Bridge Hand Book

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MINISTRY OF ROAD TRANSPORT & HIGHWAY

GOVT. OF RAJASTHAN

RAJASTHAN URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTHAND BOOK FOR

BRIDGE WORKSProject Management Unit (PMU) RUIDP

Avs Building, Jawahar Circle , Malviya Nagar, Jaipur- 17

Contents

41. INTRODUCTION

42. PROJECT PREPARATION

52.1.Feasibility Study

52.2 Preliminary Project Preparation

62.2.1. Bridge sitting and road alignment:

62.2.2 Reconnaissance survey:

62.2.3Factors deciding site selection.

82.2.4Preliminary survey, subsoil investigations and hydraulic survey:

112.2.5. Design discharge and linear waterway

112.2.6. Clearance

122.2.7. Width of carriageway, footpath and median

122.2.8.Fixation of span arrangement and selection of the type of structure

142.2.9Preliminary design of various components of bridge

202.2.10. Corrosion protection measures:

202.2.11. Design of river training and protective works

212.2.12. Preliminary cost estimate

212.3. Detailed Project Preparation

212.3.1Survey:

222.2.2Hydraulic designs:

222.3.3Detailed subsurface investigation and testing

222.3.4Detailed structural design

232.3.5Detailed estimate

242.3.6Detailed project report:

253. CONSTRUCTION

253.1General

263.2Formwork and Staging

263.3Placing of Reinforcement

273.4 Foundations

273.4.1Open foundation:

273.4.2Well foundations

273.4.3Pile Foundation:

283.5Substructure

283.6Superstructure

283.6.1Concreting:

283.6.2Prestressing:

293.6.3Grouting:

303.7Bearings:

303.8Expansion Joints:

303.9Materials

303.9.1Cement:

313.9.2Coarse aggregate:

313.9.3Sand/ Fine aggregate page:

313.9.4Steel

323.9.5Water:

333.9.6Admixtures:

333.9.7Storage of materials

343.9.8Tests and standards of acceptance of material:

354. QUALITY SYSTEMS FOR ROAD BRIDGES

365. PROJECT SCHEDULING AND MONITORING OF WORKS

365.1Scheduling

365.2Monitoring

375.3Documentation

38Appendix I

38CHECKLIST FOR PREPARATION OF GAD

38A.GENERAL

39B.PLAN

40C.ELEVATION

41D.SECTION

42Appendix II

42CHECKLIST FOR SUBMISSION OF GAD TO RAILWAY DEPARTMENT FOR ROBs

1. INTRODUCTIONA bridge project from its conception to completion involves various stages of planning, design, approval/sanction, tendering and execution. Also inspections, maintenance and repairs are continuing activities for enhancing the service life of the structure. This pocket book has been specifically aimed at giving the practicing engineers the basic information on these aspects.A bridge project from conception to construction and final completion of the bridge involves a number of major activities which can be summarized as follows:-Start - administrative decision for constructing a bridge.Feasibility studies

Preliminary Project preparation site selection, Preliminary survey and investigation including hydraulic survey, subsoil investigation, fixation of span arrangements and selection of type of structure. Preliminary design of various components of bridge, preliminary cost estimates.Detailed project preparation detailed survey, hydraulic design, subsurface investigation, detailed structural designs, detailed estimate and detailed project report.

Technical approval and financial sanction

Decision to take up work from plan funds or to invite private entrepreneurs.

Approval of Tenders and Revised cost if necessary and start of construction work

Construction Project scheduling and monitoring of quantity and progress of work.Inspection and maintenance of bridges

Note: Bridges are usually designed for at least 50 years life and should cater to the projected traffic demands. Utmost care should be exercised in site investigations by following the procedures outlined in the subsequent chapters ensuring only preparation of thoroughly investigated projects which will ultimately facilitate speedy construction and maintenance costs.

2. PROJECT PREPARATIONPreparation of a detailed project report is a pre-requisite for proper evaluation of the project, its approval by competent authority and finally its execution. Properly prepared project report is very helpful in ensuring timely completion of project thereby ensuring fullest advantage of the project avoiding time and cost overruns. Project preparation activity can be divided into the following three broad stages:-(1) Feasibility Study

(2) Preliminary Project Report

(3) Detailed Project Report

For detailed guidelines reference may be made to Special Publication No.54-Project Preparation Manual for Bridges published by Indian Congress.2.1.Feasibility Study

2.1.1. The project preparation for a bridge work starts with the identification of the project. This phase is known as the pre feasibility stage. For this stage, broad features of the project are identified, the possible locations, nature of crossing, traffic dispersal system for different alternatives are identified. The effect of implementation of the project on the traffic scenario in immediate vicinity is also considered. This reconnaissance visit to the area of the intended site is sufficient at this stage.2.1.2. In the feasibility stage, preliminary surveys, data collection and investigations are carried out. Alternative site are investigated, design and rough cost estimates for various alternatives are made. The feasibility report covering the recommended alignment including alternative considered, span arrangement, preliminary cost estimates, economic and financial viability is prepare. Feasibility study should also cover the following aspects.

i. the main purpose of the bridge project i.e. the trunk route, economic or interstate importance, access to ports, tourism, agriculture development etc. the place of the project in the road development programme and the priority assigned to.

ii. The geographic features of the area such as size, economic (industrial and agricultural), other traffic generated activates in the area, main population centers, their size projections and growth rates, and governments economic programme for the developments.

iii. Measurable and non measurable benefits should be listed. The former may consider reduction in operation costs, reduction in travel time for goods and passengers, reduction in maintenance cost in case a old bridge is replaced. The latter may include social and economic development of the adjacent area consequent to the construction of the bridge.

iv. A cost benefit analysis should be enclosed and results critically discussed. For calculation of cost benefit analysis, a reference may be made to IRC SP -30: 1993. Manual on Economic Evaluation of Highway Projects in India (First Revision)

2.2 Preliminary Project Preparation

Preliminary project preparation involves various stages like recognition of the need, study of maps, reconnaissance survey leading to selection of alternative site, preliminary survey and investigation including subsoil investigation and collection of hydraulic data leading to final site selection and all these activities has to be systematically planned and carried out in their logical sequence.

2.2.1. Bridge sitting and road alignment:

The considerations which decide the inter se priority between a suitable bridge site and suitable road alignment will be guided by the following principles: -

(i) The location of a bridge upto a length of 60 meter shall be governed by the suitability of alignment of the road unless there are some special problems at the crossing with regard to design / maintenance of the bridge.

(ii) For bridges having a length between 60 and 300 meters both suitability of site of the bridge that of the alignment of the approaches shall be considered together.

(iii) For bridges having total length more than 300 meters, there requirement of good site for the bridge shall have the precedence and the alignment of the approaches will have to confirm to the selected bridge site.

(iv) Where existing two lane highway is proposed to be widened to four lane width, the location of the additional tow lane bridge shall be governed by factors mention in para 2.2.3.1 (ix) below

2.2.2 Reconnaissance survey:In case of an entirely new alignment. The site selection may have to start with the study of available maps before starting the reconnaissance. Usually, topo sheet in the scales 1:2,50,000 and 1: 50, 000 are available for the Survey of India. In case of bridges upto 300 m length, two or three possible road alignment should be marked on the topo sheets considering the topography of the land, land use, soil type, waste bodies, marshes, control points, river profile, straightness of the reach, width of crossing, presence of high banks etc. the two or three possible alignments may have to be considered for reconnaissance. Some landmarks for easy identification during reconnaissance may also have to be marked on topo sheets.

2.2.3 Factors deciding site selection.

2.2.3.1Adequate efforts made in selection of good site for locating a bridge will be amply rewarded in the form of reduced cost of the project and trouble free performance of the bridge. The factors that have to be considered in the selection of a site are indicated below. Though it may not be feasible to satisfy all desirable attributes simultaneously, the selected site should represent the most desirable mix of the attributes consistent with overall economy, including the cost of approaches.

(i)