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IntroductionAll bus stops in the country are not People with Disability (PWD)-friendly. In fact, most of these bus stops are not pedestrian-oriented, to say the least. One can hardly take shelter in it either when it rains or when the sun is up. The flawed design includes the ineffective angle and height of the roof, choice of materials, floor level, maintenance issues, etc. In countries like USA, Brazil, Indonesia, and Singapore, bus stops with an elevated platform (same level with the floor of the bus) are already in use. Current designs are better and more efficient than their past counterparts. The innovation offers a lot of benefits to the PWD and non-PWD bus passengers alike: it significantly reduces the loading/unloading time for those with mobility issues (passengers on wheelchairs, strollers, canes, etc. or simply slow-moving seniors), it serves as a higher ground for flooded streets, and it provides shelter from the sun and rain.

Background of the Study The frequency of flooding along Metro Manila, especially along Espaa Blvd., is a serious issue that needs to be dealt with. For UST students and employees, visitors, and residents of Sampaloc area, the inevitable dilemma comes every rainy season. One has to decide whether to brave the flood and everything that comes with it from simple skin irritation to the deadly Leptospirosis. The bus-leveled platform can give the commuters a significant safety net that they can step on and keep themselves dry and safe from the possible skin diseases which they can acquire if they submerge themselves in the dirty and murky waters.

In the recent Varsitarian issue, it has been announced that there will be a revival of the free bus ride from Taft Ave. to Espaa Blvd. sponsored by the university. This will move adds to the timeliness of the above-mentioned proposal and will surely benefit most Thomasian students. Thus, a brand new design for a bus transit stop will be highly appreciated.

Statement of the Problem The problem calls for an innovative design of an elevated bus stop that fits in the Filipino cultural context and also, with a maximum considerations of the needs of PWDs in the country. It is crucial to study the makes of the buses that ply along the major thoroughfares of Metro Manila and Espaa Blvd. to better reconcile the bus floor level with the correct elevation of the bus stop floor level. With the strict enforcement of BP 344 (Accessibility Law) even in the design of bus stops, it is just proper that we dont leave-out PWDs.

This elevated bus stop is, literally and figuratively, a step-up towards cultural evolution. After all, easy and convenient access to public utility transport system, from the street level all the way up to the seating areas inside the bus, is essential for a progressive and people-oriented city. Only when that happens, one can truly enjoy the quality of life that everyone, PWD or not, deserves.

Design RequirementsI. waiting area with seatsII. infowall (map of MM, print ad, emergency info etc)III. Vending machineIV. Trash binsV. Other spaces that the designer might think necessary

Problem ObjectivesThis design problem intent to:1. To finally adhere and implement BP 344 in the design of public structures and to improve accessibility of PWDs to public transport system;2. To alleviate the conditions experienced by bus commuters by providing a better and more efficiently-designed bus stop and avoid the risk of getting skin infections; and3. To reinforce architecture as a significant contributor to sustainability.

Site LocationThe site is conveniently located along Espaa Boulevard beside the UST pedestrian gate near the overpass. Its on the sidewalk and is 2m wide and 15m long. The proximity to the nearby overpass is essential for one can easily move to the higher area in case the floodwaters reach the bus stop floor level.

Definition of Terms1. PWD (People w/ disability) - Any person who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; has a record of such impairment; or is regarded as having such an impairment. In general, a physical or mental impairment includes hearing, mobility and visual impairments, chronic alcoholism, chronic mental illness, AIDS, AIDS Related Complex, and mental retardation that substantially limits one or more major life activities. Major life activities include walking, talking, hearing, seeing, breathing, learning, performing manual tasks, and caring for oneself.1. Bus stop Abus stopis a designated place wherebusesstop for passengers to board or alight from a bus.1. Bus Rapid Transit It is abus-based mass transitsystem. A true BRT system generally has specialized design, services and infrastructure to improve system quality and remove the typical causes of delay1. Sustainable Can be defined as being able to be maintained at a certain rate or level.1. Accessibility - The degree to which a product, device, service, or environment is available to as many people as possible.1. BP 344 - An act to enhance the mobility of disabled persons by requiring certain buildings, institutions, establishments and public utilities to install facilities and other devices. Also known as the accessibility law.


Related Literature

FOREIGNCurutiba Bus Rapid TransitThe Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system is a new, highly efficient mode of public transportation that has recently been adopted in Curitiba, a city of some 1.7 million people. In most instances, BRT buses are a faster mode of transportation than private automobiles. The organizational, structural, and technological advances of the BRT system are the main factors in increasing efficiency and speed of buses. Traffic lights are delayed for oncoming buses, decreasing the amount of time between stops. A computer chip inside the bus signals sensors on the road, which then alert the passengers at the next station if the bus is running on time. In addition, fares are pre-paid, reducing waiting at bus stops, and waiting platforms are elevated to allow for quicker entry and exit to the bus. Finally, the busses have their own lanes, which keep the bus system independent of congested traffic. BRT routes are perfectly plotted into rings, with each ring expanding further into the outer reaches of the city. Busses are color coordinated to make it easy for riders to distinguish between different rings/routes. This pattern allows for uniform bus routes and locations for bus stops throughout the city. Curitiba is a great example of efficiency of the BRT system, as embarking and disembarking times have been reduced by one-eighth of their original time. Hide levels of ridership leave the roads relatively unclogged.

Busses are traditionally stereotyped as "lower class," and the BRT system is designed to help eliminate this label. The speed, reliability, bus stop locations and environmental friendliness of the BRT system have caused many middle- and upper-class people to begin using it. Over time, BRT will remove the negative image that people have of bus systems, and increase the use of public transportation.

The Bus Rapid Transit system is the most widely used form of transportation in Curitiba, used by approximately 75% of travelers. Transit systems should also be evaluated according to their impact on both the local community and economy. Public spaces where people come together are areas where local businesses and entrepreneurship thrive. BRT stops can function as destination points for commercial activities such as shopping and social activities, and as catalysts for building and rebuilding surrounding communities and business sectors.The reliability, organization, safety, a nd quickness of the BRT system is changing the stereotype of bus systems being "lower class." Cities where the system has been implemented have experienced high ridership rates from all socioeconomic classes. The ring pattern bus location allows easy access to the bus system for all people.

When the debate began 30 years ago in Curitiba over which type of transportation system to implement, a major deciding factor was construction costs. The cost of a new subway system was estimated at over $90 million per kilometer, versus just $200,000 per kilometer for construction of new BRT routes. Since the implementation of the BRT system, travel time throughout the city has lowered, total harmful emissions have dropped, and total street congestion has decreased.

Source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/one?public_place_id=613


TransJakartais abus rapid transit(BRT) system inJakarta,Indonesia. It was the first BRT system in Southern and Southeast Asia. The TransJakarta system began operations on January 25, 2004. As of February 14, 2013 the 12th corridor was added officially, with 3 more currently corridors in progress. TransJakarta was designed to provide Jakarta citizens with a fast public transportation system to help reduce rush hour traffic. In 2011 TransJakarta carried around 115 million passengers (about 310,000 passengers per day) which was an increase of 32% the 87 million passengers carried during 2010.TransJakarta shelters are different from ordinary bus stops. They are usually located in the middle of the road and are reached by elevated bridges. The stop in front of the well-known Sarinah shopping center on Jl Thamrin in Central Jakarta has elevators. The shelters are made of from aluminum, steel, and glass. Air ventilation works through fins on the aluminum part of the shelters. Floors are made from tread plate. The doors of shelters open automatically when a bus arrives. Some of the connecting elevated bridge ramps have gentle slopes (with some exceptions) to accommodate the disabled. One disadvantage of some of the ramps is that passengers need to walk a relatively long way up the ramps and then double back to reach the boarding shelters. The floors of the bridge are mostly tread plates although some are made from concrete. One problem with the tread plate is that considerable noise is generated by the movement of passengers across the tread plate surfaces. Another problem is that some of the tread plate surfaces can become very slippery during the rainy season. There are no sanitary facilities in most of the shelters.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TransJakarta

Dubai AC Bus ShelterCrescent is the new age air-conditioned Bus Q- Shelter designed for the city of Dubai. The design form is a contemporary manifestation of the crescent. The narrow base of the side support element emerging into a wider face coupled with the shiny metallic finish lends the structure a sense of lightness and stands tall and bright against the urban landscape. Its contemporary styling perfectly blends with a modern citys hybrid urbanism.It incorporates the latest in communication to keep the waiting passengers abreast of information of arrival and destination of the buses stopping at the respective shelters. This ergonomically designed shelter provides comfortable seating and clear view of the arrival of buses. Ample advertising spaces provide a means of revenue generation for the city municipalities.The Crescent Bus Q Shelter is an all steel modular design and provides the flexibility of width variations depending on the intensity of travelers. The construction allows the shelters to be air-conditioned for extreme hot cities.The design incorporates design for site assembly process; wherein the components made for easy transportation and assembly at site in a short time span. The information panels are neatly integrated into the curve of the form and are backlit for strain-free visual access.Graphical information is clearly located on the front and sides of the shelter for easy identification and reading.Source: http://ergoform.in/urban-design/crescent-dubai-a c-bus-shelter/

RoofmeadowThe city of Philadelphia just got a tiny bit greener with the addition of their first bus stop sheltergreen roofon the corner of 15th and Market. The tiny overhead garden was planned, funded and planted byRoofmeadow-- a Philadelphia-based green roof company -- that hopes to expand bus stop green roofs around the city as a part of the Philadelphia Water Department's (PWD)Green Cities Clean Watersinitiative.Roofmeadows plan, well executed this first time around, is to take existing bus stops and turn them green. The60 square foot bus stopgreen roofat 15th and Market was based off of Roofmeadows idea to create a prefabricated kit that can be used to install agreen roofon any standard bus shelter in Philadelphia and is meant to help promote PWDs efforts to raise awareness around urban stormwater issues. Any future replications of this first design will be paid for not by the city but by funds from advertising on the side of the bus shelter where the green roof has been installed.The green space has a standard depth of 3 inches and is planted with mostly pre-grown mats of Sedum a pretty standard succulent that once rooted, requires little care along with a few blooming Sweet Williams planted in corners of the roof where the depth reaches 6 inches. The roof will need to be watered throughout its first year to help the plants take root but afterward will need little care to thrive. The roots of the plants will reach down into a lightweight moisture retention layer that will help keep the plants watered and cool during hot summer months.Installing green roofs inurban areas like Mayor Bloomberg isplanning to doinNew York City can significantly help with storm water runoff issues that can cause extensive pollution when old city water systems arent equipped to handle runoff caused by non-absorptive city surfaces like concrete, asphalt and rooftops. Adding green spaces, especially green roofs, can help absorb thatwaterand stop it from carrying pollution into local wat erways and sewage systems. Though this tiny green roof at the corner of 15th and Market will only absorb a small amount of water, imagine the water retention possibilities if all of Philadelphias 550 planned bus stops, with their powers combined, had green spaces overhead.

Source: http://inhabitat.com/philadelphia-plants-its-very -first-bus-stop-green-roof/

BottlestopWeve seen plenty ofinnovative bus sheltersbefore, but Project Bottlestop might just be the most beautiful. Designed by UK College of Design student Aaron Scales, the shelter uses recycled glassAle-8-Onesoft drink bottles illuminated byLED lightsto create a unique piece of street art. The whole thing is enclosed in safety glass and is completely self-sustaining, with solar panels providing energy for the shelters lighting. Scales bus stop isnt just a design its an actual bus shelter located in Lexington, Kentucky. The shelter was built as part of an initiative by a non-profit volunteer organization calledArt in Motionto serve local bus riders. Art in Motion decided to sponsor a bus shelter design competition after learning that public art and improved amenities increase public transit ridership. Heres hoping Art in Motion spreads its public art mission even further!

Source: http://inhabitat.com/project-bottlestop-a-solar-powered-bottle-adorned-bus-shelter/

LocalManila Bus StopsThe two officials inaugurated the first of the Wi-Fi-ready sheds near a footbridge on Espaa Boulevard, in front of the University of Santo Tomas. It is one of the bus stops designated by the local government under a scheme regulating the entry of buses in the city.Wi-Fi services will also be made available at bus stops in the Park N Ride Lawton Terminal, Rizal Park and on Quirino Avenue.The waiting sheds were built under a private-public sector partnership (PPP) with Sun Spring Corp., the vice mayor said. The company can enter into advertising contracts for the back-lit panels that, for now, bear the pictures of E strada and Domagoso.The city government expects to get a 20-percent share of the ad revenues, according to Domagoso. The Wi-Fi operation and the cost of the sheds maintenance will all be shouldered by Sun Spring.Smaller waiting sheds with a similar design would soon be built for jeepney stops, he addedFor security, Senior Supt. Gilbert Cruz, chief of the Manila Police District directorial staff, said collapsible police outposts were put up in the area. The waiting sheds will also be monitored through surveillance cameras linked to a command center to be set up on the fourth floor of City Hall.Source:http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/491747/bus-stops-with-bytes-erap-wi-fi#ixzz2uioAL1lc

USERSPassengers/Commuters As regular commuters, efficiency of the bus stop is a must for them to save much time and energy for their daily routines. Human traffic flow must be considered.PWDs As mentioned above, these are Persons with Disability/ies. The project must be accessible to all individuals including PWDs. Necessary design strategies are needed to provide their needs.Drivers Professional bus drivers use their time wisely because of their belief that less time wasted means much money is earned. Because of this, it is essential to take note of the efficiency of the bus stop with regards to its flow and design.


In general: Design should be appropriate; reflects the needs, local culture, and resources locally available (as much as possible to save resources) The project must be accessible for all including the PWDs and senior citizens. The design must consider human traffic flow to avoid congestion during rush hours.

PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 856 December 23, 1975 (CODE ON SANITATION) CHAPTER IXREST AREAS, BUS TERMINALS, BUS STOPS, AND SERVICE STATIONS(a) Rest areas, bus terminals, bus stops and service stations shall be established with ample area to prevent overcrowding of motor vehicles and travelers.(b) They shall be provided with adequate ventilation and lighting and away from sources of nuisance.(c) Waiting sheds for commuters shall be of adequate size to comfortably accommodate a minimum of thirty (30) persons. Floors shall be of smooth concrete finish and adequate sitting facilities provided for.(d) Sale of foodstuffs in those establishments shall be done in conformity with the provisions of Chapter III of this Code.*CHAPTER III: FOOD ESTABLISHMENT (Section 14. Sanitary Permit)

Accessibility Law (Batas Pambansa Bilang 344) RAMPS (pp. 18-19)1. Changes in level require a ramp except when served by a dropped curb, an elevator or other mechanical device;2. Ramps shall have a minimum clear width of 1.20 m; 3. The maximum gradient shall be 1:12; 4. The length of a ramp should not exceed 6:00 m. if the gradient is 1:12; longer ramps whose gradient is 1:12 shall be provided with landings not less than 1.50 m.; 5. A level area not less than 1.80 m. should be provided at the top and bottom of any ramp; 6. Handrails will be provided on both sides of the ramp at 0.70 m. and 0.90 m. from the ramp level; 7. Ramps shall be equipped with curbs on both sides with a minimum height of 0.10 m.; 8. Any ramp with a rise greater than 0.20 m. and leads down towards an area where vehicular traffic is possible, should have a railing across the full width of its lower end, not less than 1.80 meters from the foot of the ramp;

SITE DESCRIPTIONThe site is conveniently located along Espaa Boulevard beside the UST pedestrian gate near the overpass. Its on the sidewalk and is 2m wide and 15m long. The proximity to the nearby overpass is essential for one can easily move to the higher area in case the floodwaters reach the bus stop floor level. SITE ANALYSISClimatePhilippines Tropical maritime; has dry and wet seasons Temperature usually ranges from 21C 32CManilaHumidity levels are usually very high all year round. Manila has a distinctdry seasonfrom late December through May, and a relatively lengthy and coolerwet seasonthat covers the remaining period with mild to warm temperatures. In the rainy season it rarely rains all day but the rainfall is very heavy during short periods. Typhoons can occur from June to September and can cause flooding in parts of the citySources: en.wikipedia.comen.wikitravel.com

SPACE PROGRAMAREANo. of usersArea per userArea AFurnitureSize eAreaNo. of furniture Area BCirculationArea CTOTAL

WAITING AREA20240bench4 x0.41.623.240.00%18.3864.33

0vending machine1 x0.80.810.803.35

0ads board/map4.5x0.150.721.3502.55

0trash bin/smoke0.6x0.50.320.601.55

0plant boxes1x0.20.230.601.35








Design Objectives1. To create an eco-friendly and at the same time a sustainable design suitable for the commuters2. To create accessible spaces by complying with Batas Pambansa Blg. 344 for the PWDs3. To conserve the users time and energy by considering human traffic flow in the design4. To promote sanitation by considering the congestion of users and the shed itself5. To ensure the safety and security of users

Design PhilosophyDesigning architecture that co-exists with nature symbiotically

Design Concept


Generally, leaves in plants and trees give shade during sunny days. When the rainy season comes, these also serve as refuge to insects and other small creatures. Together with nature, (sun, carbon dioxide, etc.) they produce their own food through photosynthesis, thus they are sustainable. Plants give a healthy and fresh atmosphere to its environment.

The structure of leaves is phenomenal because each form has its own beauty and various purposes. In a closer look, when rainwater falls on a leaf, the water flows at a certain direction. It follows the path of the midrib/primary vein until it reaches the apex, or of the veins. This principle could be used in designing the shed for it to have control over rainwater to avoid puddles and worse, flood around the area.