Augmented Reality Augmented Reality Technology GIS Technology Summary: Augmented reality (AR) is a relatively

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  • Augmented Reality Technology

    Dr.Dipl.Ing. S. Zlatanova

    GISt Report No. 17 Delft, December 2002

  • Augmented Reality Technology GIS Technology

    Summary: Augmented reality (AR) is a relatively new technology that allows mixing virtual with real world in different proportions to achieve a level of immersion that no virtual equipment can provide. Recent advances of computer and vision technology make possible AR systems to go beyond indoor applications (e.g. surgery and inspection of hazardous environments) to support complex analysis, decision-making and governing processes.

    This report investigates the current status of the AR systems, starting from available operational equipment and ending with the last achievements in the research field, in order to estimate the operational level and identify urgent topics for investigations. The overview concentrates on outdoor, wireless systems (approaches, devices, solutions) providing users with geo-data. The report is organised in seven chapters that supply definitions and important Internet links, discuss fundamental principles and equipment appropriate for outdoor AR systems, present current status of database management systems for real-time applications and review projects related to technology required in AR systems.

    This report has been prepared under the authority of SURFnet bv. ISBN: 90-77029-05-2 ISSN: 1569-0245 © 2002 TU Delft

    Section GIS technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences Thijsseweg 11, 2629 JA Delft, the Netherlands Tel: +31 (0)15-278 4548; Fax +31 (0)15-278 2745; E-mail: gist@tudelft.nl

    TU Delft UbiCom P.O. Box 5031, 2600 GA Delft, the Netherlands Tel. +31 (0)15-278 6206; Fax +31 (0)15-278 6190; E-mail: info@ubicom.tudelft.nl SURFnet bv P.O. Box 19035, 3501 DA Utrecht, the Netherlands Tel. +31 (0)30-230 5305; Fax +31 (0)30-2305329; E-mail: admin@surfnet.nl

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or incorporated into any information retrieval system without written permission from the publisher. The Section GIS technology accepts no liability for possible damage resulting from the findings of this research or the implementation of recommendations.

  • GIS Technology Augmented Reality Technology

    Contents 0. Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................................7 1. What is Augmented Reality? ......................................................................................................................................9

    1.1. AR as a mixed environment .............................................................................................................................10 1.1.1. Reality-virtuality continuum .......................................................................................................................10 1.1.2. Virtual Reality ..............................................................................................................................................10 1.1.3. Augmented Virtuality..................................................................................................................................12

    1.2. AR as Location Based Services .......................................................................................................................13 1.3. Classification of AR systems ............................................................................................................................13

    1.3.1. Displays .......................................................................................................................................................14 1.3.2. Range/distance...........................................................................................................................................14

    2. AR principles...............................................................................................................................................................17 2.1. Setups of AR systems .......................................................................................................................................17

    2.1.1. Monitor-based AR system.........................................................................................................................17 2.1.2. See-Through AR systems .........................................................................................................................17 2.1.3. Spatially Augmented Reality systems .....................................................................................................18 2.1.4. Available displays for AR systems ...........................................................................................................19

    2.2. Tracking systems ...............................................................................................................................................20 2.2.1. Mechanical trackers ...................................................................................................................................21 2.2.2. Magnetic trackers.......................................................................................................................................22 2.2.3. Acoustic trackers ........................................................................................................................................23 2.2.4. Trackers using vision .................................................................................................................................23 2.2.5. Companies providing in-door trackers ....................................................................................................25

    2.3. Analysis (displays, indoor trackers) .................................................................................................................25 2.3.1. AR displays .................................................................................................................................................25 2.3.2. Indoor trackers............................................................................................................................................26

    3. Outdoor, wireless AR systems .................................................................................................................................27 3.1. Wireless AR systems.........................................................................................................................................27

    3.1.1. Wireless AR system...................................................................................................................................27 3.1.2. Outdoor tracking .........................................................................................................................................28

    3.2. Wireless Wide Area Networks .........................................................................................................................29 3.2.1. GSM networks ............................................................................................................................................30 3.2.2. Short Message Service (SMS) .................................................................................................................31 3.2.3. Circuit-switched data (basic data service and HSCSD)........................................................................31 3.2.4. Packet-switched data (GPRS, EDGE and WCDMA) ............................................................................32

    3.3. Wireless Local Area Networks .........................................................................................................................32 3.4. Short ranges .......................................................................................................................................................34

    3.4.1. Bluetooth......................................................................................................................................................34 3.5. Protocols for multimedia data...........................................................................................................................35

    3.5.1. Wireless Application Protocol – WAP .....................................................................................................35 3.5.2. I-mode..........................................................................................................................................................36

    3.6. Summary .............................................................................................................................................................36 References......................................................................................................................................................................36

    4. AR equipment for outdoor applications ...................................................................................................................39 4.1. Hand-held devices .............................................................................................................................................39

    4.1.1. Cellular phones...........................................................................................................................................39 4.1.2. Palmtop and handheld computers ................................