Background Disasters, Environment (Water) and Risk ...sea.exceed- Aqaba (Aqaba Special Economic Zone

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  • Background

    Disasters, Environment (Water) and Risk


    - Aqaba Flood Management/Jordan –

    Prepared by: Sana‘a Al-Aqqad,

    The University of Jordan

    Water, Energy and Environment Center

  • Case Outline

    1. Disasters, Environment (Water) and Risk Reduction


    2. Jordan Background

    3. Background of study area

    4. Study Area Maps: flow direction, Catchment and


    5. What is the problem

    6. Problem Causes and effects

    7. Proposed solutions

    8. Remaining issues

  • Background

    What is a natural disaster?

    • A natural disaster is the consequence of an event, which

    causes significant loss to human lives and property.

    • A Disaster is defined as the interaction between an

    event and human activities.

    • A Disaster is often described as a function of hazard,

    risk and vulnerability.

  • Background

    Goal of Environment (Water) and Disaster


    • The goal of Environment and Disaster Management is the safety and sustainability of human lives.

    • Safety is related to avoiding death and injuries to human lives during a disaster.

    • Sustainability is related to livelihood, socio-economic, cultural, environmental and psychological aspects.

  • Background

    Disasters - Conflict

    - Natural Disasters

    - Population

    - Migration


    - Water - Health

    - Education

    - Environment

    - Poverty

    - Reducing Risk

    - Enhancing Security

    Environment -Air

    - Land

    - Sea

    - Built



  • Background

    Many disasters are primarily water-related, or

    impact upon water supply and provision for multi

    sector uses. Consequently, water management

    approaches have lessons and experience of value to

    disaster risk reduction approaches, and vice-versa.

  • Background

    The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan



  • Background Aqaba (Aqaba Special Economic Zone ),

    Gulf of Aqaba located on the Red Sea, is only seaport in Jordan,

    Aqaba climate is extremely arid consisting of two distinct seasons.

    However, short, intense convective thunderstorms can occur any

    time of the year. Disruptions caused by the 2006 flood had a major

    economic impact on the Kingdom.

  • Background

    1. In February 2006, flash flooding in Wadi Yutum resulted in

    five fatalities and extensive damage to infrastructure in the

    Aqaba Special Economic Zone (ASEZ).

    The flooding whose peak flow has been estimated at

    approximately 500 to 550 cms; disrupted power and water

    supply and damaged the wastewater treatment plant, causing

    substantial hardship for the people of Aqaba and significant

    environmental degradation.

  • Background

    2. March 1966 During the night of March 11, 1966, heavy rains

    and flooding resulted in 70 dead and more than 250 injured,

    most of them in the City.

    About half of the buildings in the small town were destroyed

    and more than 3,000 people were left homeless. About 20

    minutes after the start of the storm, which began at about 1:00

    a.m., the bridge over Wadi Wahida on the Ma'an-Aqaba

    highway was overtopped and destroyed by a flood flow

    estimated to be 540 cms

  • Pictures/maps : Study Area



    Flow Direction

  • Pictures/maps : Flow Direction

  • Pictures/maps : Catchment

  • Pictures/maps : Watershed

  • What is the Problem?

    The ongoing economic development of Aqaba is crucial to the

    Jordanian economy, and protection of the City of Aqaba from

    flood damage is critical to maintaining progress. However,

    environmental concerns are not incorporated in disaster

    management practices and vice versa

    Decisions and actions on environment and disasters are taken separately The main issues are:

    Lack of coordination and inter-linkage of policy and plans Lack of perception and understanding Lack of local actions, and Lack of resource distribution

  • What is the Problem?





    Reduced through


    cooperation such

    as institutional &






    policies, actions

    & Monitoring




    Causes Immediate/ Long - term


    De - forestation

    High Consumption

    Climate Change

    Causes of Disaster




    Area Watersheds

    Effects “Flooding Disaster”

    Public Health



    Treatment Waste Water




    The Environment

    cause-effect cycle

    Causes and Effects

  • What is the Problem? Discharge and Sediment hydrograph

  • What is the Problem?

    Disasters, Environment and Risk Reduction | Aqaba Flood Management

    Aqaba Flash Flood Video

  • What are the proposed solutions?

    • Prepare a flood protection master plan that:

    1. develop rational, coordinated plans for

    conveying flood flows from their points of origin to outfalls along the Gulf coast.

    2. provides recommendations and preliminary designs for managing flood risk,

    3. design and implement a flood warning system,

    4. and develop a watershed plan to enhance and protect water sources in the Aqaba basin.

  • Remaining Issues?

    • Rainfall data:

    1. Intensity,

    2. Duration,

    3. Frequency,

    • storm


    1. storm track

    2. Extent hydrograph

    3. Peak flow

    A long-term record of reliable

    precipitation data that covers

    the study area including:

    These data are

    not currently


  • Remaining Issues?

    Thank You