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Assignment 8 narrative-theory

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Page 1: Assignment 8 narrative-theory
Page 2: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Suggested that there are 5 stages of




Recognition of disequilibrium

attempt to repair disequilibrium

New Equilibrium.

Page 3: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

In the film D'jango unchained, slavery was present and was set In a western style.

This was shown through the costuming presented and also props. Through this equilibrium is portrayed as is was normal to have Black people as

slaves working for White people and were therefore of a lower class within the hierarchy.

This is also another scene which presents equilibrium as the

men are all aligned with very little clothing and with shackles

attached to them as if they were animals. During these times, it

was normal as they would often go out and do manual work

with very little care from there masters.

Page 4: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

During D'jango the conflict had started when the slaves were led into a forest area

and had the choice to shoot there slave master and break free or save him and live

like they did.

This opinion was given to them by another White man with recognition from other

men and power.

Through this the slaves took the chance of shooting there master, becoming run away

slaves and starting a new life

One man called D’jango however stood out from the slaves and wanted revenge.

Page 5: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

During D'jango the conflict had started when the slaves were led into a forest area

and had the choice to shoot there slave master and break free or save him and live

like they did. This opinion was given to them by another White man with recognition

from other men and power.

• These images above show prime examples during the film of

occurring conflict and the partnership which the two men had.

• This was very rare due to the racial prejudice and through out the

movie it was frowned upon as they didn’t want to interact with the

‘niggers’, other than demanding chores and whipping them

causing physical and mental pain.

Page 6: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

During the battle and revenge which had been placed upon the white masters or people with empowerment during his slavery days, quest for the beloved taken wife (also a slave) had begun

and he was journey was not going to stop until everyone was satisfied. . D’jango had located where his wife was and cooked up a scheme to get her back from her slave master called Candy. However, his plan didn’t go according to plan and another slave had found out about his plan and informed Candy as it was his wife in which he wanted to buy back. Candy retaliated and made things difficult alerting both D’jango and his partner in crime that he knows this young lady is of value to them.

To repair his life and start afresh D’jango was willing to do anything to get his wife back and that

included having a shoot out (common in western films) and to end the job he blew up the masters house.

Page 7: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

The new equilibrium was introduced when D’jango had gotten all

what he wanted and had found his wife and was ready to start his

life ahead.

This meant that all his long struggle and quest to find his wife again

was over and his new life had just begun.

Page 8: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Levi- Strass believes the world is

described in binary opposites.

He believed opposition offered

structure to texts including stories,

plays, books, and films.

Page 9: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Film Opposite 1 Opposite 2 Explanation


Jamal is the character who is all rounded and is in search of his one true love who was split from him from a young age.

This is the former millionaire who is willing to protect his own in order to stay rich and in the place which he is in now.

Jamal-protecting his love Millionaire-protectinghis money

Jamal- loving Millionaire- Caniving

Jamal- innocent Millionaire- Gang trades.

Page 10: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Film Opposite 1 Opposite 2 Explanation

Paranormal activity 4

Alex is a member of the family who had adopted a young boy originally called ‘Hunter’-loving and caring for others( willing to help).

Katie, on the other hand, is the evil possessed woman and is out to get a boy in Alex's family due to previous promises to the spiritual world.

Alex’s family- loving and caring Katie- out to get what she wants

Alex’s family-willing to help Katie- willing to kill

Alex’s family- an innocent family Katie- A possessed woman who has an evil spirit within her.

Page 11: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Film Opposite 1 Opposite 2 Explanation


Jane is determined to help Thor to return to his home land and do what's best for his people( no matter how mad it sounds).

Loki constantlyvalues his power and is willing to do anything to become king.

Jane- innocentLoki- guilty

Jane- caring Loki-selfish

Jane- values loyalty Loki- values power

Page 12: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Film Opposite 1 Opposite 2 Explanation


The main character Jake

Sully entered the Avatar world viewing there culture, norms and values and with the clashing views of this captain in the real world, Jake had done whatever it took to stop the captain and his team from destroying there world and environment.

The main captain is not interested or has no consideration for the Avatar world and simple wants to destroy it for the benefit of himself and the power in his orders.

Jake Sully- the saviourCaptain- The destroyer

Jake sully- learnt their culture and valuesCaptain- is not interested

Jake Sully- values honour Captain- values power

Page 13: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Film Opposite 1 Opposite 2 Explanation


This is a loving family who thought of children without a family and was willing to take an orphan into there home.

The orphan on the other hand is a grown woman who has an illness and therefore will always look young. She is very violent, in fact out to take peoples boyfriend within the family and if it doesn’t work out she’s out to kill.

Family- caring and thoughtful Ester- only wants to feel wanted by a man

Family- wanted to call her there own childEster-wanted to destroy the family

Family-An innocent small family Ester- A traumatised young girl with a huge impact.

Page 14: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Barthes theory ;

The audiences experience of the

narrative involves ANTICIPATION and

EXPECTATION of a resolution to

disruption/conflict; Barthes theory of

codes of encourage the audience to

seek answers and clues to make them

anticipate outcomes.

These ‘codes’ were identified as:

Enigma Code

Action code

Semantic Code

Symbolic Code

Cultural Code

Page 15: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Narratives set up as puzzles to be solved portraying a sense of mystery to engage the


The image is taken from the film Doghouse.

Images such as this would raise questions like how did the bride get in such state?

what caused this? etc.

Page 16: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Action Codes are codes of behaviour and actions which leads the audience to

expect certain consequences based on other films and their conventions

Thriller/Mystery Slasher/Horror Romance

Action- Villain/Killer has as a lethal


Action- Going into a isolated area.

Action- understands and re-unites after


Assumption- the

victim is going to


Assumption- This

would lead to get


Assumption- The

couple would get

back together.

Page 17: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Semantic codes shows connotative meanings of characters, objects, locations.

We learn from experience about these denotations and connotations and

iconographic features work in same way. COLOUR=BLUE


Drama/Romance Thriller/Horror

Blue shows Calmness. Blue show a very sterile unity

Page 19: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Iconographic features have clear connotations and meanings to audience.

For Example:

The use of car chases at a constant fast


Battles/ fights for something (a

main goal which they are after)

Page 20: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Symbolic features often signify oppositions.

An Example of this would be

Deliver me from Eva=

Eva has been hurt previously and so was very arrogant when it can to men.

A man was introduced to come into her life at first as a dare but he began

to fall for her, however she was still very harsh.

The man was a party man however very relaxed and calm with women but

on the other hand, Eva is a very stern and uptight woman protecting herself.

More relaxed



Eva is more

stern and


Page 21: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Cultural codes are outside the text and knowledge we commonly share to

bring understanding of the meaning in the text. Often refers to things within

popular culture within historical events.

An example of this would be Red Dawn 2012

Red Dawn was made in 1984 however in 2012nthey modernised it adapting

it to the modernised ways in society such as better made guns as weapons.

Page 22: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Formed two theories, the first about distinctive character types called the ‘Spheres of action’. As they are based on

historic fairy tales and folklore, this theory might be very

recognisable and rather simplistic.

7 Spheres of action:


2. Villain


4. Donor



7. False Hero

Page 23: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

The hero is constantly on a search or a quest for something or someone. They are traditionally male but it is not always the case and shows or restores disequilibrium.

The hero usually wins the Princess or the thing which is worth the search and defeats the villain (again usually and this is not always the case).

The hero is commonly seen as very attractive and muscular etc.(explained on a previous slide).› In ‘Enchanted’ there was a twist, as the princess fell in love with another man, and had to save the

man as he was captured hostage so therefore she is the hero.

Page 24: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

The villain was Queen Narissa and

almost enforced disequilibrium as she

pushes the princess in a magical

portal with made the princess enter

the realist world of New York. The

Queen installs power by capturing

Robert Phillip who the Princess was in

love with and holding him captive.

Page 25: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Although, the Queen Narissa was the villain she was somewhat also the dispatcher as she distracts the princess’ potential lover through constant battles preventing him from thinking of the Princess.

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The donor is the person who helps the

hero by giving the hero a gift, skill, weapon or advice to help them on their quest/journey.

In this case, again the donor is the witch as she gives one of her assistants an apple in order to harm the princess.

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The helper is the assistant (the help) to restore equilibrium/ normality and can

be a sidekick etc.

In this case, the squirrel pip is the helper as it helps the prince return to his lost

love (or soon to be).

Page 28: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

The heroine character is a more vulnerable character threatened by the villain and

needs rescuing by the hero. They often end up in love.

In enchanted, Robert Phillip is the heroine as he is the more vulnerable character and

needs to be rescued by the princess as he has been captured by the queen Narissa.

Page 29: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Diegesis is the world in which the characters live in.

The internal world created by a story that characters

experience and encounter.

The life within TV/film.

Everything is done within Cinderella's world and it’s a story which she is experiencing.

Page 30: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Unrestricted narration Is narrative with no limit to the amount of information it gives out.

The information given out to the audience is not restricted

For example: the school news bulletin.

Restricted narration. The narrative only offers minimal information (opposite to unrestricted


Hides some information from the audience, usually presented in horror or

thriller films, to create enigma.

Page 31: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Objective Character Identification The audience is given the view through the characters point of view.

For example, seeing things such as the characters dream, memory or thoughts.

Subjective Character identification The viewer is uniquely given access to what a range of characters

can see or do

For example, seeing many characters and things.

Page 32: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Modular Narrative :

-Forking path



-Split screen

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Express a sense of time which can be

manipulated( non-linear)

A prime example of a film would be

memento or the Looper

Page 34: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Forking-path narrative introduces a number of plotlines that

usually/commonly contradict itself.

An example of this would be ‘Sliding Doors’.

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Episodic is a series or narrative anthology (collection of multiple


Abstract series is characterized by the operation of

non-narrative formal system which appears to

dictate to organisation of narrative elements.

Abstract =a sequence of numbers

or the alphabet.

Anthology consists of a series of shorter tales which are

said to be disconnected but share a random similarities.

Anthology = an example-a series of

episodes being survivors of a shipwreck.

An example of this is lost.

Page 36: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

The involvement in flashbacks and/or flash-forwards with no clear

dominance between any of the narrative threads.

It can repeat itself within a scene or multiple scenes and can be in

another characters point of view or perspective.

Examples of this would be:

Again, Memento, 4,3,2,1 and the Looper.

Page 37: Assignment 8 narrative-theory

Some films, divide the screen into two or more frames, juxtaposing

events within the same visual field which is all on one screen for

viewers to see all at once.

An example of this would be;

127 hours 4,3,2,1