Biotic Environment _ Final

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    Environment

    47 Parin Shah

    48 PoojaShahani

    57 DhwaniVibhakar

    05 Nikita Chitalia

    07 DhavalDhruv

    42 Hardik M Shah

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    Introduction

    Definition-

    Environment can be defined as the natural surroundings of that

    organism which directly or indirectly influences the growth and

    development of the organism.

    Ecology the study of the inter-relationships between the organism

    and its environment

    Ecosystem is a branch of study of the inter relationships of theorganism with its environment.

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    Components of Environment

    The following classification of the environment is given by British

    literature

    Here the components are classified in terms of biotic and abiotic

    based upon life. The biotic components are further listed as producers, consumers

    and decomposers and the abiotic components are classified as

    climatic(water, air)and edaphic(land).

    It is from this component system that the study of structure of

    ecosystem was evolved.

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    Structure of Environment

    Environment

    Biotic

    producers Consumers decomposers

    Abiotic

    Climatic edaphic

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    Biotic Environment The word comes from Bio

    meaning life

    It includes all the living things thatwe see around us like plants,

    animals, fungi, microorganisms

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    Abiotic Environment It includes all the physical

    components of the environment

    These are the componentsnecessary for the biotic

    environment for their survival

    This environment includes air,water, soil, temperature, wind,

    source of energy (usually sun)

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    Abiotic factors include:

    Sunlight

    Water

    Temperature

    Wind

    Soil/substrate

    Special events such as:

    Fires

    Hurricanes Floods

    Volcanic eruptions

    Tsunamis

    Abiotic factors are the non-living

    Components of the Environment

    http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2005/images/tornado-palmsunday04-11-1965b.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2005/s2418.htm&h=629&w=700&sz=496&hl=en&start=4&tbnid=sYHeFFkNEe4kdM:&tbnh=126&tbnw=140&prev=/images?q=tornado&svnum=10&hl=en&lr=&sa=Ghttp://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2005/images/tornado-palmsunday04-11-1965b.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2005/s2418.htm&h=629&w=700&sz=496&hl=en&start=4&tbnid=sYHeFFkNEe4kdM:&tbnh=126&tbnw=140&prev=/images?q=tornado&svnum=10&hl=en&lr=&sa=Ghttp://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.met.fsu.edu/explores/CurrCD/CURRCD-FINAL/Image%20Library/IM21-N11108231992.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.met.fsu.edu/explores/CurrCD/CURRCD-FINAL/index.html&h=587&w=800&sz=276&hl=en&start=33&tbnid=W8QHozJs_u-T5M:&tbnh=105&tbnw=143&prev=/images?q=hurricane+andrew&start=20&ndsp=20&svnum=10&hl=en&lr=&sa=N
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    The Different Abiotic Factors Water is a chemical

    substance with the chemicalformula H2o. A watermolecule contains oneoxygen and two hydrogen

    atoms connected bycovalent bonds. Water is aliquid at ambientconditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solidstate, ice, and gaseous state(water vapor or steam).Water also exists in a liquidcrystal state nearhydrophilic surfaces.

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    Oxygen (O) is a chemicalelement. In nature,

    oxygen is a gas with no

    color or smell. Oxygen is a

    very important element

    because it is a part of theair people breathe and

    the water people drink.

    Because of this, oxygen

    supports life. All living

    things (including humans)

    need oxygen to live.

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    Sunlight, in the broad sense, is

    the total frequency spectrum of

    electromagnetic radiation given

    off by the Sun, particularly

    infrared, visible, and ultraviolet

    light. On Earth, sunlight is filtered

    through the Earth's atmosphere,

    and solar radiation is obvious as

    daylight when the Sun is above

    the horizon.

    When the direct solar radiation is

    not blocked by clouds, it is

    experienced as sunshine, a

    combination of bright light and

    radiant heat. When it is blockedby the clouds or reflects off of

    other objects, it is experienced as

    diffused light.

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    Wind is air that moves over theearth's surface. Wind is movingair. Wind can move so softlythat it can hardly be felt. Or itmay blow so hard and fast that

    it smashes over trees andbuildings.

    Wind is often defined as thehorizontal movement of airrelative to the earth's surface.

    All winds, from gentle breezesto raging hurricanes, are causedby differences in thetemperature of the atmosphere,by rotation of the Earth, and byunequal heating of the

    continents and the oceans. Thesun heats the earth's surfacesunevenly. Air above hot areasexpands and rises. Air fromcooler areas then flows in toreplace the heated air. Thisprocess is called circulation.

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    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is emittedin a number of ways. It isemitted naturally through thecarbon cycle and throughhuman activities like theburning of fossil fuels.

    Natural sources of CO2 occurwithin the carbon cycle wherebillions of tons of atmosphericCO2 are removed from theatmosphere by oceans andgrowing plants, also known assinks, and are emitted backinto the atmosphere annuallythrough natural processes also

    known as sources. When inbalance, the total carbondioxide emissions and removalsfrom the entire carbon cycle areroughly equal

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    Other Abiotic Factors Here are some abiotic factors that you may not have thought about.

    Calcium: The lack of availability of calcium will restrict the distribution

    of land snails. If there is no calcium a shell cant be secreted.

    Sand: the size of the sand grains in the soil can impact animal that are

    burrowers.

    Nitrogen: Not just nitrogen, but nitrate (NO3). This is the form of

    nitrogen used by plants. When nitrate is not readily available in thesoil, some plants supplement it with a meat diet. (insectivorous

    plants).

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    Biotic Factors The living components of an ecosystem are known as

    the biotic factors - living biological factors that

    influence the other organisms or environment of an

    ecosystem. Biotic factors interact as : Producers, consumers,

    detrivores, decomposers, parasite, host, predator,

    competitor, herbivore, symbiant and pathogen.

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    Biotic Factors

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    Biotic Components

    A producer is an organism that makes its own

    food from light energy or chemical energy.

    Most green plants that are one-celled

    organisms like slime molds and bacteria are

    producers. Producers are the base of the food

    chain.

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    A consumer is a living thing that eats other living things tostay alive. It cannot make its own food like a producer butrelies on producers for their source of food.

    Consumers divide into :Primary consumers herbivores that feed on plants

    directly.

    Secondary consumers carnivores that feed on

    primary consumers

    directly.

    Tertiary consumers carnivores or omnivores that

    feed on secondary consumer.

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    Decomposers Without Decomposers the Tropical Rain Forest would be piled high

    with branches, rotting trees decaying fruits. All of the decomposersteam up and work together to decompose plant matter

    Although by far the smallest biotics, the microscopic organisms aresome of the most important. Plankton, viruses and bacteria are allvital microscopic biotic organism. Bacteria can either be helpful,breaking down dead organisms into nutritious matter and helpinglarger organisms digest food, or harmful, spreading infections.

    Plankton is a vital resource in ocean ecosystem, and viruses have atremendous impact on the health of environments, althoughnegative.

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    WHAT ARE TROPHIC LEVELS

    TROPHIC LEVELS ARE THE POSITION

    THAT AN ORGANISM (OR GROUP

    OF ORGANISMS) OCCUPIES IN THE

    FOOD CHAIN

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    MAJOR TROPHIC LEVELS ARE

    PRODUCERS,CONSUMER,AND

    DECOMPOSER

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    PRODUCERS

    6 CO2 + 6 H2O + SOLAR ENERGY = C6H12O6+ O2

    PHOTOSYNTHESIS COMPLEX CHEMICAL

    REACTION IN WHICH PRODUCER USE

    CHLOROPHYLL TO CONVERT CARBON DIOXIDEINTO GLUCOSE AND OXYGEN

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    CONSUMERS

    - RESPIRATION THE

    CHEMICAL REACTION

    IN WHICH OXYGEN

    AND GLUCOSE

    PROVIDE ENERGY FOR

    AN ORGANISM

    C6H12O6+ O2 = 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ENERGY

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    ENERGY TRANSFERS

    HEAT LOSS TO ENVIRONMENT

    CONVERTED TO LIGHT

    LOST BETWEEN TROPHIC LEVELS

    RE-RADIATED TO ATMOSPHERE

    AS ENERGY IS EXCHANGED IT IS CONVERTED

    BUT NOT LOST.

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    MEASURING GROSS PRODUCTIVITY

    THE TOTAL GAIN IN ENERGY OR BIOMASS

    PER UNIT TIME WHICH COULD BE

    THROUGH PHOTOSYNTHESIS (GPP) OR

    ABSORBSION IN THE CONSUMER (GP)

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    MEASURING PRODUCTIVITY

    GPP THE TOTAL AMOUNT OF ENERGY

    GAINED THROUGH PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    GP THE TOTAL AMOUNT OF ENERGY

    GAINED IN PLANT CONSUMERS

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    MEASURING NET PRODUCTIVITY

    THE AMOUNT OF ENERGY THAT IS

    AVAILABLE AFTER THE ENERGY LOSS FROM

    RESPIRATION

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    MEASURING NET PRODUCTIVITY

    IT IS THE NET PRODUCTIVY WHICH

    REPRESENTS THAT AMOUNT OF ENERY

    AVAILABLE FOR THE NEXT HIGHER TROPHIC

    LEVEL

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    GENERALLY, ONLY 10% OF THE ENERGY MAKES IT

    FROM THE LOWER LEVEL TO THE NEXT HIGHER LEVEL

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    Interaction

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    INTERACTION

    Organisms and their environment always

    interact

    Humans have changed environment on a

    larger scale than any other species

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    Oxygen Cycle

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    Nitrogen Cycle

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