Biology Honors. First, a little about ATP ATP– the energy that our cells use Cells use glucose to make ATP When the cell needs energy, it breaks ATP When.

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  • Slide 1
  • Biology Honors
  • Slide 2
  • First, a little about ATP ATP the energy that our cells use Cells use glucose to make ATP When the cell needs energy, it breaks ATP When ATP breaks, you get ADP and energy ADP gets a new phosphate, becomes ATP again Like charging a battery
  • Slide 3
  • ATP Cycle
  • Slide 4
  • The Mitochondrion Powerhouse of the cell Takes glucose and makes usable energy cellular ATP CELLULAR RESPIRATION
  • Slide 5
  • Mitochondrion Draw one and label the parts as shown below
  • Slide 6
  • Cristae
  • Slide 7
  • Things you will need to know Formula for cellular respiration: O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP Two hydrogen carrier molecules: NAD (produces 3 ATP) FAD (produces 2 ATP)
  • Slide 8
  • More on NAD and FAD NAD + H = NADH NADH - H=NAD FAD + H= FADH FADH - H=FAD
  • Slide 9
  • Cellular Respiration: Step 1 Glycolysis Gly= refers to sugar lysis= to break
  • Slide 10
  • Glycolysis: breaking sugar Occurs in the cytoplasm 2 ATP molecules break glucose (6C) into two 3 carbon molecules Pyruvate or Pyruvic Acid (-ate / -ic = acid) 4 ATP are released in the end Hydrogen is released and picked up by NAD
  • Slide 11
  • Glycolysis: products Per glucose molecule: ATP: make 4, use 2..net gain = 2 ATP NADH: 2 NAD to 2 NADH Pyruvic acid: 2 (three carbon molecules)
  • Slide 12
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  • Cellular Respiration: Step 1A Intermediate Step or the Prep Step Occurs only in presence of oxygen (Aerobic) Pyruvate loses one carbon, becomes acetyl-CoA Carbon dioxide is released NAD picks up hydrogen
  • Slide 14
  • Cellular Respiration: Step 2 Occurs in mitochondrial matrix Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle Acetyl CoA enters the cycle Carbons are removed in steps and released as 4 CO 2 6 NADH & 2 FADH formed 2 ATP made
  • Slide 15
  • Slide 16
  • Cellular Respiration: Step 3 Electron Transport Chain Occurs in inner membrane folds (cristae) NADH and FADH drop off hydrogen Oxygen picks up hydrogen, forms water 30 ATP made
  • Slide 17
  • Aerobic Respiration where it all happens Cytoplasm glycolysis Matrix Krebs Cycle Inner membrane (cristae) ETC
  • Slide 18
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  • Slide 20
  • Anaerobic Respiration = NO OXYGEN AKA Fermentation Only glycolysis occurs Pyruvic acid converts to lactic acid or ethanol (ethyl alcohol) Alcoholic fermentationoccurs in plants Lactic acid fermentationoccurs in animals
  • Slide 21
  • Fermentation ALCOHOL Occurs in the cytoplasm Produces 2 alcohol, 2 CO 2, 2 NAD+ Makes only 2 ATP Many commercial uses LACTIC ACID Occurs in cytoplasm Produces 2 NAD+, 2 lactic acid, no CO 2 Makes only 2 ATP Causes muscle fatigue
  • Slide 22
  • Slide 23
  • Other Catabolic Pathways FYI Only (Dont write this!) Polysaccharides First broken down into simple sugars Enter glycolysis Fats Broken down into 2 carbon molecules and converted to acetyl coA Enter Krebs cycle Proteins Amino group removed, broken down into 2- carbon molecules of acetyl CoA Enter Krebs cycle
  • Slide 24
  • Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

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