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Brian Ellis Biotechnology Laboratory - UBC May 02, 2001

Brian Ellis Biotechnology Laboratory - UBC May 02, 2001

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  • Brian EllisBiotechnology Laboratory - UBCMay 02, 2001

  • Health Canada is mandatedto ensure that the Canadianpublic is not put at risk fromfood or health care productsHC must assess all novel foods

  • From other geographic regionsFrom new manufacturing processesFrom plant breeding

  • History of safe human consumption?Contains known toxicants?Nutritional value altered?

  • Development and evaluationof new genotypes1. Create variation2. Select3. Repeat.

  • 1. creates new allelic combinations within a species genome2. samples mutational / recombinational changes

  • Progeny EvaluationExisting varietiesDistantly related speciesInduced mutantsClosely-related speciesLandracesSelections

  • barley is barley is barley long history highly selected

  • derived from known (GRAS)germplasmvery few new genetic elementsadded to parental variety

  • Do a comprehensive (and slowand expensive) food safety assessment ?

  • or assume that the genetic background is benign,assess traits directly related to the transgene, andestablish substantial equivalence

  • comparison of the GMO productwith the conventional assesses differences between themfocuses on the transgene and on hallmarks of conventional genotype

  • Focuses on most likely impactsUses established methodologies

  • Assumes linear responses to genetic changeUses targeted rather than global analytical methodologies

  • Differential gene expression in the Arabidopsis hypocotylwildtypeein 4 mutantS. Regan, Carleton U.

  • Cellular systems are highly integrated at all levelsPlant metabolism is extraordinarilyplastic - adapted to creation of new metabolites

  • Fiehn et al, Nature Biotechnology (2000)Metabolic shifts induced by single-gene changesin Arabidopsis thalianadgd-1sdd-1

  • Assume that pleiotropic effectswill occur in GMO organismsDevelop and adopt global profiling methodologies Focus safety assessment on revealed differences