Text of Biodiversity. What is Biodiversity? "The variability among living organisms from all sources...
What is Biodiversity? "The variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems" --Convention on Biological Diversity"Variability within nature" --UK Biodiversity Action Plan"Wide array of ecosystems, ecological processes, species and genes" --Environment Canada
Biodiversity LossSpecies extinction and habitat lossToday, biodiversity loss is 1000 times higher than the rates found in the fossil recordhttp://www.glogster.com/media/4/12/37/46/12374610.gif
Causes of Biodiversity LossHabitat DestructionInvasive SpeciesOver exploitationClimate ChangeOverpopulationPollution glaciermt.comhttp://www.iucn.org/iyb/about/biodiversity_crisis/
Why Do We Need Biodiversity? Ecosystem services -$16-$64 trillionResearch - e.g. discovery of new medicineAesthetic value Food Security
How To Fix Biodiversity LossWhat is the market failure?Under provision of a public goodLack of informationExternalityincomplete property rights What policies address this?Command and Control RegulationPublic EducationPermittingTax Incentiveshttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/
US Biodiversity PolicyThe USA has no official national biodiversity policy. However, there are key pieces of legislation that help define US biodiversity policy.- US government policy has been primarily focused on conservation efforts for most of history- US Fish and Wildlife Service (http://www.fws.gov/)US government's wildlife and conservation agency- Recent developmentUS government position moving closer to support an international biodiversity agreement. (http://blogs.forbes.com/francisvorhies/2011/07/27/us-getting-serious-about-international-biodiversity-policy/)
US - KeyNational Legislation The Lacey Act (1900) (http://www.fws.gov/news/newsreleases/LACEYACT.html)The first environmental piece of legislation. Provides the ability for the federal government to regulate invasive species populations. Evolved over the 20th century to reflect the challenges of the time.The Migratory Bird Conservation Act (1929) (http://www.fws.gov/refuges/realty/mbcc.html)Provision providedthat allowsthe Federal government to rent/buy land that can be protected to preserve the natural habitat for migratory birdThe Clean Water Act (1948 (http://www.usclimatenetwork.org/policy/resource-database/clean-air-act-and-wildlife-fact-sheet)Affects fish and wildlife that are dependent on water for their survival.The Clean Air Act (1963) (http://www.usclimatenetwork.org/policy/resource-database/clean-air-act-and-wildlife-fact-sheet)Has helped restore ozone in the atmosphere which is vital to the protection of trees andassisted in themitigation ofacid rain that devatstates natural habitat.Endangered Species Act of 1969 (1973) (http://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/ESACT.HTML)Often cited as the US's landmark biodiversity legislation (more info on the next slide). Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act (1980) (http://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/FWCON.HTML)Allocates substantial funding to the statestoassist withconservation efforts of natural habitats.
UK's Approach to BiodiversityConvention on Biological DiversityInternational Treaty for the "conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity" (CBD) Biodiversity Action PlanInventories potentially threatened species and habitatsCreates plans to protect species and habitatsThe 4 countries of the UK have all designed their own Action Plans Wildlife and Countryside Act of 1981 Protects wildlife and habitats of the UKAmended to comply with EU directives
EU Biodiversity PoliciesHabitat DirectiveProtects 1000 animals and plant species and 200 "habitat types" (EU) Bird DirectiveProtects birds and their habitats Natura 2000EU-wide network of protected areas EU biodiversity strategy to 2020Goal to stop biodiversity loss by 2020Focus on EU and the globehttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/
Biodiversity in Canada1973 Canada Wildlife ActCreates national wildlife areas 1990 Wildlife Policy for Canadaemphasized the restoration of biodiversity and ecological processesMigratory Birds Convention Act 1994Protects birds from hunting and traffickingEstablishes Migratory Bird Refuges1995 Canadian Biodiversity Strategyproduced by a group including federal, provincial and territorial governmentsGuide to carrying out Canada's commitments under the Convention of Biodiversityhttp://canadianbiodiversity.mcgill.ca/english/legislation/legislation.htm
OntarioThe Managed Forest Tax Incentive ProgramA voluntary program administered by the MNR to provide lower property taxes to participating landowners who agree to conserve and actively manage their forests.Conservation Land Tax Incentive Programprovides property tax relief to those landowners who agree to protect the natural heritage value of their propertyBritish Columbia Ecological Services ActPreserves land to protect species and habitatsWildlife ActCreates wildlife areas, protects endangered species, and regulates invasive species http://www.mnr.gov.on.ca/en/Business/Biodiversity/2ColumnSubPage/STEL02_166973.htmlhttp://wcel.org/sites/default/files/Biodiversity%20law%20and%20policy%20in%20British%20Columbia.pdf
ConclusionsComparatively speaking, the US has no officialnational biodiversity plan while the UK and Canada have national long-term biodiversity plans.The most used policies are direct regulation and provision of information We may be going into a 6th mass extinction period, so it is very important to act now!
BAPnot a law, but provides information/education Wildlifecommand and control, *Directiveslegally binding, Natura 2000legally bindingStrategynot legally binding**creates national wildlife areas