Backfill for Subsurface Structures

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Backfill for Subsurface Structures

Text of Backfill for Subsurface Structures

  • PDHengineer.com Course G-6004

    Backfill for Subsurface Structures

    Thisdocumentisthecoursetext.Youmayreviewthismaterialatyourleisurebeforeorafteryoupurchasethecourse.Ifyouhavenotalreadypurchasedthecourse,youmaydosonowbyreturningtothecourseoverviewpagelocatedat:http://www.pdhengineer.com/pages/G6004.htm(Pleasebesuretocapitalizeandusedashasshownabove.)Oncethecoursehasbeenpurchased,youcaneasilyreturntothecourseoverview,coursedocumentandquizfromPDHengineersMyAccountmenu.Ifyouhaveanyquestionsorconcerns,rememberyoucancontactusbyusingtheLiveSupportChatlinklocatedonanyofourwebpages,byemailatadministrator@PDHengineer.comorbytelephonetollfreeat1877PDHengineer.ThankyouforchoosingPDHengineer.com.

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  • UFC 3-220-04FA 16 January 2004

    UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC)

    BACKFILL FOR SUBSURFACE

    STRUCTURES

    APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED

  • UFC 3-220-04FA 16 January 2004

    1

    UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC)

    BACKFILL FOR SUBSURFACE STRUCTURES

    Any copyrighted material included in this UFC is identified at its point of use. Use of the copyrighted material apart from this UFC must have the permission of the copyright holder. U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS (Preparing Activity) NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER SUPPORT AGENCY Record of Changes (changes are indicated by \1\ ... /1/) Change No. Date Location

    This UFC supersedes TM 5-818-4, dated 1 June 1983. The format of this UFC does not conform to UFC 1-300-01; however, the format will be adjusted to conform at the next revision. The body of this UFC is the previous TM 5-818-4, dated 1 June 1983.

  • UFC 3-220-04FA 16 January 2004

    2

    FOREWORD \1\ The Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) system is prescribed by MIL-STD 3007 and provides planning, design, construction, sustainment, restoration, and modernization criteria, and applies to the Military Departments, the Defense Agencies, and the DoD Field Activities in accordance with USD(AT&L) Memorandum dated 29 May 2002. UFC will be used for all DoD projects and work for other customers where appropriate. All construction outside of the United States is also governed by Status of forces Agreements (SOFA), Host Nation Funded Construction Agreements (HNFA), and in some instances, Bilateral Infrastructure Agreements (BIA.) Therefore, the acquisition team must ensure compliance with the more stringent of the UFC, the SOFA, the HNFA, and the BIA, as applicable. UFC are living documents and will be periodically reviewed, updated, and made available to users as part of the Services responsibility for providing technical criteria for military construction. Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (HQUSACE), Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), and Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency (AFCESA) are responsible for administration of the UFC system. Defense agencies should contact the preparing service for document interpretation and improvements. Technical content of UFC is the responsibility of the cognizant DoD working group. Recommended changes with supporting rationale should be sent to the respective service proponent office by the following electronic form: Criteria Change Request (CCR). The form is also accessible from the Internet sites listed below. UFC are effective upon issuance and are distributed only in electronic media from the following source: Whole Building Design Guide web site http://dod.wbdg.org/. Hard copies of UFC printed from electronic media should be checked against the current electronic version prior to use to ensure that they are current. AUTHORIZED BY: ______________________________________ DONALD L. BASHAM, P.E. Chief, Engineering and Construction U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    ______________________________________DR. JAMES W WRIGHT, P.E. Chief Engineer Naval Facilities Engineering Command

    ______________________________________ KATHLEEN I. FERGUSON, P.E. The Deputy Civil Engineer DCS/Installations & Logistics Department of the Air Force

    ______________________________________Dr. GET W. MOY, P.E. Director, Installations Requirements and Management Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Installations and Environment)

  • ARMY TM 5-818-4AIR FORCE AFM 88-5, Chap. 5

    BACKFILLFOR

    SUBSURFACE STRUCTURES

    D E P A R T M E N T S O F T H E A R M Y A N D T H E A I R F O R C EJUNE 1983

  • *TM 5-818-4/AFM 88-5, Chap. 5

    TECHNICAL MANUALNo. 5-818-4AIR FORCE MANUALNO. 88-5, CHAPTER 5

    Number2- l2-22-32-42-57-lB-lB-2

    HEADQUARTERSDEPARTMENTS OF THE ARMY

    AND THE AIR FORCEWASHINGTON, DC, 1 June 1983

    BACKFILL FOR SUBSURFACE STRUCTURES

    CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTIONBackground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..Purpose and scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    2. PLANNING AND DESIGN OF STRUCTURES AND EX-CAVATIONS TO ACCOMMODATE BACKFILL OP-ERATIONS

    General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..Effect of excavation and structuraI configuration on back-

    fill operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Backfill problem areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Optimum cost construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    3. EVALUATION, DESIGN, AND PROCESSING OF BACK-FILL MATERIALS

    General.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ..Evaluation of backfill materials.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Selection of backfill materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Processing of backfill materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    4. EARTHWORK: EXCAVATION AND PREPARATIONFOR FOUNDATIONS

    Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Foundationpreparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    5. BACKFILL OPERATIONSPlacement of backfill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Installation of instruments.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Postconstruction distress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

    6. SPECIFICATION PROVISIONSGeneral.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Foundation preparation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..Backfill operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

    7. CONSTRUCTION CONTROLGeneral.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..Corps acceptance control organization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Excavation control techniques.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Foundation preparation control techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . .Backfill quality acceptance control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Paragraph Page

    l - ll -2

    l - ll - l

    2 - l 2 - l

    2-2 2 - l2-3 2-42-4 2-92-5 2-9

    3 - l 3 - l3-2 3 - l3-3 3-43-4 3-7

    4 - l 4 - l4-2 4-2

    5 - l5-25-3

    5 - l5-45-5

    6 - l 6 - l6-2 6 - l6-3 6-2

    6-4 6-2

    7 - l7-27-37-47-5

    7 - l7 - l7-37-37-3A - lAPPENDIX A. REFERENCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    B. FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPACTION, FIELD COMPACTION TESTMETHODS, AND FIELD MOISTUREDENSITY TEST METHODS . . .

    C. BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Open backfill zonesTitle

    Confined backfill zonesComplex structuresExcavation subject to bottom heaveExcess lateral pressure against vertical walls induced by compactionAcceptance rejection scheme for a backfill areaCompaction CurveTypical compaction test curves

    B- lC- l

    *This manual supersedes TM 5-818-4/AFM 88-5, Chapter 5, 7 June 1969.

    i

  • TM 5-818-4/AFM 88-5, Chap. 5

    Number TitleB-3 Molding Water content versus density-lean clay (laboratory impact compaction)B-4 Illustration of one-point compaction methodB-5 Illustration of possible error using one- and two-point compaction methodsB-6 Illustration of two-point compaction methodB-7 Correlation between dry density and hand cone resistance at a depth of 6 inches below the surfaceB-8 Power applied by the oven to dry moist soils

    Number3- l5- l

    LIST OF TABLESTitle

    Typical engineering properties of compacted materialsSummary of compaction criteria

    ii

  • TM 5-818-4/AFM 88-5, Chap. 5

    CHAPTER 1

    INTRODUCTION

    1-1. Background. Military facilities for theArmy and Air Force have included construction ofbuildings and other structures partially below groundsurface. In more recent years, missile launching andsupport structures, fallout and blast-protection shel-ters, and command-control centers have been con-structed below ground surface. Many of these struc-tures were constructed using cut-and-cover proceduresand required backfilling within confined areas usingvarious types of soil.

    a. Numerous deficiencies in backfilling operationsoccurred in some of the earlier missile-launch con-struction programs and caused conditions that jeop-ardized the proper functioning of those structures.Measures to correct deficiencies were both time con-suming and costly. It was recognized that critical areasmust be delineated and the causes of the deficienciesbe determined and corrected.

    b. Measures were taken to alle