August 2011 - academia, and the concrete pavement industry as repre- sented by the American Concrete

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  • August 2011

    Design & Construction Guidelines

    crsi Typewritten Text

    crsi Typewritten Text

  • Authors/Contributors Robert Otto Rasmussen, PhD, INCE, PE (TX)

    The Transtec Group, Inc. Richard Rogers, PE (TX) The Transtec Group, Inc.

    Theodore R. Ferragut, PE (VA) TDC Partners, Ltd. Sponsors Federal Highway Administration Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute

  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This manual is the result of a cooperative effort between the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) Office of

    Pavement Technology and the Concrete Reinforcing Steel

    Institute (CRSI). The author/contributor team is grateful for the support of these two organizations in developing this

    much-needed resource.

    The team also appreciates the invaluable advice and input provided by several State departments of transportation,

    academia, and the concrete pavement industry as repre-

    sented by the American Concrete Pavement Association

    who participated in an FHWA-CRSI expert task group.

    Their responses to drafts of the document resulted in a

    tighter, more focused and technically sound manual. Members of the task group include the following:

    Steve Tritsch and Mike Plei, CMC Sam Tyson, FHWA A.J. Jubran, Georgia Department of Transportation Wouter Gulden, ACPA-SE

    Bill Farnbach, Caltrans Dan Zollinger, Texas A&M Jeff Roesler, U of IL - Champaign Mohamed Elfino, Virginia Department of Transportation Chetana Rao, ARA Bethany Walker, CRSI Moon Won, Texas Tech University Norbert DeLatte, Cleveland State University Tom Cackler, National Center for Concrete Pavement

    Technology Darren Szrom, CRSI

    Leif Wathne, ACPA Bob Risser, CRSI Jeff Dean, Oklahoma Department of Transportation

    Lisa Lukefahr, Texas Department of Transportation Rene Renteria, Oregon Department of Transportation Doc Zhang, Louisiana Department of Transportation and

    Development Suneel Vanikar, FHWA

  • PREFACE Continuously reinforced concrete pavements (CRCP) were introduced in 1921 when the U.S. Bureau of Public Roads built a CRCP section on the Columbia Pike near Arlington, Virginia. Since then CRCP has become standard construc-

    tion practice in several States, including Illinois, Texas, and Oregon. Many European countries, Japan, and Australia

    also construct CRCP.

    During the 70-plus years that CRCP has been common practice, various lessons learned through research and practical experience have contributed to improved design

    methods, materials selection, and construction practices.

    Today CRCP can be designed and constructed consistently and reliably to provide superior long-term performance with

    very low maintenance.

    This manual provides information about current practices for designing and constructing CRCP. The information has

    been collected and synthesized from formal research results and from the most knowledgeable technical experts and practitioners in the country. The manual focuses on char- acteristics and practices unique to CRCP, including general

    information about concrete pavement design, materials, and

    construction when necessary to provide context.

    August 2011 - DRAFT LAYOUT v

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS PREFACE TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW What is CRCP? When and Why is CRCP Used? Overview of Key Points for CRCP CHAPTER 2: CRCP DESIGN OVERVIEW Background Objectives Scope of the Design Guidelines CHAPTER 3 CRCP DESIGN FUNDAMENTALS CRCP Behavior Crack Spacing Crack Width Reinforcement Stress Other Factors affecting CRCP Behavior Structural and Functional Performance Indicators Punchouts Spalling Smoothness CHAPTER 4: CRCP DESIGN INPUTS Design Criteria Limiting Criteria on Crack Spacing, Crack Width, and Steel Stress Structural Performance Functional Performance Concrete Properties Reinforcement Type and Properties Pavement Support Bases Subgrades Drainage Climate Traffic CHAPTER 5: DESIGN OF CRCP FEATURES CRCP Design Methods AASHTO-86/93 Design Procedure AASHTO Interim MEPDG Early-Age Behavior Analysis Tools HIPERPAV II PowerPave Evaluation of Critical Stresses Concrete Thickness Longitudinal Reinforcement August 2011 - DRAFT LAYOUT

    iii v

    vii xi xv 1 3 3

    4 7 9 9

    9

    11 13 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 16 17 19 19 20 20 20

    21

    22 22 23 23 23

    24 25 27 27 27 29 29 29 29

    29 30 vii

  • Reinforcement Content Bar Size and Spacing Vertical Position of Reinforcement Lap Splices Corrosion Protection Transverse Reinforcement Size and Spacing Tiebars Joints Longitudinal Joints Transverse Construction Joints Transition or Terminal Joints

    Terminal End Anchor Joints Wide-Flange Beam Joints

    Other Design Details Crossovers Shoulders Ramps and Auxiliary Lanes Intersections CHAPTER 6: CRCP CONSTRUCTION OVERVIEW Contracting for Innovation CHAPTER 7: CRCP SUPPORT CONSTRUCTION Base Layers Asphalt-Stabilized Base Cement-Treated Base Lean Concrete Base Dense-Graded Granular Base and Subbase Open-Graded Permeable Base Edge Drains and Impervious Moisture Barriers CHAPTER 8: REINFORCEMENT Characteristics of Reinforcing Steel Longitudinal Reinforcement

    Bar Size and Quantity Bar Spacing and Depth Bar Splices

    Transverse Reinforcement Bar Size and Quantity

    Transverse Reinforcement Bar Size and Quantity Tiebars Placing Reinforcement Manual Steel Placement (Chairs or Transverse Bar Assembly) Mechanical Steel Placement (Tube-feeding) Inspection Troubleshooting and Precautions CHAPTER 9: PAVING PRACTICES FOR CRCP Aggregates Placing Consolidation

    30 31 33 33 34 35 35 35 36 37 38 38 38 39 40 40 41 41 43 45 47 49 51 51 52 53 53 54 54 57 59 59 60 60 60 61 61 62 62 62

    63 64 66 66

    67 69 71 71

    72

    viii Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement Design and Construction Guidelines

  • Joints Longitudinal Control Joints Longitudinal Free Joints Transverse Construction Joints Blockouts Construction Techniques for Controlling Crack Spacing Fast-Track Paving Environmental Influences during Construction Hot Weather Conditions Concrete Placement Time and Season Using FHWA HIPERPAV and CRSI PowerPave CHAPTER 10: TERMINAL OR TRANSITION TREATMENTS Expansion Joints Wide-Flange Beam Joints Anchor Lugs Seamless Transitions CHAPTER 11: CONSTRUCTING CROSSOVERS Leave-Ins Leave-Outs Temporary Crossovers CHAPTER 12: CONSTRUCTING SHOULDERS AND RAMPS Shoulders and Auxiliary Lanes Concrete Shoulders Asphalt Shoulders Widened Lane Concrete Ramps CHAPTER 13: CRCP OVERLAY CONSTRUCTION CHAPTER 14: CONSTRUCTION INSPECTION CHAPTER 15: GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS FOR CRCP Materials Coarse Aggregate Reinforcement

    Bar Specifications Length of Reinforcing Bars Size and Spacing of Reinforcing Bars

    Equipment Construction Methods Placement of Reinforcement

    Reinforcing Bars Placed Manually on Chairs Reinforcing Bars Placed Mechanically Using a Tube Feeder

    Placement of Concrete Joint and Terminal Construction

    Longitudinal Joints Transverse Construction Joints Wide-Flange Beam Terminal Joints Anchor Lug Terminal Joints

    72 72 72 72 74 74 74

    75 75 75 75 77 79 80

    81

    82 83 85 85

    85 87 89 89 89 90 90 91 95

    103 105 105 105 105 106 106 106

    106 106 106 107 107 107 107 107 108 108

  • Final Strike-off, Consolidation, and Finishing Method of Measurement Basis for Payment APPENDIX A: INNOVATIONS AND STATE DOT DESIGN DETAILS Specifications for CRCP Temperature Management Texas DOT Design Standards Illinois DOT Design Standards Composite Pavements APPENDIX B: AASHTO-86/93 GUIDE REINFORCEMENT DESIGN Longitudinal Reinforcement Design Inputs Concrete Tensile Strength Concrete Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Concrete Drying Shrinkage Reinforcing Bar Diameter Steel Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Design Temperature Drop Wheel Load Tensile Stress Longitudinal Reinforcement Design Procedure

    APPENDIX C: GLOSSARY APPENDIX D: REFERENCES

    108 108

    108 111 113 115

    121 129 131 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 133

    139 147

  • LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Newly constructed CRCP in Virginia 3 Figure 2. Reinforcement design is critical to good performance 4

    Figure 3. Concrete design and mix materials are critical to good performance 4

    Figure 4. Typical CRCP cross section 5

    Figure 5. Schematic representation of some of the factors influencing CRCP behavior. 13

    Figure 6. Typical CRCP punchout distress. 14

    Figure 7. Spalling along transverse crack in a CRCP. 16

    Figure 8. Structural performance in terms of puncho