Baroque Period. 1600-1750 A.D. From Renaissance to Baroque :. Renaissance Characteristics: Music was written for Mass: The Mass Cycle, called the Ordinary: Kyrie Gloria Credo Sanctus Agnus Dei No official system for writing music. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
1600-1750 A.D.Baroque PeriodRenaissance Characteristics:Music was written for Mass:The Mass Cycle, called the Ordinary:KyrieGloriaCredoSanctusAgnus DeiNo official system for writing music.Fifths and fourths considered to be the holiest intervals.Known in music as Perfect 4ths and Perfect 5thsPolyphony: Equal voicesEvery voice has an individual melody
From Renaissance to Baroque:The term baroque was coined in the 18th Century by critics who preferred a newer, simpler style.The word Baroque means abnormal, exaggerated, or in bad taste.In the 19th Century, the term Baroque took on a positive meaning, as critics began to appreciate the stylistic tendencies of the period.Baroque CharacteristicsThe term Baroque: comes from the Portuguese word barrocco which describes a pearl of irregular shapewas coined in the 20th Century to describe general characteristics of music, art, theater, literature, and architecture.Composers of the period did not have a label for their style.
3Major Historical EventsOther events that you can think of?41657: Gian Lorenzo Bernini begins construction of St. Peters Square at the Vatican in Rome.Post-Reformation: The Vatican symbolizes the authority of the Catholic Church.
Innovations in the ArtsInsert picture of St. Peters Square51645-1652Berninis Ecstasy of St. Teresa John Miltons Paradise LostMiguel de Cervantess Don Quixote1616: Death of ShakespeareInnovations in LiteratureInnovations in DanceThe Court BalletCreated in FranceA musical-dramatic work, staged with costumes and scenery that featured members of the court alongside professional dancers.The instruments used for Court Ballet became the model for the modern orchestra.Jean-Baptiste Lully was a primary composer of French balletLully created the model for French OperaKing Louis XIV loved to dance, he insisted that he be featured in each ballet performance.
8Secular genres expandedOpera is invented in ItalyCantata [means to be sung] is invented in ItalyInstrumental styles expandAn official system for writing music was established.The look of music comes from the notation rules invented during the Baroque era.Time signatures, measures, barlinesChromaticism and dissonances are introduced.Melody and accompaniment.Ornamentations and Embellishments:Invented to let the singer show offTrillsTurnsAppoggiaturasCadenzasThe pianoforte (AKA: piano) is invented in 1700
Baroque StyleOpera is a drama with continuous music that is staged with scenery, costumes, and action.Characteristics of Opera:Aria: expresses emotionSolo with accompanimentThe characters reflection on the eventsDesigned to let the singer show offThe form of pop music (ABA) developed from AriasRecitative: tells the storyNarration Declamation of poetry without concern for pitch accuracy
Italian OperaWomen were not permitted to sing on stage so female roles were played by Castrati10Secular Genres:PreludeFugueOne subject (or theme) is continuously developedExample: Bachs Toccata and Fugue in D MinorSonataDevelopment of Sonata formConcertoSacred Genres:The Mass Cycle continuesOratorioContained musical elements of Opera without staging or costumesReligious subject matterPerformed in Latin or ItalianSacred ConcertosInstrumental GenresFamous Baroque ComposersJohann Sebastian (J.S.) BachThe Man. The Legend. The Genius.1685-1750J.S. BachBorn 1685 in Central Germany1700-1702: Studied at Lneburg1703: Hired as a church organist in Arnstadt1708: Hired as a court musician for the duke of WeimarFirst hired as an organistLater, promoted to concertmaster1717: appointed Kapellmeister (music director) at the court of Prince Leopold of Anhalt in Cthen1723: Moved to Liepzig to one of the most prestigious music positions in GermanyBrandenburg ConcertosMass in B MinorToccata in D MinorThe Art of FugueDemonstrates all types of fugal writing
Famous Pieces15Bach absorbed into his work all the genres, styles, and forms of his time and developed them beyond what his peers thought possible.Characteristics in his music:Memorable themesA theme should be exciting and welcomed. BachStrong rhythmic driveClarify of formA brilliant piece isnt necessarily made of brilliant content. The difference between brilliance and forgotten is the form. Dr. Joseph BaberCareful attention to detailBachs music embodies perfection of form
What Makes him Great?Talk about the Parthenon Effect: each section is shortened to account for the audiences attention span. Bach is a master in the Art of Distraction. He knows how to balance the Brilliance and the Ordinary.16George Frideric HandelThe Business Man1685-1759HandelBorn 1685 in GermanyHis father wanted him to study law but he practiced music secretly.1702: Appointed cathedral organist at University of Halle.Wrote his first opera at age 20.Associated with leading musicians and patrons during his time in Florence, Naples, and Venice.1712: Moved to LondonUnlike his peers, Handel was able to travel. His music reflects aspects of many cultures and styles.18The English Oratorio:Sacred subject matterElements of Opera:AriaRecitativeFormInvention of the ChorusChorus used to narrate the story, comment on the events, or participate in the actionEmphasis on communal expression (not individual expression)
Handels Influence19Handels Style:DramaticAppeal to the publicHe knew how to sell ticketsThis quality made him very popular throughout EuropeEmphasis on:MelodyHarmonyContrasting textures
Handel was the Justin Bieber of his day. He wrote music that was well received by the public.20Hallelujah ChorusMessiah