Atomic Number Number of Protons. Mass Number Number of Protons + Neutrons

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  • Atomic Number

    Number of Protons

  • Mass Number

    Number of Protons + Neutrons

  • 12C

    Left Superscript = mass number6

  • 12C

    Left Subscript = atomic number6

  • 80Br

    3535Atomic Number = ?

  • 20Ne

    2010Mass Number = ?

  • 27Al

    2713Mass Number = ?

  • 40Ca

    2020Atomic Number = ?

  • Isotope

    Atoms of the same element with a different # of neutrons

  • Characteristics of Proton

    Charge = +1, mass = 1 amu, location = inside nucleus

  • Characteristics of Neutron

    Charge = 0, mass = 1 amu, location = inside nucleus

  • Characteristics of Electron

    Charge = -1, mass = 1/1836 amu or 0.0005 amu, location = outside nucleus

  • Ion

    An atom that has gained or lost electrons & so carries charge

  • Nucleons

    Protons & Neutrons

  • atom

    Smallest bit of an element that retains the properties of the element.

  • atom

    Electrically neutral. # of protons = # of electrons.

  • Charge

    # protons - # electrons

  • # of neutrons

    Mass number atomic number

  • 14C

    86# of neutrons = ?

  • 9Be

    54# of neutrons = ?

  • 40Ar

    2218# of neutrons = ?

  • 15N

    87# of neutrons = ?

  • 24Mg

    Right superscript = charge122+

  • 24Mg

    10 electrons122+# of electrons?

  • 86Rb

    36 electrons371+# of electrons?

  • 127Te

    53 electrons521-# of electrons?

  • 32S

    18 electrons162-# of electrons?

  • Cation

    Positive ion: atom lost electrons

  • Anion

    Negative ion: atom gained electrons

  • Avg. Atomic Mass

    Weighted avg. of masses of naturally occurring isotopes of an element.

  • 2 isotopes of Cl: 75% Cl-35 & 25% Cl-37.Calculate avg. atomic mass.Avg. atomic mass = .75(35) + .25(37) = 35.5 amu

  • Daltons Model

    Billiard Ball Model

  • Thomsons Model

    Plum Pudding Model-----+++++

  • Rutherfords Model

    Nuclear Model---

  • Rutherfords ExperimentSource: http://www.dlt.ncssm.edu/TIGER/chem1.htm#atomic

  • Rutherfords Experiment: ResultsMost of the alpha particles went straight through. Most of the atom is empty space.

    Some of the alpha particles were deflected back. The nucleus was tiny, but contained most of the mass of the atom.

  • Bohrs Model

    Planetary Model

  • Schrodingers Model

    Modern or Quantum Mechanical ModelSource: http://www.dlt.ncssm.edu/TIGER/chem1.htm#atomic

  • Bohr ConfigurationGround state configurations found in reference tables.Cannot be predicted.

  • Bohr Configuration of Na = 2-8-12 electrons in energy level 18 electrons in energy level 21 electron in energy level 3

  • Bohr Diagram of Na+11

  • Bohr ModelElectrons are restricted to specific orbits or shells or principle energy levels.Each shell holds a specific # of electrons.Each shell has a specific energy & radius.Energy of electron must match energy of shell.

  • Maximum Capacity of Bohr Levels2818322n2

  • Ground StateBohr modelEvery electron is in the lowest available orbit.

  • Excited StateBohr modelAn electron has absorbed heat, light, or electrical energy and moved to a higher energy level.Unstable. Returns to ground state quickly by emitting a photon.

  • Continuous SpectrumSpectrum produced by holding a prism in sunlight. Contains light at every wavelength.

  • Bright Line SpectrumVisible light produced by electrons in atom returning to ground state: light of only a few wavelengths is present.

    Each element has a unique bright line spectrum. Used to identify elements.

    Wavelengths of bright lines correspond to difference between energy levels.Source: http://www.dlt.ncssm.edu/TIGER/chem1.htm#atomic

  • Absorbtion of EnergyhGround stateExcited stateE1E2E3

  • Emission of EnergyhGround stateExcited stateE1E2E3

  • OrbitalModern ModelRegion of space that holds 2 electrons.Has a specific energy. Shapes vary.

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