IUTC FILE COPYMISCELLANEOUS PAPER EL-90-9
Uos COMPATIBILITY OF NINTH AVENUE SUPERFUNDMo gSITE GROUND WATER WITH TWO SOIL-
BENTONITE SLURRY WALL BACKFILL MIXTURES
Mark E. Zappi, Richard A. Shafer, Donald D. Adrian
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY1% Waterways Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers
3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, Mississippi 39180-6199
May 1990Final Report
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4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) S. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S)
Miscellaneous Paper EL-90-9
6a. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATIONUSAEWES (If applicable)
Environmental Laboratory I
6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City, Stitt, and ZIP Code)
3909 Halls Ferry Road
Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199
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USAED, Omaha I
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Omaha, NE 68102-4910
11. TITLE (Include Security Classification)Compatibility of Ninth Avenue Superfund Site Ground Water with Two Soil-Bentonite SlurryWall Backfill Mixtures
12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S)Zappi, Mark E.; Shafer, Richard A.; Adrian, Donald D.
13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 15. PAGE COUNTFinal report FROMJun 88 TOJul 89 May 1990 16216. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION
Available from National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield,VA 22161.
17. COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number)FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Compatibility Soil-bentonite slurry walls
19. ABk'RACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number)The interactions between solutes found in leachates from uncontrolled landfills and
components of a soil-bentonite (SB) slurry wall are capable of causing swelling or shrinkingof the SB backfill material. This type of activity alters the hydraulic conductivity of theslurry wall. The effect of solutes in contaminated ground water from the Ninth AvenueSuperfund Site in Gary, IN, on the hydraulic conductivity of two SB slurry wall backfillmixtures was evaluated using rigid-wall permeameters.
Ground-water samples taken from three observation wells at the Ninth Avenue site con-tained solutes that could cause increases in the hydraulic conductivity of an SB slurrywall. One ground-water sample contained salt concentrations as high as 20,000 mg/f,,o Asecond sample contained total priority pollutant volatile organic compound (VOC) 5 r-L L -)
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19. ABSTRACT (Continued).
concentrations as high as 2,300 mg/9.. A third sample contained approximately 50 mg/t oftotal base neutral-acid extractables (BNAs) included on the Priority Pollutant List.
Free swell tests using organic solvents, salt, and tap water were conducted on fourcommercially available bentonites. Sodium chloride showed the most impact on the free swellcapacity of the bentonite samples by always reducing the free swell capacity of the samplesas compared to the control tap water samples. The organic solvents produced variableresults with the bentonite samples, sometimes increasing their free swell capacity over thecontrols and sometimes decreasing it. From the free swell testing, one bentonite was chosenfor use in preparing the SB slurry wall backfill mixtures.
Six clay borrow sources from the Gary, IN, area were screened using Atterberg limitsand grain size analysis. A high plasticity soil (CH) and medium plasticity soil (CL) werechosen as borrow materials for the preparation of the two SB slurry wall backfil! nixtures.
The backfill mixtures were prepared by adding enough 6.0-percent bentonite slurry tothe two clay borrow samples to achieve at least a 4.0-in. slump. The water contents of thebackfill materials were 49.5 and 41.1 percent for the CH and CL clay backfills,respectively.
Each backfill mixture was loaded into eight rigid wall permeameters. Sidewall leakageinside the permeameters was controlled by the application of bentonite paste along theinside of the permeameter cell walls. All sixteen permeameters were run in Phase I with tapwater; then in Phase II, six permeameters for each backfill mixture were permeated in dupli-cate with the three contaminated ground-water samples (i.e., two permeameters per ground-water sample), while the remaining two permeameters, or control cells, continued to bepermeated with tap water. The three permeants from the wells produced varied hydraulicconductivity results. However, the solutes had little or no effect on the hydraulic conduc-tivities of the backfill mixtures.
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This study was conducted as part of the Superfund Feasibility Study of
the Ninth Avenue Dump Superfund Site by The US Army Engineer Waterways Experi-
ment Station (WES), Vicksburg, MS. This report was prepared by WES, in
cooperation with the US Army Engineer District, Omaha (CEMRO) and Region V of
the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Coordination and management
support were provided by CEMRO. This study was conducted between June 1988
and July 1989.
Project manager for the USEPA was Ms. Allison Hiltner. The CEMRO proj-
ect manager was Mr. Steve Rowe. The WES project manager was Mr. Mark E.
The study was conducted and the report prepared by Messrs. Mark E.
Zappi and Richard A. Shafer, and Dr. Donald D. Adrian of the Water Supply and
Waste Treatment Group (WSWTC), Environmental Engineering Division (EED), Envi-
ronmental Laboratory (EL), WES. The Analytical Laboratory Group, EED, under
the supervision of Ms. Anne Strong assisted with chemical analysis of samples.
The Soils Testing Facility, Geotechnical Laboratory, WES, under the supervi-
sion of Mr. Jesse Oldham, assisted in the geotechnical testing of the soil and
soil-bentonite samples. Warzyn Engineering, Inc. of Madison, WI, obtained the
ground-water samples. Mses. Cindy Teeter and Sharon Burke and Messrs. Greg
Philips and Sidney Ragsdale, WSWTG, assisted in the design and daily opera-
tions of the permeameters. Ms. Kellie Huff, WSWTG, assisted in the reduction
and presentation of the data. This report was edited by Ms. Janean Shirley of
the WES Information Technology Laboratory.
The study was conducted under the general supervision of Mr. Norman R.
Francingues, Jr., Chief, WSWTG; Dr. Raymond L. Montgomery, Chief, EED; and Dr.
John Harrison, Chief, EL.
COL Larry B. Fulton, EN, was Commander and Director of WES.
Dr. Robert W. Whalin was Technical Director.
This report should be cited as follows:
Zappi, Mark E., Shafer, Richard A., and Adrian, Donald D. 1990."Compatibility of Ninth Avenue Superfund Site Ground Water with TwoSoil-Bentonite Slurry Wall Backfill Mixtures," Miscellaneous PaperEL-90-9, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.
PagePREFACE .......... *.................... -...... .. ... ...... .... ...... 1
CONVERSION FACTORS, NON-SI TO SI (METRIC) UNITS OF MEASUREMENT........... 3
PART I: INTRODUCTION- ....................... o.......................... 4
Site History ......... ... *....... 0.... 0... .. .. .. .. ........... 4
SB Slurry Walls.. . . . . . ................ .................. 6
Potential Compatibility Problems ....... .......................... 7Study Objective. ... 0... 0000...............0.. .............. 8Scope of Study .... o...... .... . . .. . . . .. . . .. . ........ 9
PART II: STUDY APPROACH .... o........................ .. 11
Introduc tion . .. o. ..... o. . . . o. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o I1I
General Description of StudyApproach.............................. 11
PART III: MATERIALS AND METHODS ... ....... .......