Chapter 7- Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism
Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism 1812-1838Lets look at the preview questions:
How do you think new inventions of the Industrial Revolution might further divide North and South?Predict what types of things might have been done to lessen tensions.Are there still tensions between different regions? What are they?The Industrial RevolutionThe North: becomes more industrialized The Lowell Factory Lowell, MA exemplified the changes brought on by the Indust. RevolutionBooming manufacturing centerOpportunities for women
Farmers in the North had little motivation to use slaves. crops did not require labor to growmany began to speak out against slaveryMost northern states abolish slavery by 1804The NorthThe Cotton Gin: patented by Eli Whitney in 1793Turned much of the South into a Cotton KingdomTied the North and the South together economicallyEffect on slavery?Increases from 700,000 to 1,200,000 from 1790-1810
James Madison tries to unite the countryProposes a plan to tie all regions together through transportation, tariffs, and a national bankHenry Clay calls it the American System
The American System
Early forms of railroad to connect the regions of the countryNational Road built in 1811. Eventually extends from Maryland to Illinois. Erie Canal (completed in 1825) connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes
The National Road and Erie Canal
Tariff of 1816American products more expensive than foreign goodsHenry Clay and John C. Calhoun helped gain support for the tariffNational BankJames Monroe elected in 1816- the Era of Good Feelings
What could historians call the political era of today? Discuss with partner. The Era of Good Feelings
America: The Story of USRobert Fultons steamboat-1807150 miles up the Hudson in 32 hoursMethod of transportation spread quickly to different regionsHelped unite economic life of the North and South Section 2- Nationalism at Center Stage
Gibbons v. Ogden 1824-Supreme Court CaseAaron Ogden- worked for Fultons steamboat serviceClaimed only he could run a steamboat service on the HudsonThomas Gibbons began running a steamboat service- Ogden sues and takes him to courtCourt rules with Gibbons-interstate commerce could only be regulated by fed. GovernmentLong term- government can regulate ANYTHING that crosses state lines. Supreme Court Boosts National PowerMcCulloch v Maryland 1819-Supreme Court CaseMaryland had levied a high tax on the local branch of the National Bank of the U.S.- hoped to make it failCourt ruled against Maryland and claimed the National Bank to be constitutional. One of many cases that strengthened the federal government.
Chief Justice John Marshall(in office 1801-1835)Supreme Court Boosts National Power
NationalismNational interests should be placed ahead of regional concerns and foreign interests.Strongly supported by President James Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams
John Quincy AdamsNationalism helps shape foreign policy
Nationalism- Good or Bad?
Somewhere in between?
NationalismNationalism is the habit of assuming that human beings can be classified like insects and that whole blocks of millions or tens of millions of people can be confidently labeled 'good' or 'bad-George Orwell
He goes on to make the differentiation between nationalism and patriotism. Patriotism, Orwell states, is harmless. It is a love of native culture, and the patriot has no need to impose that culture on others. But history is indeed littered with examples of triumphal nationalism, the notion of the nation as a claim to superiority.
Nationalism vs. Patriotism When Does Nationalism Become Dangerous?
Is saying the pledge of allegiance in schools going too far with Nationalism?
John Quincy Adams- Sec. of State Accomplishments1817- U.S. and Canada demilitarize their common border.
1818- compromised with Britain to jointly rule Oregon territory.
Adams-Onis Treaty 1819- Spain, too weak to manage colonies, cedes Florida to the U.S. Territory and Boundaries
Territory and Boundaries
Developments in Europe lead to interests in Latin American colonies by European nations.
The Monroe Doctrine 1823Message to Congress by President MonroeWarns European nations not to interfere with affairs in the Western Hemisphere U.S. would consider such action dangerous to our peace and safety. The U.S. would not interfere in European affairs or existing colonies. The Monroe Doctrine 1823
Westward Expansion 1817-1830s Americans headed to the Northwest Territory (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan)Most went for economic gains
The Missouri Compromise-1820When population of a territory reached 60,000 its people could petition for statehoodIn 1819, there were 11 free states and 11 slave statesMissouri petitions for statehood in 1819- slave or free?Hostilities between North and South over MissouriHenry Clay proposes the Missouri Compromise: 1. Maine- admitted as a free state; Missouri- slave state 2. 36 30 line established for Louisiana Territory-slavery legal south of the line ; illegal north of the line except Missouri The Missouri CompromiseDiscuss with your partner how the Missouri Compromise was a victory for both the North and South. Predict how the compromise could lead to future problems.
The Missouri Compromise