

    orcone-shaped,

    nd

    notcylindrical,

    asn

    rojectile

    avi ngquare

    ase.

    B O O S T E R :High-explosiveelement,ufficiently

    sensitive

    o

    be

    ctuated

    y

    mall

    explosive

    elements

    n

    a

    uze,nd

    powerful

    nough

    to

    causeetonationf

    he

    a in

    xplosive

    filling.

    B O R E :

    he

    ylindrical,

    ndsuallyifled,

    portion

    f

    h eu n

    ub e,

    r

    arrel

    interior,

    extending

    rom

    h e

    forcing

    cone

    toth e

    muz-

    zle.

    ore

    is

    used

    both

    for

    the

    inside

    surface

    of

    he

    arrel

    r

    u be

    f

    u n,

    it h

    its

    rifling,ndorhe

    ylindricalpace

    en-

    closedby

    thatportion

    of

    th e

    tub e.

    B O R E

    M P R E S S I O N :mpressionf

    th e

    bore

    of

    a

    u nu b e ,

    m a d ew i tha

    plastic

    ubstance

    n

    ordero

    etermine

    h e

    ondition

    fh e

    rifling.

    B O R E S A F E

    U Z E :

    ype

    f

    uze

    avi ng

    a n

    in-

    terruptor

    n

    he

    xplosive

    rainh a t

    pre-

    vents

    unctioning

    ntil

    after

    the

    projectile

    has

    cleared

    the

    muzzle

    of

    a

    w e a p o n .

    B O U R R E L E T :inely

    achined

    bandor

    ringof

    metal

    ustehindh e

    give

    fa

    projectile,

    designed

    o

    upport

    he

    rontportionof

    th e

    projectile

    yiding

    he

    ands

    as

    he

    pro-

    jectileravelshroughheore

    f

    u n.

    B O W

    W A V E :

    (See

    B A L L I S T I CW A V E . )

    G-3

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    BREECH:heearartfheoref

    a

    gun,

    especially

    hepening

    that

    permitsthe

    pro-

    jectile

    to

    be

    inserted

    at

    therearof

    thebore.

    BREECH-BLAST:

    SeeBACK-BLAST.)

    BREECHBLOCK:

    ovable

    teellockhat

    closes

    he

    ear

    art

    f

    he

    arrel

    n

    firearm.

    CANISTER:

    1)

    Metalcylindercontainingmetal

    fragments

    hich

    re

    cattered

    hen

    he

    cylinder

    breaks.

    2)

    Cylinder

    containingma-

    terials

    orpecial

    erminal

    ffects,

    uch

    as

    smoke,

    propaganda

    leaflets,

    haff,

    tc.

    CANNISTER

    MMUNITION:hellontaining

    preformed

    metal

    fragments

    hich

    re

    is-

    persed

    y

    he

    entrifugal

    orce

    aused

    by

    theshell'srotation.

    BRIDGEAVES:achavesausedyhe

    interaction

    f

    wo

    hock

    aves

    oform

    third

    hat

    ridges

    heolumebetweenhe

    original

    two.

    BRISANCE:hattering

    ower

    figh

    x-

    plosives.

    BURNING

    of

    ropellant):

    Se e

    LINEAR

    BURN-

    IN G

    RATE.)

    BURST:xplosion

    faprojectilen

    the

    air,

    or

    whenitstrikesthegroundor

    target.

    BURSTER:

    xplosive

    harge

    sed

    o

    reak

    open

    nd

    pread

    he

    ontents

    f

    hemical

    projectiles,

    bombs,

    or

    mines.

    BURSTERUBE:

    ubehatoldshe

    urster

    in

    a

    chemical

    projectile.

    BURSTING

    CHARGE:

    Quantity

    of

    explosive

    which

    breaks

    to

    produce

    or chemical

    CHARGE.)

    the

    asing

    f

    rojectile

    demolition,

    ragmentation,

    action.

    (See

    EXPLOSIVE

    CANNELURE:

    1) ing-likeroovenhe

    jacket

    f

    bullet

    which

    provides

    a

    meansof

    securely

    rimpingheartridge

    case

    tothe

    bullet;

    nalogous

    o

    he

    rimping

    rooven

    artillery

    mmunition.2)

    ing-like

    roove

    for

    ockinghe

    acket

    fanarmor-piercing

    bullet

    oheore.

    3)

    ing-like

    roove

    n

    the

    otating

    and

    ofaprojectile,ntendedto

    lessenhe

    esistanceffered

    o

    heun

    riflings.

    4)

    roove

    round

    the

    ase

    f

    he

    cartridge

    ase,

    here

    he

    xtractor

    akes

    hold.

    CANNON:1)ixedr

    mobile

    eapon,

    arger

    than

    mall

    arms,hat

    jects

    ts

    rojectile

    byhection

    f

    n

    explosive.

    annon

    nc-

    clude

    uns,

    owitzers,

    nd

    reech-loading

    mortars.2)

    hat

    ortionf

    uch

    a

    weapon

    requiredo

    fire

    projectilethats,ube,

    breech

    mechanism,

    ndfiringmechanism),

    as

    ontrasted

    o

    that

    portion

    whichsupports

    the

    eapon

    nd

    hich

    is

    called

    the

    carriage

    ormount.

    CANT:

    object;

    gun.

    leaning

    or

    tilt,

    one

    ide,

    fan y

    militarily,

    he

    idewiseiltingf

    CALIBER:

    1)

    Diameter

    of

    the

    bore

    of

    a

    gun.

    n

    rifled

    gun

    bores

    healiber

    s

    btainedby

    measuring

    between

    opposite

    lands.

    A

    caliber

    .4 5

    evolver

    has

    barrelwitha

    land

    diam-

    eter

    5/100

    f

    n

    nch.

    2)

    iameter

    f

    projectile.

    3)

    nit

    f

    measureusedto

    ex-

    pressheengthfheore

    f

    weapon.

    The

    umberf

    alibers

    s

    eterminedby

    dividing

    thelength

    of

    the

    bore

    of

    the

    weapon,

    from

    hereech

    ace

    f

    he

    ubeo

    he

    muzzle,

    y

    the

    iameter

    f

    tsore.A

    gun

    tube

    hoseore

    s4 0

    feet(480

    nches)

    ong

    and2

    nches

    ndiameters

    aid

    obe4 0

    caliberslong.

    CAP:

    1)

    osepiecen

    rojectile.

    2)

    See

    BLASTING

    CAP.)

    CARTRIDGE ound

    of

    ammunition

    wherein

    the

    propellant

    nd

    rimerreontainedna

    casing

    nd

    n

    which

    he

    propellant,

    primer,

    and

    rojectile

    re

    ssembled,

    tored,

    shipped, and

    issued asa

    ompleteunit.

    CARTRIDGE

    AG:

    lothagoldinghe

    ro-

    pelling

    charge

    forsome

    typesof

    annon.

    CARTRIDGEASE:ontainer

    hatolds

    he

    primer

    ndropellant,ndo

    hichhe

    projectilemay

    beaffixed.

    G-4

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    CONFINEMENT:

    Degree

    ofphysicalrestriction

    to

    assagefetonation

    av e

    hrough

    x-

    plosivematerial.

    COOK-OFF:

    unctioning

    fa

    chambered

    round

    of

    mmunition,

    nitiated

    y

    he

    eatf

    he

    weapon.

    COPPER

    RUSHER

    AGE:

    evice

    sed

    o

    measurepressuredeveloped

    in

    gunchamber

    byeasuring

    he

    eformation

    f

    copper

    cylinder.

    COPPERING:Metal

    ouling

    eft

    nthe

    ore

    of

    a

    eapon

    yhe

    otating

    andorthe

    jacket

    of

    a

    projectile.

    CORDITE:

    ouble-base

    owder

    n

    the

    orm

    of

    cords,

    composedof

    guncotton,

    nitroglycerin,

    and

    ineral

    elly,

    sed

    y

    ome

    oreign

    nations

    s

    ropellant

    n

    roundsofammu-

    nition.

    COUNTERRECOIL:

    orwardovementf

    gu n

    eturning

    ofiringposition

    after

    recoil.

    CROSS-WINDORCE

    LIFT):

    omponent

    f

    air

    esistance

    n

    direction

    erpendicular

    to

    heotionfheenterf

    gravity,

    n

    theplaneofyaw.

    CRYSTAL

    ENSITY:

    Maximum

    de;

    sity

    attain-

    able

    for

    a

    given

    substance.

    DECELEROTOR:evice

    or

    lowing

    he

    rota-

    tionf

    arachute-containing

    rojectile,

    e-

    fore

    ejection

    oftheparachute.

    DEFLAGRATION:

    apideactionexplosion)

    with

    volution

    f

    onsiderableheat,accom-

    panied

    y

    ome

    isruptive

    ffect

    ut

    ess

    violent

    than

    adetonation.

    DEGRESSIVE

    GRANULATION:

    Propellant

    grain

    which

    urns

    ith

    ontinually

    ecreasing

    surfacentil

    he

    rain

    s

    ompletely

    on-

    sumed.

    DELAY

    UZE:

    uze

    hat

    as

    delayelement

    incorporatednheuze

    rain,

    ermitting

    the

    missile

    to penetrate

    he

    arget

    is-

    tance

    orrespondingto

    the

    delay.

    Such

    fuzes

    are

    sed

    o

    ermit

    penetration

    ofthetarget

    before detonation, or

    for mining effect.

    DESIGN

    ROCEDURE:

    utlinef

    teps

    tofol-

    low

    n

    designing

    an

    tem.

    DETERRENT:

    aterial

    diffused

    nto

    he

    ur-

    face

    f

    ropellant

    grains

    to

    control

    burning.

    DETONATE:

    Explodesuddenly andiolently.

    DETONATING

    G E N T :

    xplosivesed

    o

    set

    offnotherexplosive.Fulminate

    of

    mercury

    and

    etryl

    re

    sed

    s

    etonatinggentsto

    set

    of fother

    less

    sensitive

    explosives.

    DETONATINGHARGE:

    Charge

    used

    toset

    off

    a

    high-explosive

    charge.

    DETONATING

    ORD:

    Flexible

    fabric

    tube

    con-

    taining

    iller

    f

    igh

    xplosive

    thats

    set

    offyblasting

    cap

    or

    by

    an

    electric

    deto-

    nator.tas

    n

    extremely

    igh

    ate

    ofex-

    plosion,

    nd

    s

    sed

    o

    et

    ff

    ther

    igh-

    explosiveharges.

    he

    etonating

    ord

    currently

    n

    se

    s

    nown

    ommerciallyas

    primacord.

    DETONATING

    r

    'LOSIVE.)

    EXPLOSIVE:

    (See HIGH

    EX-

    DETONATION:

    xtremelyapid

    eaction

    with

    evolution

    f

    onsiderable

    eat

    ccompanied

    by

    onsiderable

    iolently

    isruptive

    ffect

    and

    ntense

    hock

    wave.

    See

    lso

    DEFLA-

    GRATION.)

    DETONATION

    FRONT:

    See

    WAVE

    FRONT.)

    DETONATION

    ATE:

    elocity

    t

    hichhe

    detonation

    wave

    travels

    through

    an

    explosive

    material.

    DETONATION WAVE:

    (See

    SHOCK

    WAVE.)

    DETONATOR:

    ensitive

    xplosive

    sed

    o

    et

    off

    n

    xplosive

    rain,

    as

    well

    as

    he

    mech-

    anism

    an d

    container connected

    therewith.

    DEVLOPEDUZZLE

    ELOCITY:

    he

    ctual

    muzzle

    velocity

    producedbyanygun.

    DOUBLE-BASE

    POWDER:

    SeeDOUBLE-BASE

    PROPELLANT.)

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    D O U B L E - B A S ER O P E L L A N T :

    ropellant

    whose

    rinciplectivengredients

    rei-

    trocellulosend

    itroglycerin.See

    R O -

    P E L L A N T . )

    D R A G :om ponent

    f

    ir

    esistance

    n

    h e

    direction

    pposite

    o

    h a tfh e

    otion

    f

    th e

    centerfgravityf

    projectile.

    D R I L L

    M M U N I T I O N :

    m m u n i t i o n

    i thout

    n

    explosiveharge,

    used

    n

    training

    a nd

    prac-

    tice.

    D U M M Y

    R O J E C T I L E :

    hell

    h a t

    as

    oex-

    plosiveharge.

    D u m m yprojectiles

    are

    used

    forpracticend

    trainingpurposes.

    E . C.

    B L A N KI R E :

    See

    .

    P O W D E R . )

    C.

    M O K E L E S S

    E .

    .

    M O K E L E S S

    O W D E R :

    r a n g e

    r

    in k

    explosive

    owder,

    esembling

    oarse

    a n d .

    It

    ssed

    s

    hargen

    mallrms,n

    bl ank

    artridges.

    lso

    alled

    lank-fire

    p o w d e r

    orE .C.blankfire.

    E C C E N T R I C I T Y :

    istance

    romenterine

    to

    center

    ofgravityfprojectile.

    E L A S T I C

    T R E N G T H

    R E S S U R E :

    h eom-

    pu t ednternalgas

    ressuren

    a

    gu n

    w h i c h ,

    a t

    h e

    ectionnder

    onsideration,

    ill

    stress

    h e

    etal

    n

    ome

    ayer

    f

    h ewall

    tangentially,

    p

    o

    h e

    inimum

    lastic

    limit

    hich

    s

    rescribedor

    h e

    etal

    fromw h i c h

    th emember

    s

    m a d e .

    E L E C T R I C

    R I M E R :

    Metallicevice

    ontain-

    in g

    mall

    m o u n t

    f

    a

    sensitiveexplosive

    or

    harge

    f

    black

    p o w d e r

    w h i c h

    s

    actuated

    by

    nergizingn

    electric

    ircuit.

    t

    sused

    for

    etting

    ff

    xplosive

    rropelling

    charges.

    E L E C T R I CQ U I B :ommercial

    flash-fuze

    de-

    vice

    or

    lectricaliring

    f

    u r n in g

    yp e

    munitions

    u c h

    s

    moke

    ots.

    t

    onsists

    essentially

    f

    mall

    u be

    ealed

    it h

    sulfur,

    ontaining

    mallcharge

    of

    p o w d e r

    compressedroundine

    esistance

    ire.

    Thererehree

    ypes:

    pen-end,

    lash-

    vented,

    nd

    closed-end.

    E Q U A L

    E C T I O NH A R G E :ropelling

    charge

    m a d e

    up

    of a

    u m b e rf

    harges

    q u a l

    n

    size.h e

    u m b e r

    f

    ections

    sed

    eter-

    mines

    h e

    uzzle

    velocitynd

    ange

    f

    th e

    projectile.

    E Q U A T I O N

    FT A T E :n

    quat i on

    elating

    th eolume,

    emperature,nd

    pressuref

    system.

    E R O S I O N :

    eari ng

    w a yfbored u e

    to

    com-

    bi ned

    ffect

    f

    as

    ashing,couring,

    nd

    mechanicalbrasion.

    u e

    o

    h eig hem-

    peraturesnd

    velocities,

    ndhemicalc-

    tion, th e

    ore

    iameter

    ecomesnlarged.

    E X P E L L I N GH A R G E :uantityf

    ropellant

    used

    n

    pecial

    urposehell

    o

    eject

    he

    contents

    fth ehell.

    E X P L O S I V E :

    ubstance

    hi ch,

    h enubjected

    toeat,mpact,

    riction,

    rtheruitable

    initial

    mpulse,

    ndergoes

    n

    explosionthat

    is

    ery

    apid

    hemical

    ransformation,

    forming

    ther

    more

    stable

    products

    entirely

    or

    argely

    aseous,

    hose

    ombined

    ol-

    u m e

    s

    uch

    reater

    ha nthatf

    th e

    origi-

    na l

    ubstance.xplosivesre

    lassified

    as

    high-explosive

    r

    ow-explosive,ccording

    to

    he

    atefth etransformation.

    Sec

    H I G H

    E X P L O S I V E

    ndLO W

    E X P L O S I V E . )

    E X P L O S I V EH A R G E :

    redetermined

    quantity

    of

    xplosive

    equiredoroduce

    specific

    effect.See

    U R S T I N GH A R G E ;

    XPEL-

    LI N G

    C H A R G E ;P R O P E L L I N G

    C H A R G E . )

    E X P L O S I V E

    :

    m m o n i u m

    icrate,

    igh-

    explosive

    harge

    h a ts

    ot

    easilyetffn

    transportation,

    r

    n

    andl i ng,

    tc.ome-

    timest

    s

    se dsurstinghargen

    armor-piercingprojectiles.

    E X P L O S I V E

    R A I N :

    h a tortion

    f

    fuzeor

    fuze

    ystem

    onsistingf

    xplosive

    om-

    ponents,

    u c h

    as

    primer,

    otonutor ,

    booster,

    etc.,ecessary

    oause

    unctioning

    f

    w a r h e a d

    or

    destructor.

    E X T E R I O R

    AL L I STI CS:

    T h e

    r an c h

    f

    ballis-

    tics

    hi ch

    eals

    it h

    the

    motion

    oi

    he

    pro-

    jectileafter

    eaving

    h e

    gun.

    F I N :ight

    etal

    ortion

    f

    ortarhell,

    b o m b ,nd

    ome

    ockets,

    esigned

    or

    ta-

    bilizing

    nd

    ontrolling

    themwhile

    n

    flight.

    G-7

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    FIN

    TABILIZATION:

    Method

    f

    tabilizing

    projectilejomb,

    r

    missileuring,flight

    by

    the

    fitting

    of

    fins.

    FIXED

    AMMUNITION:

    Ammunition

    with

    primer

    and

    ropellent

    owder

    ontainedncar-

    tridge

    ase

    ermanentlyrimpedrt-

    tached

    o

    projectile,

    hat

    soaded

    nto

    a

    weapon

    as

    a

    unit.

    FIXED ROUND:Round

    f

    ixed

    mmunition.

    FLAME

    EMPERATURE.See

    DIABATIC

    FLAME

    TEMPERATURE.)

    FLASH

    EDUCER:Any

    material

    foruse

    with

    a

    propelling'

    harge

    oeduce

    tsuzzle

    flash.

    r

    '

    :/

    >

    -

    -

    FLAT

    RAJECTORY:

    rajectory

    ith

    ittle

    curvature,

    roducedy

    projectile

    ith

    highvelocity.

    :w-

    FLECHETTE:

    Stabilized

    fragment

    pointednoseand

    finned

    tail;

    dart.

    having'-a?'

    FORCE:

    erm,

    onvenientininterior

    ballis-

    tics

    heory,

    hich

    s

    efinedas

    the

    product-

    ofhe

    umberfmols

    f

    aserrmof

    propellantrid

    he

    diabatic-constant-vol-

    ume

    flametemperature.

    FORCING

    ONE:

    apered

    eginning

    fhe

    lands

    t

    he

    rigin

    fhe

    ifling

    f

    gun

    tube.

    heorcing

    one

    llows

    he

    otating

    bandf

    he

    rojectile

    o

    be

    gradually

    n-

    gagedyhe

    ifling

    hereby

    entering

    he

    projectile

    in

    the

    bore.

    FORMOEFFICIENT:actorsed

    n

    orm

    functions

    o

    escribeheatiofurning

    surface

    to

    fraction

    burned.

    FORM

    UNCTION:

    athematical

    xpression

    relating

    urning

    ateo

    ropellantrain

    geometry.

    FRAGMENTATION:

    hereaking

    nd

    cat-

    tering

    n

    ll

    irections

    fheiecesf

    projectile,bomb,

    or

    grenade.

    FULMINATE

    OF

    MERCURY:

    S e e

    MERCURY

    FULMINATE.

    FUZE: Device

    used

    tonitiateaetonation

    undertheconditionsdesired.

    GILDINGETAL:opper-zinc

    lloy

    brass)

    usedforrotatingbands.

    GRANULATION: Sizeand

    shape

    of

    grain

    of

    propellant.

    GRAVIMETRICENSITY:eight

    fhe

    ro-

    pellant

    inlb

    pern.3)

    divided

    by

    the

    volume

    occupied

    by

    he

    ropellant

    includes

    the

    air

    space in an d

    around

    propellant

    grains).

    G-SERIES

    AR

    ASES:

    roup

    f

    ersistent

    blood

    nd

    erveoisons

    hich

    re

    ighly

    toxic

    nd

    racticallydorless.A,

    B,

    an d

    GD

    are

    members

    of

    the

    G-series.

    GUNCOTTON:

    itrocellulose

    ontaining

    3

    percent

    ormoreofnitrogen.

    "

    H

    HANGFIRE:

    emporary

    failure

    rdelayn

    the

    action

    f

    ,primer,gniter,

    r

    ropelling

    charge.

    or ewecondst

    annote

    distinguished

    romompleteailure,

    r

    misfire.

    HANGFIRE

    EST:

    est

    o

    determine

    uniform-

    ity

    nd

    romptness

    ffire

    f

    atype

    of

    am-

    munition.

    HC

    IXTURE:

    olid,

    onpersistent

    creening

    smoke

    hat,

    when

    burning,

    produces

    agray-

    ish

    s

    whitemokeaving

    harp,

    crid

    odor,hich

    stoxicfreleasednsufficient

    quantitiesn

    nclosedlaces;sedn

    bombs,

    hell,

    renades,

    ndmokeots.

    The

    moke

    s

    ool

    urning

    s

    ontrasted

    with

    hite

    hosphorous,

    nd

    ends

    o

    ling

    to

    the

    earth.

    H E A T

    F

    OMBUSTION:

    eat

    volved

    n

    he

    completexidation

    f

    ubstance

    ton-

    stantressure

    nd25C.The

    test

    s

    usually

    accomplishedalorimetrically

    yurning

    a

    gram

    f

    ample

    n

    combustion

    bomb

    con-

    tainingnec

    f

    aterunder

    a

    pressure

    of

    30

    atmospheres

    of

    pureoxygen.

    G-8

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    IGNITING

    IXTURE:

    xplosive

    mixturesed

    as

    a

    fuze

    n

    pyrotechnic

    signals.

    IGNITING

    RIMER:

    rimer

    esigned

    o

    e

    initiated

    y

    lame

    rom

    notherrimer.

    Sometimessedn

    ubcaliber

    uns

    o

    s

    topermitdrill

    r

    ractice

    with

    theregular

    primer.

    IGNITION

    ARTRIDGE:

    gniter

    n

    artridge

    form

    hich

    ayesed

    lonerithad-

    ditional

    ropellant

    ncrementss ro-

    pelling

    harge

    or

    ertain

    mortar

    ammuni-

    tion.

    ILLUMINATINGHELL:

    Projectile

    witha

    time

    fuzehat

    ets

    ffarachutelaretny

    desired

    eight;sed

    for

    lighting

    upanarea.

    INTERIOR

    ALLISTICS:

    ubdivision

    fballis-

    tics

    hich

    eals

    ith

    that

    art

    f

    hehe-

    nomenaithin

    hehamberndoref

    weapon

    ssociated

    ithmpartinginetic

    energyomissiles.See

    BALLISTICS.)

    ISOBARIC

    DIABATICLAME

    EMPERA-

    TURE:

    Adiabatic

    flame

    temperature

    attained

    in

    onstant

    ressure

    ystem.

    See

    ADIABATIC

    FLAMETEMPERATURE.)

    ISOCHORIC

    DIABATIC

    LAME

    EMPERA-

    TURE:

    Adiabatic

    flame

    temperature

    attained

    in

    onstant

    olume

    ystem.

    SeeD I-

    ABATICFLAMETEMPERATURE.)

    IMPACTUZE:

    uzeesigned

    o

    functionon

    impact.

    INCENDIARY:

    1)

    hemicalgent

    sed

    ri-

    marily

    or

    gniting

    ombustible

    ubstances

    with

    hich

    ts

    n

    ontactyenerating

    sufficient

    eat

    o

    ausegnition.2)

    Filling

    forncendiaryunitionsuch

    s

    hells,

    bombs,

    renades,

    nd

    lame

    hrowers.

    3)

    Munition

    ith

    flammableilling

    nd

    means

    ofreleaseand/orgnition.

    INCREMENT:

    package

    ofpropellant,

    forming

    partofthe

    full

    propellingcharge,which

    may

    be

    emoved

    oreducethevelocityor

    range.

    (See

    MULTISECTION

    CHARGE.)

    JOLTND

    UMBLE

    ESTS:

    ests

    ntended

    to

    simulate

    hehocks

    arious

    omponents

    of

    mmunition

    re

    ubjected

    o

    n

    trans-

    portationandhandling.

    JUMP:

    he

    ovement

    hich

    heube

    f

    he

    gunescribesnderhe

    hock

    f

    iring,

    but

    eforehe

    rojectile

    leaves

    themuzzle.

    Usuallyexpressedasan

    angle.

    K

    KINETICNERGYMMUNITION:

    mmuni-

    tion

    hose

    ffectivenesss

    ependent

    pon

    its

    high

    density

    (mass)

    an digh

    elocity.

    INITIAL

    IRSPACE:

    olumef

    unhamber

    no t

    ccupiedy

    ropellant

    hen

    un

    s

    loaded

    for

    firing.

    INITIAL VELOCITY:

    LOCITY.)

    (See MUZZLE VE-

    INITIATOR:mall

    uantityfery

    ensitive

    andowerfulxplosivesedotarthe

    detonation

    fnother

    ess

    ensitive

    x-

    plosive.

    Mercury

    ulminate,

    ead

    azide,

    and

    tetryl

    re

    theprinciplehighexplosivesused

    asinitiators.

    INSTANTANEOUS

    UZE:

    ne

    hichwillburst

    the

    rojectile

    nhe

    utside

    f

    a

    hard

    sur-

    face

    such

    s

    concrete

    mplacement)

    be-

    fore

    enetration

    r

    icochet.

    his

    fuze

    will

    give

    ome

    ratern

    ard

    round.

    See

    SUPERQUICKFUZE.)

    LANDS:

    aisedortionetween

    grooves

    boreofa

    rifled

    gun.

    n

    the

    LATERAL

    EVIATION:

    orizontal

    istance

    betweentheointfmpact

    rurstnd

    thegun-target

    line.

    LEAD

    ZIDE:

    ery

    ensitiveighxplosive

    used

    n

    mall

    uantities

    o

    nitiate

    ther

    less

    sensitivehighexplosives.

    LEAFLET

    HELL:

    sually

    onsistsf

    tand-

    ard-base

    jectionmokehell,

    f

    an y

    cali-

    ber,ithmoke

    anisters

    emoved

    nd

    propaganda

    substituted

    therefor.

    LIFTING

    LUG:

    hreadedyebolthich

    its

    into

    the

    uze

    cavity,permittingheavyshells

    to

    behandled

    bymeans

    of

    awinch.

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    LINEARURNINGRATE:The

    distancenormal

    to

    ny

    urning

    urface

    f

    he

    ropellant

    grain

    urned

    hroughn

    nit

    ime.

    his

    propertyependsponhe

    hemical

    om-

    position,

    nd

    s

    otafunction

    of

    geometry.

    LINER:1)Inner

    tube,

    n

    acannon,

    which

    bears

    the

    ifling

    nd

    hich

    may

    be

    replaced

    when

    worn

    ut.

    2)

    one

    f

    material

    sed

    sn

    integralpart

    of

    shapedchargeliner.

    LIVE

    MMUNITION:mmunition

    ontaining

    explosives.

    his

    s

    n

    ontrast

    to

    drill

    am-

    munition

    dummymmunition),

    hich

    on-

    tains

    oexplosives

    nd

    s

    sedintraining.

    LOADING

    ENSITY:atio

    feight

    f

    ro-

    pellant

    in

    lb

    perin.3)

    to

    available

    chamber

    volume.

    LONG-DELAY

    UZE:

    ne

    which

    willburstthe

    projectile

    fter

    omplete

    enetration

    nto

    hard

    round.heres ariation

    nhe

    time

    lement

    n

    ong-delay

    uzes

    equired

    for

    ifferent

    ses.

    This

    s

    a

    question

    to

    be

    determined

    by

    the

    Ordnance

    Dept.)

    LO WXPLOSIVE:

    xplosive

    hich

    ndergoes

    a

    elativelylow

    hemical

    ransformation,

    therebyroducing

    deflagration

    r

    n

    x-

    plosion,

    he

    ffect

    anging

    rom

    hat

    f

    rapid

    ombustiono

    hat

    f ow

    rder

    detonation.

    t

    s

    uitable

    for

    se

    n

    igniter

    trains

    nd

    ertaintypes

    of

    propellants.

    See

    PROPELLANT.)

    LOW

    ORDER

    ETONATION:

    ncomplete

    eto-

    nation

    f

    he

    xplosive

    harge

    n

    bomb,

    projectile,

    r

    ther

    imilar

    igh

    explosive.

    (See

    DETONATION.)

    LOWERCCEPTABLEEAN

    AXIMUM

    PRESSURE:

    or

    ny

    ype

    un,thatvalueof

    themaximumpressure

    which

    sspecified

    in

    theropellantpecification

    s

    heower

    limit

    for

    he

    average

    of

    the

    maximum

    pres-

    sureshat

    reeveloped

    y

    n

    acceptable

    smokeless

    ropellant

    n

    propelling

    harges

    which

    ill

    mpart

    hepecified

    muzzle

    ve-

    locity

    othespecified

    projectile.

    Smokeless

    propellant

    n

    ropelling

    harges

    hich

    n

    acceptance

    ests

    evelops

    an

    averagemaxi-

    mumpressure

    owerthanthisvalue

    scon-

    sideredas

    having

    failedto

    pass

    heest.

    M

    MACH

    UMBER:atio

    fhe

    elocityf

    body

    o

    hat

    found

    n

    he

    ame

    medium.

    MACHWAVE:Supersonicshock

    wave.

    MAGNUS FORCE: (1)

    Forcenormal

    to

    the

    plane

    f

    aw,aused

    y

    hespin.

    2)

    Force

    arising

    fromnteraction

    fpinningbody

    an d

    the

    windstream

    when

    the

    body

    s

    yawing.

    MAGNUS

    ORCE,ENTER

    F:

    anishing

    point

    of

    Magnus

    moment.

    MAXIMUM

    RESSURE:

    he

    maximum

    value

    of

    the

    pressure

    exerted

    by

    thepropellant

    gases

    onhe

    alls

    f

    gu n

    uring

    he

    iring

    of

    the

    round.

    MAXIMUM

    KY

    RIGHTNESS:

    Worst

    ossible

    sky

    ondition

    for

    observing

    pyrotechnic

    sig-

    nals; usuallyuniform

    clouds

    or

    vercast.

    MEPLAT:

    Flatnose.

    MERCURYULMINATE:

    ensitive

    xplosive

    that

    s

    etff

    y

    riction,

    mpact,

    r

    heat,

    and

    etonates.

    ercury

    ulminate

    s

    sed

    to

    et

    ffther

    xplosivesn

    rojectiles,

    mines,

    or

    bombs.

    METAL

    OULING:

    epositf

    etal,

    hich

    collectsn

    he

    ore

    f

    gun,

    hat

    omes

    from

    he

    ackets

    r

    otating

    ands

    f

    ro-

    jectiles.

    MISFIRE:

    1)

    ailure

    ofirerexplodeprop-

    erly.

    2)

    ailurefaprimeror

    the

    propel-

    lingharge

    f

    rojectile

    ounction,

    wholly

    or

    n

    part.

    Misfire

    may

    be

    contrasted

    with

    hangfire,

    hich

    s

    elay

    n

    an y

    part

    of

    afiringcharge.

    MULTISECTION

    H ARGE:

    ropelling

    harge

    in

    eparate-loading

    remifixed

    mmuni-

    tionthat

    soaded

    ntoanumberofpowder

    bags.

    ange

    djustments

    an

    e

    ade

    y

    increasing

    reducing

    he

    umberf

    ags

    used,

    s

    ontrasted

    ith

    ingle-section

    charge,

    n

    hich

    the

    size

    ofthechargecan-

    not

    be

    changed.

    MUZZLE

    LAST:udden

    airpressure

    exerted

    in

    he

    icinityfhemuzzle

    of

    aweaponby

    the

    rush of

    ho t

    gases

    and

    air onfiring.

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    MUZZLE

    RAK E

    also

    alledECOIL

    BRAKE):

    evice

    ttachedto

    the

    muzzleof

    a

    gunhichtilizes

    scaping

    gasesoreduce

    the

    ffective

    ecoil

    orce

    f

    the

    guntubeon

    thearriage

    r

    mount.

    nsome

    esigns

    t

    eliminatesorreducesmuzzle

    flash.

    MUZZLE

    LASH:

    ndesirable

    uminous

    gni-

    tion

    f

    nburned

    ropellant

    ases

    ssuing

    from

    he

    muzzle

    fgun.

    Thegases

    gnite

    uponmixture

    with

    atmospheric

    oxygen.

    MUZZLEELOCITY:

    peed

    f

    projectile

    at

    the

    instant

    itleaves

    he

    muzzle

    f

    gun.

    MUZZLEAVE:

    ompression

    avereac-

    tion

    fheir

    n

    frontf

    he

    muzzleof

    a

    weapon

    mmediately

    after

    firing.

    N

    NERVE GAS: (See

    G-SERIES WAR

    ASES.)

    NONDELAY

    UZE:

    uzehatunctions

    s

    result

    f

    nertia

    f

    iring

    in

    or

    rimer)

    as

    issile

    s

    etarded

    uring

    enetration

    ofarget.

    he

    nertia

    auseshe

    iring

    pin

    totrike

    he

    rimeror

    rimerhe

    iring

    pin),

    nitiating

    uzeaction.Thistypeoffuze

    isnherentlylowernctionhanhe

    superquick

    r

    nstantaneous

    uze,

    ince

    ts

    actionepends

    pon

    eceleration

    retarda-

    tion)

    f

    he

    issileuring

    enetration

    f

    thetarget.

    NORMALHARG E:

    Propelling

    chargeemploy-

    in g

    standard

    amount

    of

    propellant

    tofire

    a

    gun

    nder

    rdinary

    conditions,

    as

    compared

    with

    educedhargerupercharge

    usedinspecial

    circumstances.

    NORMAL

    ORCE:

    1)

    Componentofair

    resist-

    ance

    erpendicular

    o

    he

    xisf

    he

    ro-

    jectile

    n

    he

    lane

    f

    aw

    (exterior

    ballis-

    tics).

    2)

    ny

    force

    perpendicular

    o

    a

    given

    line

    or

    surface

    (general).

    NITROCELLULOSE:

    xplosive

    ubstance

    formed

    b y

    he

    itration

    f

    otton,r

    ome

    other

    orm

    f

    cellulose.

    Usedasthebase

    of

    most..

    ropellants.

    pecificrades

    f

    nitrocellulosesee

    YROCELLULOSE

    nd

    GUNCOTTON)dependonthedegreeto

    which

    the

    cellulose

    isnitrated.

    NITROCOTTON:

    See

    GUNCOTTON.)

    N ORM AL

    MPACT:

    trikingfrojectile

    againsturfacehat

    serpendicular

    o

    thelineofflightof

    the

    projectile.

    NOSE

    SPRAY:

    (See

    SPRAY.)

    N UTATION :

    mall

    periodicoscillationabout

    themotionofprecession.

    N1TROGUANIDINE

    nitrated

    minomethanami-

    dine):

    seds

    nadditionalbaseofpropel-

    lant,

    seds"cool

    propellant"

    becauseof

    its

    ow

    lameemperaturehich

    does

    ot

    erode

    un

    boresnorproduceasmuchlumi-

    nous

    lash

    s

    ingle

    ase

    nitrocellulose)

    propellants.

    NITROGLYCERINE:

    itrated

    ster

    fglycerol

    in

    hichheH

    adicals

    reeplaced

    y

    NO2;

    sed

    s

    rimary

    ase

    f

    Britishpro-

    pellants

    nd

    s

    elatinizing

    gent

    f

    .

    .

    propellants,

    ut

    ot

    sed

    srimary

    ase

    of

    .

    .ropellantsecausets

    igh

    flame

    temperature

    acceleratesboreerosion.

    NITROGEN

    USTARDGASES:

    Group

    ofblister

    gases

    imilar

    o

    mustard

    as

    ith

    arying

    chemical

    ropertiesndittle

    r

    o

    dor;

    gases

    affecteyes,nose,

    and

    lungs.

    OBTURATION:

    ny

    rocesshat

    revents

    he

    escape

    f

    ases

    rom

    he

    ube

    fweapon

    during

    the

    firing

    of

    aprojectile.

    OBTURATOR:

    evice

    or

    makingthetubeof

    a

    eapon

    as-tight,

    reventingnyscape

    of

    as

    ntil

    he

    rojectilehas

    leftthe

    muz-

    zle.

    OGIVE:

    he

    shape

    of

    the

    head

    of

    the

    projectile,

    often

    onvex

    olidofrevolution

    generated

    by

    n

    rc

    firclehoseenter

    ies

    on

    the

    ide

    fhe

    xisf

    evolution

    pposite

    tothearc.

    OPTIMUMCHARG E:

    Web

    andpropellant

    weight

    combination

    hich

    roducesmaximum

    e-

    locityat

    a

    specifiedpressure.

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    OVERTURNING

    O M E N T

    of

    rojectilen

    flight):ouple

    bout

    n

    xis

    hrough

    he

    center

    fravity,

    perpendicular

    to

    theplane

    of

    yaw.

    OXYGENALANCE:

    atio

    f

    elf-contained

    oxygeno

    uel

    n

    propellant

    or

    explosive.

    PARASHEET:

    arachute-likeevice

    ade

    from

    ingle

    lat

    iece

    fmaterial,

    r

    as

    fe w

    ieces

    s

    ts

    ize

    illpermit;voids

    costf

    omplex

    ore

    onstructionfpara-

    chute.

    PEAKRESSURE:nstantaneousaximum

    pressureevelopednheun

    chamber

    by

    burningropellant;

    ressuremmediately

    preceding

    anexpanding

    shock

    wave.

    PERCUSSION

    COMPOSITION:

    igh-explosive

    powder

    that is

    ignited inome

    types

    of

    firearms by the blow of

    he firingpin

    against

    theprimer

    cap.

    PERCUSSION

    FUZE:

    (See IMPACT FUZE.)

    PERCUSSION

    RIMER:

    ap

    r

    ylinderon-

    tainingmallhargefig h

    xplosive

    that

    ayeet

    ff

    byablow.

    Apercussion

    primers

    sed

    n

    ll

    ixedndemifixed

    ammunitionndn

    ertai

    ypes

    f

    epa-

    rate-loading

    mmunitionognite

    hemain

    propelling

    charge.

    PERFORATION:assagef issileom-

    pletely

    throughanobject.

    PERMISSIBLE

    NDIVIDUALAXIMUMPRES-

    SURE:

    or

    ny

    ype

    un ,

    hatalue

    hich

    should

    ot

    exceededyheaximum

    pressureevelopedy

    ny

    ndividualround

    underan y

    service

    condition.

    PERMISSIBLEEAN

    AXIMUM

    RESSURE:

    For

    ny

    ype

    un,

    hat

    alue

    hich

    hould

    no t

    e

    xceeded

    y

    he

    verage

    f

    he

    maximumressures

    eveloped

    neries

    of

    ounds

    ired

    nderny

    ervice

    ondi-

    tions.

    PHOSGENE:olorlesshoking

    as

    aving

    n

    odorofnew-mownha y

    or

    freshcorn;

    causes

    chokingndoughing,ndnjuriesohe

    lungs.

    PICRIC

    CID

    trinitrophenol):ig hxplosive,

    more

    owerfulhanrinitrotoluene,sed

    widelynhe

    orm

    f

    mixtures

    ith

    ther

    nitro

    compounds.

    PIEZOELECTRICRYSTAL:rystalline

    ma-

    terialossessing

    he

    roperty

    hat,

    when

    t

    isecahnicallyompressedr

    tretched

    in

    certain

    directions,

    lectrical

    harges

    n

    direct

    roportion

    o

    hemechanical

    train

    appear

    onthe

    crystal

    surfaces.

    PITCH

    of

    ifling):eciprocalf

    he

    wist.

    (See

    TWIST.)

    PLANFORM:Shapeofplan

    viewoffins.

    PLASTIC

    XPLOSIVE:Explosivewhich,within

    normal

    angesf

    atmospheric

    temperature,

    is

    apable

    f

    eing

    olded

    nto

    esired

    shapes.

    PLUNGING

    FIRE:

    Gunfire

    that

    strikes

    earth'ssurfaceat

    a

    highangle.

    the

    POINT-BLANK

    ANGE:istance,otarget,

    that

    s

    ohorthathe

    rajectoryf

    bullet

    rprojectile

    spracticallyastraight,

    ratherhanurved,

    ine.

    oint-blank

    range

    sne

    or

    hichnosuperelevations

    needed.

    POINT

    DETONATING

    UZE:

    uze,

    ocatedn

    theose

    f

    rojectile,

    hich

    s

    nitiated

    upon

    mpact.

    POWDER:

    ermometimes

    ooselysed

    or

    "propellant"

    or

    "propellingcharge."

    POWDER

    RAIN:

    1)

    rain,

    sually

    fom-

    pressed

    lack

    owder,

    sed

    o

    btainime

    action

    n

    lder

    uzeypes.

    2)

    rain

    of

    ex-

    plosives

    aid

    ut

    fordestruction

    by

    burning.

    PRACTICE

    MMUNITION:mmunitionsed

    for

    argetractice,mmunitionwithapro-

    pellingharge,utith

    ithernnert

    filler

    r

    ow-explosive

    iller

    o

    erve

    as

    a

    spotting

    charge.

    PRECISION:

    heuality

    f

    aving

    mall

    is-

    persionaboutthe

    mean.

    PRECESSION:

    hangen

    he

    directionofthe

    axis

    f

    otating

    ody.

    nhis

    andbook,

    precessioneans

    he

    low

    motion

    ithout

    nutation.

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    P R E S S U R E ,

    E N T E R

    O F:

    h epoint

    where

    th e

    resultant

    orceausedby

    air

    resistancen-

    tersects

    th eaxis

    f

    th e

    projectile.

    P R I M A C O R D :

    lexibleabric

    tube

    containinga

    filler

    f

    high-explosive

    E T N

    pentareyth-

    ritetetranitrate)

    hats

    used

    oransmit

    detonation

    rom

    a

    detonator

    o

    a

    booster

    or

    bursting

    harge.

    rimacordsh erade

    nameor

    h e

    ype

    f

    etonat i ng

    cord

    cur-

    rently

    in

    use.

    P R I M E R :

    Device

    usedto

    initiate

    th e

    functioning

    of

    nexplosive

    r

    gniter

    rain.

    t

    m a ye

    actuated

    y

    riction,

    l o w ,

    eat,

    ressure,

    orelectricity.

    P R I M E R - D E T O N A T O R :

    Assemblyconsisting

    of

    a

    rimer

    nd

    detonator.t

    a y

    lso

    n-

    clude

    delay

    element.

    P R I M E R

    E A T :

    hamber

    n

    h e

    breech

    mech-

    anism

    f

    u n

    h a t

    uses

    eparate-loading

    ammunition,

    into

    hi chh erimerset.

    P R O B A B L E

    R R O R :

    n

    errorfsuchmagni-

    t u d e

    h a th erobability

    fm ak in gnerror

    greater

    h a n

    t

    n

    ny

    ivenbservation

    s

    just

    qualoh erobability

    f

    aki ngne

    less

    h a n

    t,

    oth

    probabilities

    eing

    ne-

    half.

    P R O C E D U R E ,E S I G N :

    utl ine

    of

    steps

    tofol-

    lo windesigning

    a n

    item.

    P R O G R E S S I V E

    R A N U L A T I O N :

    ropellant

    grainhichurnsit h

    ontinually

    n-

    creasing

    urface

    ntilherainsom-

    pletely

    consumed.

    P R O J E C T I L E :bject,uchsullet

    r

    shell,

    h a t

    s

    ropelled

    romw e a p o ny

    anexplosivepropelling

    charge.

    P R O O F

    M M U N I T I O N :

    A m m u n i t i o n

    incorpora-

    ting

    olid,

    lunt-nosed,

    teel

    or

    ast

    ron

    shot

    f

    nexpensive

    anufacture;sedn

    proof

    iring

    funs;sedoimulate

    h e

    weight

    f

    projectile

    designedorh e

    gu n

    in

    adjusting

    th e

    charge

    weight

    ofropellant.

    PROPAGANDA

    HELL:

    S e e

    EAFLET

    SHELL.

    P R O P E L L A N T :xplosiveaterial

    whose

    rate

    of

    ombustion

    s

    ow

    n o u g h ,

    ndts

    ther

    propertiesuitable,

    opermit

    tsses

    propellingcharge.

    P R O P E L L I N G

    H A R G E :

    xplosive

    charge

    that

    isu r n e dnaw e a p o nto

    propel

    aprojectile

    therefrom

    see

    R O P E L L A N T ) .urning

    f

    th eonfinedropelling

    harge

    roduces

    gases

    hose

    ressure

    orces

    h e

    projectile

    out.

    P R O X I M I T YU Z E :uze

    designed

    o

    detonate

    a

    rojectile,

    o m b ,

    ine,

    rcharge

    h en

    activated

    y

    nxternal

    nfluence

    nh e

    close

    vicinityf

    a

    target.

    P Y R O C E L L U L O S E :itrocellulose

    ontai ni ng

    12.60

    percentnitrogen.

    PYROCOTTON:

    S e e PYROCELLULOSE.

    P Y R OO W D E R :

    traight

    itrocellulose

    ow-

    d e r ;

    mokeless

    propelling

    chargeconsisting

    of

    itrocelluloset h at

    has

    smaller

    nitro-

    gen

    ontent

    h a nuncotton;

    ingle-base

    propellant.

    P Y R O T E C H N I C S :mmunitionontaining

    chemicals

    h a tproduce

    a

    smoke

    or

    brilliant

    lightnurni ng,sed

    or

    signalling,

    mark-

    ing,potting,

    lluminating,etc.

    P Y R O X Y L I N

    ( coUodi on) :

    Nitrocellulose

    taining8-12percent

    nitrogen.

    con-

    Q U A L I T Y

    S S U R A N C E :ystemf

    ssuring

    t h ataterial

    ccepted

    s

    n

    ccordance

    w i thequirements,

    ncluding

    nspection

    and

    test

    procedures,

    acceptance

    criteria,

    etc.

    Q U I C K N E S S

    propellant

    urning):

    a tef

    c h a n g e

    f

    pressure

    w i thi nth eclose

    chamber

    wit h

    respect

    to

    time.

    R A M :1 )

    o

    u shntoposition.2)

    o

    eat

    a

    projectile

    inthe

    bore

    of

    a

    gun.

    R A M M E R :

    1 )

    evice

    orrivingprojectile

    into

    osition

    n

    u n.

    t

    a ye

    a n d -or

    power-operatedra rt

    f

    h e

    eceiver

    mechanism.

    2)

    ool

    sed

    o

    emove

    ive

    projectiles

    from

    th ebore

    of

    a

    gun.

    G-14

  • 8/10/2019 Artillery Ammo General

    30/88

    R A T E D

    A X I M U M

    R E S S U R E :ornyyp e

    g u n ,

    h a t

    aluefheaximum

    pressure

    w h i c h

    s

    pecified

    n

    hepropellantpeci-

    ficationash e

    pper

    limitofaverage

    pres-

    surehicha ybe

    developedb ya n

    accept-

    able

    ropellantnheorm

    fropelling

    charges

    hichill

    mpart

    h epecified

    muzzle

    velocity

    o

    hepecified

    projectile.

    T h e

    mokeless

    ropellant

    n

    ropelling

    chargeshich,nh ecceptanceest,e-

    velopsn

    verageaximumpressure

    ex-

    ceeding

    hisvalue

    s

    considered

    as

    avi ng

    failed

    topass

    the

    test.

    R E L A T I V EO R C E :

    atio

    ofobserved

    axi-

    m u m

    ressure

    eveloped

    y

    ropellant

    u n d e r

    est

    oheaximum

    ressure

    de-

    velopedy

    tandard

    ropellantn d er

    identical

    test

    conditions.

    R E L A T I V E

    Q U I C K N E S S :

    Ratio

    of

    the

    quickness

    (dP/dt)fa

    est

    propellant

    tothequickness

    of

    tandardropellant,

    easured

    athe

    same

    initial

    temperature

    a nd

    loadingdensity

    in th esameclosed

    chamber.

    R E M A I N I N GE L O C I T Y :peedfprojectile

    a t

    ny

    pointalongits

    pat h

    of

    flight.Remain-

    in gvelocity

    s

    usually

    measuredinfeet

    per

    second.

    R I C O C H E T :

    lancing

    after

    impact.

    r eb o u n dfprojectile

    RIFLE:

    1 )

    nyirearmhat

    has

    riflinginthe

    bore

    esignedo

    ive

    pinohe

    pro-

    >

    ectileorreater

    ccuracy

    fire

    nd

    longer

    ange

    notxtensivelysedn

    his

    manner,xcept

    orhoulderarms).

    2)Cu t

    spiralgrooves

    rifling)

    n

    he

    bore

    of

    a

    gu n

    in

    ordero

    giveapino

    heprojectileso

    t h at

    t

    will

    avea

    greater

    ccuracyoffire

    and

    longer

    range.

    R I F L I N G :

    Spiralgrooves

    nth e

    bore

    ofaweap-

    on

    designed

    o

    give

    a

    pin

    o

    the

    projectile

    for

    reater

    ccuracy

    nd

    carrying

    ower.

    Riflingncludes

    othh erooves

    nd

    he

    ridges

    between,

    called

    lands.

    bycentering

    h e

    rojectile,

    h u spreventing

    escapefgas,nd

    giving

    herojectilets

    spinas

    tengagesinth e

    rifling.

    R O U N D :1 )llheartsh a t

    a k e

    ph e

    ammunition

    ecessary

    n

    iring

    n e

    hot

    (also

    alled

    O M P L E T E R O U N D ) .

    2)

    ne

    shot

    fired

    b y

    a

    w e a p o n .

    R O U N DO FA M M U N I T I O N :SeeR O U N D . )

    S

    S A B O T :1 )ightweightarriern

    h ic h

    subcaliber

    projectile

    s

    entered

    o

    permit

    firing

    he

    rojectilen

    he

    arger

    caliber

    w e a p o n .h e

    arrier

    ills

    he

    bore

    of

    he

    w e a p o n

    rom

    whichhe

    projectile

    s

    ired;

    and

    ts

    ight

    weight

    permitst

    obesafely

    fired

    at

    very

    ig h

    velocities.

    tisnormally

    discarded

    hort

    distance

    rom

    he

    uz-

    zle,

    nwhich

    case

    it

    is

    k n o w nasa

    discard-

    in g