Risk Factors Risk factors that increase risk of breast cancer include Getting older. Being younger when you first had your menstrual period. Starting menopause at a later age. Being older at the birth of your first child. Never giving birth. Not breastfeeding. Personal history of breast cancer or some non- cancerous breast diseases. Family history of breast cancer (mother, sister, daughter).
Risk Factors cont. Treatment with radiation therapy to the breast/chest. Being overweight (increases risk for breast cancer after menopause). Long-term use of hormone replacement therapy (estrogen and progesterone combined). Having changes in the breast cancer-related genes BRCA1 or BRCA2. Using birth control pills, also called oral contraceptives. Drinking alcohol (more than one drink a day). Not getting regular exercise.
Breast Cancer Risk by Age The risk of getting breast cancer increases with age. The table below shows the percentage of women (how many out of 100) who will get breast cancer over different time periods. The time periods are based on the woman's current age. Current Age10 Years20 Years30 Years 300.431.864.13 401.453.756.87 502.385.68.66 603.456.718.65 Percent of U.S. Women Who Develop Breast Cancer over 10-, 20-, and 30-Year Intervals According to Their Current Age, 20052007
Prevention Get screened for breast cancer regularly. Control your weight and exercise. Know your family history of breast cancer. Find out the risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy. Limit the amount of alcohol you drink.
Awareness : . . : . (mammogram) . 3 20 40.
Awareness : : !!
BSE : . . .
BSE : . : . . . .
Why dont more women practice BSE? Fear Embarrassment Lack of knowledge Too busy
Screening Mammogram. Clinical breast exam. Breast self-exam. Which tests to choose!! Costs.
Diagnosis Breast ultrasound Diagnostic mammogram Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Biopsy
Sonography Ultrasound-based technique done after palpation of an anomaly to rule out possible cysts and to estimate the size of the tumor Only in addition to mammography as neither microcalcium nor tumors smaller than 5mm can be detected
Mammogram Is an x-ray examination with a special apparatus. The breast is comprimed between two plates of plexiglass to keep the breast in position (might result in bruises). The applied x-rays are rather soft (26-30 keV) to increase the contrast small neoplasmatic tissue formations can be seen.
When, why Tips for getting a mammogram Try not to have your mammogram the week before you get your period or during your period. Your breasts may be tender or swollen then. On the day of your mammogram, don't wear deodorant, perfume, or powder. These products can show up as white spots on the X-ray. What happens if my mammogram is normal, abnormal?
MRI An important imaging technique to find out if the breast has been affected by more than one tumor Multifocality: more than one tumor in the same quadrant Multicentrality: other tumors in other quadrants
Punching Biopsy A needle is shot at high velocity into the neoplasmatic tissue Done in locally sedated state (At least 3 samples are taken to avoid mistakes
Needle Biopsy With a syringe and a special needle tissues are drawn from a palpable tissue formation As painful as venipuncture In case of a malign tumor the result is sure wheras it is only 90% sure for a benign tumor
Staging If breast cancer is diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the breast or to other parts of the body. This process is called staging. Whether the cancer is only in the breast, is found in lymph nodes under your arm, or has spread outside the breast determines your stage of breast cancer. The type and stage of breast cancer tells doctors what kind of treatment will be needed.