Click here to load reader

ARTILLERY STRONG - · PDF fileArtillery Strong Modernizing the Field Artillery for the 21st Century Boyd L. Dastrup Combat Studies Institute Press Fort Leavenworth, Kansas An imprint

  • View
    281

  • Download
    10

Embed Size (px)

Text of ARTILLERY STRONG - · PDF fileArtillery Strong Modernizing the Field Artillery for the 21st...

  • ARTILLERYSTRONG

    Modernizing the Field Artilleryfor the 21st Century

    Boyd L. Dastrup, Ph.D.

    Combat Studies Institute Press Fort Leavenworth, Kansas

  • Cover image: The US Army Field Artillery branch insignia features two crossed field guns.

  • Artillery StrongModernizing the Field Artillery for the 21st Century

    Boyd L. Dastrup

    Combat Studies Institute PressFort Leavenworth, Kansas

    An imprint of The Army University Press

  • Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Names: Dastrup, Boyd L., author. | Combat Studies Institute (U.S.). Press, publisher. | U.S. Army Field Artillery School.

    Title: Artillery strong : modernizing the field artillery for the 21st century / Boyd L. Dastrup.

    Other titles: Operation Desert Storm and beyond | Modernizing the field artillery for the 21st century

    Description: 1st edition. | Fort Leavenworth, Kansas : Combat Studies Institute Press, [2018] | US Army Field Artillery School Fort Sill, Oklahoma. | Includes bibliographical references.

    Identifiers: LCCN 2018007419 (print) | LCCN 2018008403 (ebook) | ISBN 9781940804255 | ISBN 9781940804255

    Subjects: LCSH: Artillery, Field and mountain--United States--History--20th century. | Artillery, Field and mountain--United States--History--21st century. | United States. Army. Field Artillery--History.

    Classification: LCC UA32 (ebook) | LCC UA32 .D375 2018 (print) | DDC 358.1/2820973--dc23 | SUDOC D 110.2:AR 7

    LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018007419

    2018

    EditorDiane R. Walker

    Combat Studies Institute Press publications cover a wide variety of military topics. The views expressed in this CSI Press publication are those of the author(s) and not necessar-ily those of the Department of the Army or the Department of Defense. A full list of digital CSI Press publications is avail-able at http://usacac.army.mil/organizations/lde/csi/pubs.

    The seal of the Combat Studies Institute authenticates this document as an offi-cial publication of the CSI Press. It is prohibited to use the CSIs official seal on any republication without the express written permission of the Director of CSI.

    ii

  • iii

    Preface

    As the Soviet and Warsaw Pact threat declined late in the 1980s and as the risk of low-intensity regional crises was simultaneously increasing, the United States dispatched military forces into South-west Asia. This effort as part of Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm was in response to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in August 1990to prevent further Iraqi aggression and protect American in-terests in the region. Operation Desert Storm validated the modern-ization of the Armys heavy forces during the preceding two decades and simultaneously confirmed known field artillery deficiencies that needed to be corrected through further modernization to meet future military threats.

    The deficiencies highlighted by the Gulf War as well as the end of the Cold War and the escalating risk of regional crises gen-erated interest in developing a strategically deployable and digi-tized Army able to fight across the spectrum of conflict anywhere in the world. Although the United States reduced both military spending and its military force and shifted funding from military to domestic programs following the demise of the Soviet threat in the 1990s, the Army and the Field Artillery still modernized their weapons and equipment.

    As this modernization effort began producing substantive re-sults, General Eric K. Shinseki, who became the Chief of Staff of the Army in June 1999, introduced his Transformation of the Army vision. Critical of the Armys existing force structure as revealed by the difficulty of the 1999 Task Force Hawk deployment to Kosovo, General Shinseki pushed to improve the Armys strategic mobility by equipping it with systems that possessed the robustness of Cold War heavy systems and the strategic deployability of light systems. Shinsekis Transformation of the Army represented an explicit break with the ongoing modernization endeavor and its stress on light and heavy forces. It moved modernization in an entirely new direction with an emphasis on creating medium forces with the strategic mo-bility of the light forces and the staying power of the heavy forces while acquiring appropriate weapons and equipment. This effort continued under Chief of Staff of the Army, General Peter J. Schoo-

  • iv

    maker, who adopted modularization, created brigade combat teams, and further developed new weapons and equipment.

    General Schoomakers modularization effort gave the Army the ability to deploy rapidly without creating temporary organiza-tions and dramatically restructured the Army and the Field Artil-lery. However, the Global War on Terrorism during the first years of the 21st Century accelerated introduction of new field artillery systems and equipment; sped up the precision munition revolution; and transformed field artillery target acquisition, weapon platforms, support, and command and control. This study tells the story of the US Armys Field Artillery from the Gulf War of 1991 through the first two decades of the 21st Century.

    This study originated as the US Army Field Artillery School published Operation Desert Storm and Beyond: Modernizing the Field Artillery in 2005. The 2005 edition covered field artillery de-velopments during the 1990s. Major General (Retired) Fred F. Mar-ty and Lieutenant General (Retired) David P. Valcourt, former US Army Field Artillery School Commandants, read the 2005 edition draft manuscript and made insightful comments. John Yager, who was on the ground floor for many of the combat developments as part of the Directorate of Combat Developments at Fort Sill, also provided solid comments regarding the 2005 draft manuscript.

    With the passage of time, I decided to expand Operation Desert Storm and Beyond: Modernizing the Field Artillery by adding new material and retitling it as Artillery Strong: Modernizing the Field Artillery for the 21st Century. I revised chapters one and two from the original edition and wrote three additional chapters that examine developments since 1999 as well as an epilogue. Major General (Re-tired) David C. Ralston, former Assistant Commandant and Comman-dant of the US Army Field Artillery School, and Colonel (Retired) Frank J. Siltman, former Director of the Directorate of Training and Doctrine in the US Army Field Artillery School and current Director of Fort Sills Museum Directorate, read all five chapters of the Artil-lery Strong draft manuscript and made invaluable suggestions to im-prove the narrative. Both had firsthand experience with the dynamic changes in the Field Artillery during the latter 1990s as well as the

  • v

    first years of the 21st Century. I also acknowledge Ken Gotts staff on the Research and Books Team at the Combat Studies Institute for their perceptive comments and recommendations for changes. Dr. Don Wright and Diane Walker did excellent work with editing the narrative. Any errors in fact are mine.

    Boyd L. Dastrup, Ph.D.US Army Field Artillery SchoolFort Sill, Oklahoma

  • vii

    pageContents

    Preface ........................................................................................... iii

    Chapter 1 : The Collision of Armed Forces .....................................1The Short War .............................................................................1Confronting the Deficiencies ....................................................18

    Chapter 2: A New but Still Dangerous World ...............................31A New World, Budget Reductions, and Restructuring .............31Modernizing Field Artillery Systems ........................................37New Doctrine for a New Age ....................................................49Louisiana Maneuvers, Battle Laboratories, & Force XXI ........55The Digital Puzzle .....................................................................63The Army After Next ................................................................69

    Chapter 3: Transforming the Force ...............................................93The Beginnings .........................................................................93Changing of the Guard ............................................................110Systems for Transformation ....................................................118

    Chapter 4: A New Century and the War on Terrorism ................145Global War on Terrorism and the Field Artillery ....................146Time of Reflection ..................................................................159The Insurgency and the Field Artillery ...................................167

    Chapter 5: More Modernization .................................................203Lethal and Nonlethal Targeting ...............................................203Munitions, Platforms, and Command and Control .................220Force Structure and Doctrine ..................................................234

    Epilogue: Into the Future ............................................................257

    Glossary ......................................................................................267

    Select Bibliography .....................................................................271

    About the Author .........................................................................283

  • ix

    Figures page

    Figure 1: Operation Desert Storm map. ...........................................7Figure 2: M142 High Mobility Artillery Rocket System. .............45Figure 3: Crusader self-propelled 155-millimeter howitzer. ..........97Figure 4: M109A6 self-propelled 155-millimeter how

Search related