Breast Cancer Awareness Day
Epidemiology Risk factors Different types of breast cancer Breast cancer characteristics Breast cancer staging Breast cancer screening Breast cancer treatment Survivorship
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. It is estimated that more than 1.6 million new cases of breast cancer occurred among women worldwide in 2010.
The second cause of death from cancer in women in North America after lung cancer.
When diagnosed early, it can be treated with surgery, radiation and systemic therapy including chemotherapy and hormonal therapy.
At the time of diagnosis more than 90% of patients have localized disease. The average age at diagnosis for women is 61 (61 for white women and 57
for African American women). It is more common in women ages 50 and older.
Breast and cervical cancer in 187 countries between 1980 and 2010: a systematic analysis. Lancet. 2011 Sept 15
Epidemiology In the United States, an estimated 230,000 new cases of
invasive breast cancer are diagnosed yearly. Approximately 40,000 new cases of noninvasive breast
cancer (ductal carcinoma in situ; DCIS) is diagnosed every year.
Approximately 2000 cases of male breast cancer is diagnosed in men each year.
Lifetime risk of developing breast cancer in North American women with life expectancy of 85 years is one in eight.
The incidence of breast cancer increases with age, but the rate of increase in incidence slows after menopause.
The average 5-year survival rate of all patients with breast cancer is 87.5%
If current age is: Absolute risk of developing breast cancer in the next 10 years is:
20 1 in 1,760 (0.06%) 30 1 in 229 (0.4%) 40 1 in 69 (1.4%) 50 1 in 42 (2.4%) 60 1 in 29 (3.4%) 70 1 in 27 (3.7%)
Women MenNumber of new breast cancers diagnosed
Number of deaths 39,520 450
Figure 1.5: Estimated New Cancers among Women by State, 2004-2008
Rate of Invasive Breast Cancer (per 100,000
Rate of Invasive Breast Cancer (per 100,000
Arizona 107 Connecticut 136Michigan 120 Montana 120
Asian and Pacific
and Alaskan Native
Incidence rate 137 per
100,000 122 per 100,000
79 per 100,000
98 per 100,000
79 per 100,000
American Cancer Society, 2011
Lifetime risk of breast cancer worldwide
Source: Forouzanfar et al.
SEER Cancer Statistics Review,1975-2008, 2011
Breast Cancer Racial Disparities
Breast cancer incidence in African American women is lower than Caucasian.
Breast cancer mortality is 39 percent higher. From 1999-2006, the five-year relative survival rate for breast cancer among African American women was 78 percent compared to 90 percent among Caucasian women. Factors that may all play a role include: Biologic and genetic differences in tumours Presence of risk factors Barriers to health care access Health behaviours Later stage of breast cancer at diagnosis
Breast cancer screening rate are similar.
Risk Factors Personal history of breast cancer BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations or mutation in the TP53 or
PTEN genes (Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Cowden syndrome or Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome).
Strong family history (BC in1st degree relative E) or birth control
pills Exposure to ionizing radiation to the chest Low vitamin D level
Alcohol Having a few alcoholic drinks each week
modestly increases the risk of breast cancer. The more a woman drinks, the higher her risk of
breast cancer A pooled analysis of data from 53 studies found
for each alcoholic drink consumed per day, breast cancer risk increased by about seven percent .
Women who had two to three alcoholic drinks per day had a 20 percent higher risk of breast cancer compared to non-drinkers.
Br J Cancer. 87(11):1234-45, 2002
Alcohol and Breast Cancer
Alcohol contains a lot of calories leading to weight gain that can cause higher blood levels of estrogen which is linked to an increased risk of breast cancer.
Some studies have shown that alcohol can increase the risk of breast cancer independent of body weight. Alcohol affects the way body processes estrogen, causing estrogen levels to rise.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 94(8): 606-616, 2002Am J Epidemiol. 170(3):308-17, 2009Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 12(2):161-4, 2003
Types of Breast Cancer
Non-invasive: An abnormal growth of cells within the area in which it started: Ductal Carcinoma in situ (DCIS): Stage 0 Lobular carcinoma in-situ (LCIS): A risk factor
for breast cancer. Invasive: When breast cancer cells spread
into surrounding breast tissue from the ducts or lobules.
Invasive Breast Cancer
Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (70-80%) Infiltrating lobular carcinoma (5-10%) Medullary breast cancer (1.2%) Mucinous (1-2%, favorable prognosis) Micropapillary (1%, tendency for LN metastasis) Tubular (2%, favorable prognosis with rare
metastasis) Metaplastic (fewer T1, less LN involvement, HR
negative, more poorly differentiated)
Breast Cancer Characteristics
Size: In general, the smaller the tumor, the better the chance for successful treatment
Grade: I III Hormone receptor(ER, PR) and HER2/neu receptor
Local: The breast cancer is confined within the breast Regional: The breast cancer has spread to the lymph
nodes (mainly axillary nodes) Distant: The breast cancer has spread to the other
Breast Cancer Staging The stages of breast cancer range from 0 to IV
(0 to 4). Stage depends on the combination of: T (Tumor size) N (Lymph Node Status) M (Metastases)
Stage I: T0-1, N0-1mi, M0 Stage II: T0-3, N0-1, M0 Stage III (Locally Advanced Breast Cancer):
T0-4, N0-3, M0 Stage IV: Any T, Any N, M1
Breast Cancer Staging and Survival
Metastatic Breast Cancer
Metastasis occurs when breast cancer cells break away from the breast tumor and spread to other organs through either the blood stream or the lymphatic system
Breast Cancer Screening
Starting at age 40, all women should get a mammogram every year.
Under age 40 with either a family history of breast cancer or other concerns about breasts mammograms or other tests, such as breast MRI is indicated.
Clinical breast exam at least every 3 years starting at age 20 and every year starting at age 40.
Other Screening Methods
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) American Cancer Society and the National
Comprehensive Cancer Network currently recommend women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 genetic mutation get an MRI in combination with their annual mammography screening
Treatment of Breast Cancer
Survivorship Definition: A person having no cancer after
completion of his/her treatment or the process of living with, through and beyond cancer.
It begins when a person is diagnosed with cancer
It includes people who continue to have treatment to reduce their risk of recurrence or to manage the disease over a long time
There are about 12 millions of survivors in the United States
Acute survivorship: When a person is being diagnosed and/or is in treatment
Extended survivorship: The time right after the treatment is completed
Permanent survivorship: Describes a longer period since the treatment is completed
Psychological challenges Physical challenges Sexual and reproductive challenges Relationship challenges Work-related challenges Financial challenges Spiritual challenges
Resources available to survivors
Family counseling Genetic counseling Home care services Individual/couple
counseling Nutritional planning Occupational therapy Oncology social
Physical therapy Pain management Recreational therapy Support groups Survivor matching
programs Vocational counseling
Survivorship Resources www.ucscsn.org www.carepages.com www.mylifeline.org www.navigatingcancer.com www.peersupportnetwork.org www.caringbridge.com www.ihadcancer.com www.inspire.com www.livestrong.com
Breast Cancer Self-Awareness1. Know your risk:
Talk to your family to learn about your family history Talk to your provider about your personal risk of breast cancer
2. Get screened: Ask your doctor which screening tests are right for you if you are at a higher risk Have a mammogram every year starting at age 40 if you are at average risk Have a clinical breast exam every 3 years starting at age 20, and every year starting at 40
3. Know what is normal for you:See your PCP if you notice any of these breast changes: Lump, hard knot or thickening inside the breast or underarm area Swelling, warmth, redness or darkening of the breast Change in the size or shape of the breast Dimpling or puckering of the skin Itchy, scaly sore or rash on the nipple Pulling in of your nipple or other parts of the breast Nipple discharge that starts suddenly New pain in one spot that doesnt go away
4. Make health